THIS IS DARTH VADER NOT CAPTAIN KIRK.
'Earth-observation satellites are changing the world—yet again
IN TERMS of engineering ambition, operational complexity and capital requirements, big communications-satellite constellations outstrip the small-satellite revolution in Earth observation. In terms of world-changing potential, though, things may well be the other way round'
'SPACE need not necessarily become a battlefield, but the possibility is not without precedent'.
The 1967 OUTER SPACE TREATY sounds very left social Democrat ------vs today's far-right global Wall Street neo-liberalism.
Canada could join the space resource race – or take the high road
AUDRA MITCHELL and JESSICA WEST
Special to The Globe and Mail
Published Tuesday, Mar. 29, 2016 5:00AM EDT
Last updated Tuesday, Mar. 29, 2016 5:00AM EDT
Dr. Audra Mitchell is CIGI Chair in Global Governance and Ethics at the Balsillie School of International Affairs. Jessica West is editor of the Space Security Index at Project Ploughshares.
The race to claim ownership of outer space minerals is on. Space mining companies such as Deep Space Industries and Planetary Resources have ambitious plans to mine the skies. These plans received a major boost from the 2015 U.S. Space Act, which grants U.S. citizens property rights over resources they extract from asteroids.
The Space Act was specifically designed to generate a race for space minerals by stimulating competition and private investment in space flight and space-based mining technologies. Michael Byers of the University of British Columbia recently called for Canada to create similar legislation to maintain dominance as a mining country. But we argue that Canada should, instead, lead in developing new frameworks for the peaceful and sustainable use of outer space.
The legality of private space-mining ventures is hotly contested. The 1967 Outer Space Treaty established outer space as a res communis – the common property and “province of all mankind,” intended to benefit everyone. Under this treaty, states must co-operate in exploring and using resources, without appropriating resources for national benefit. Ram Jakhu of the Institute of Air and Space Law at McGill argues that under the OST, resources cannot be claimed by anyone. Gbenga Oduntan of the University of Kent asserts that the Space Act “represents a full-frontal attack on settled principles of space law.”
Would-be space miners challenge the definition of appropriation, instead emphasizing the absence of a specific ban. They cite the lack of objections when the United States brought back lunar rocks from its Apollo missions. However, an act that is not specifically illegal does not necessarily indicate respect for international law. Seeking to gain advantage by exploiting a loophole contradicts the spirit of the treaty and of international law.
The space-mining industry, and the Space Act in particular, are turning outer space into a different kind of legal space – a res nullius that is owned by no one and is up for grabs by the first taker. The commercialization of res communis has already proven destructive for the Great Barrier Reef, where a recent spike in commercial activity has caused so much degradation that UNESCO is reconsidering its status as a World Heritage Site.
While the high seas are often seen as a model for outer space use and governance, the treatment of the oceans as res nullius has led to such extreme exploitation that fish stocks are expected to collapse by 2048. Even now, rising piracy rates make large swaths of ocean all but ungovernable.
Space entrepreneurs claim that the “infinite” resources in outer space will solve resource-based conflicts, but this argument is misleading. Creating an open season in outer space will create new conflicts, on Earth and in space. Technological and financial restraints mean that the scramble to mine the nearest, most accessible asteroids will be intense. Emerging regional rivalries – for instance, between private U.S. companies and the Chinese government – combined with an escalating arms race and ongoing failure to ban the use of weapons in space, increase the potential for violent conflict.
Instead of joining the space race as a relatively late starter, Canada should lead in developing new, innovative ways to maintain sustainable, peaceful uses of outer space. For example, Canada could reinforce the status of outer space as part of the “common heritage of mankind” and develop a framework for fair, sustainable resource use. Developing regulations to account for private actors and uses of space is urgently needed to ensure global security.
Canada is not only a mining country, but a world leader in peaceful co-operation and sustainability. To make a positive contribution to the new space era, Canada needs to prioritize this double bottom line.
The problem for WE THE PEOPLE here in US and globally is heard on this video-----when private corporations owned by billionaires known to be sociopaths in their drive to profit are allowed to dream big and then allowed with no oversight and accountability to drag lots and lots of humans into these developments done hastily because MUSK wants this done in a window of a few decades-----we have lost all protections for our citizens in these projects.
As well, living on MARS as Bill Nye the Science Guy says----would be intolerable. The global 1% are not worried about that---they will shuttle millions of people to mine these planets after all there are 6 billion on EARTH. The project is from the start DEHUMANIZING.
I just read a FOX NEWS report telling us it is now a 3 day trip to MARS----again not addressing the years of orbital changes, descending, landing, acclimating to surface-----
PLEASE BE AWARE GLOBAL WALL STREET WILL SHOW GRAPHICS OF A SMART CITY LOOKING LIKE OZ-----TO GET THOSE MINERS AND MINERALS BACK TO EARTH.
As this article shows----it is the STOPPING AND LANDING stage of getting to MARS or CERES that adds considerable time and is very dangerous and with the weight of human colonists, construction materials and equipment, and then in leaving the weight of mineral loads----all of this is very undeveloped and still sketchy as to feasibility. When they say we get to MARS in weeks----they deliberately leave out the next that represents simply getting to the point of making an entry into orbit.
Aerobraking Cost/Risk Decisions
David A. Spencer*
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
California Institute of Technology
North Carolina State University
National Institute of Aerospace
Three missions have successfully used aerobraking
to reduce the spacecraft orbit period and achieve the desired orbit geometry.
A fourth, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, will employ
aerobraking following its orbit insertion in March, 2006. The propellant mass reductions enabled by the aerobraking technique allow the use of smaller launch systems,
which translate to significant savings in launch
costs for flight projects. However, there is a significant increase in mission risk associated with the use of aerobraking. Flying a spacecraft through a planetary atmosphere hundreds of times during months of around-
the-clock operations places the spacecraft in harm’s way,
and is extraordinarily demanding on the flight team. There is a cost/risk trade that must be evaluated when a project is choosing between a mission baseline that includes aerobraking, or selecting a larger launch vehicle to enable purely propulsive orbit insertion. This paper provides a
brief history of past and future aerobraking missions, describes the aerobraking technique, summarizes the costs associated with aerobraking, and concludes with a suggested
methodology for evaluating the cost/risk trade when selecting the aerobraking approach.
The MGS aerobraking phase, originally planned for 90 days,
ultimately took over 400 days to complete.
To show how dedicated global Wall Street is to getting those colonies of miners to MARS, CERES, ASTEROIDS in deep space here we have our local far-right, authoritarian, militaristic corporate fascism JOHNS HOPKINS. When looking for no morals/ethics/Rule of Law, in medicine when expanding profits is involved, call Johns Hopkins.
Here we see what was part of CAMERON's movie AVATAR---where humans are placed in a capsule to hibernate to a destination eliminating need for food----feelings of fear---
Here we see an article talking about sending the scientists to MARS with hibernation capsules and we have already seen designs for 100s of these capsules on human space craft carriers. This is the first attempt at mass migration of humans to colonize MARS and the goal is a few decades away.
When Hopkins in involved we have no reliable research data----we have juked results----did someone die? Who knows. The discussion of space mates for these trips brings to mind how millions of people will be settled in planetary mining situations on all kinds of missions to planets and asteroids of all sizes. Hopkins is good at CONDITIONING PEOPLE-----they are good at propagandizing situations making something bad sound good.
IT IS NOT A GOOD SIGN TO HAVE GLOBAL 1% BILLIONAIRES PARTNERED WITH GLOBAL WALL STREET UNIVERSITIES LIKE HOPKINS.
Hopkins to help NASA pick good spacemates for Mars mission
Meredith CohnContact Reporter
The Baltimore Sun
Researchers at Hopkins to spend 3 years developing a method of sorting elite candidates for spaceWhen NASA selects astronauts to travel to Mars sometime after 2030, they will need a small crop of candidates who are smart, skilled — and personable.
For a voyage almost 34 million miles one way, the astronauts will need to work well together in an isolated and uncomfortably tight environment, as well as cope with boredom and the continuous company of the same tiny group of people.
Remember, Johns Hopkins is ground zero for the ethos of far-right wing global Wall Street CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA----they will have no human dignity or human interest in meeting these goals. WE HAVE HAD NO OPEN DISCUSSION AS A NATION ON THE MORALS AND ETHICS----THE LEGALITIES OF THESE POLICIES.
Sleeper spaceship could carry first humans to Mars in hibernation state
Ben Brumfield, CNN
Updated 1:52 PM ET, Tue October 7, 2014
- A study done for NASA foresees astronauts being unconscious for Mars travel
- It would use a medical method called therapeutic hypothermia
- It is usually used to save trauma patients by inducing torpor, a type of hibernation
- The study says it would be better for the astronauts and deeply cut costs
They're sound asleep and will be for the extent of their six-month trip, having been placed in an artificially induced state of hibernation called torpor.
This is the way a NASA-funded study sees space explorers traveling to Mars -- unconscious, with their metabolism switched into slow motion.Sending astronauts that far into space would be too challenging, costly and grueling without it, says space engineer John Bradford, whose Atlanta-based company SpaceWorks wrote the study for NASA.
"Ultimately, it's what we'll have to do," he says.
Sci-fi becomes reality
Sleeper spacecraft with crews in suspended animation have been flying through futuristic science fiction movies like "Avatar," "Alien," "Pandorum" and "2001: A Space Odyssey" for decades.
Now science reality is catching up, as medical advances have made stasis possible via a method called therapeutic hypothermia.
It has been used since the early 2000s to treat patients with traumatic injuries. Formula One racer Michael Schumacher, for example, who suffered a brain injury while snow skiing, was reportedly put into therapeutic hypothermia.
It renders the patient unconscious by lowering the body temperature. In Schumacher's case, it also prevented swelling of his brain. The torpor stasis, which greatly slows metabolism, can help injured patients survive longer, while medical teams work to rescue them, Bradford says.
But doctors usually induce it for only three or four days at a time, not the 180 days it would take for astronauts to get to Mars, nor the 180 it would take to get back to Earth.
"It may take some time to get it to the state of effectiveness we want it to go to," Bradford says.
That involves animal testing, then some extended testing on humans, perhaps on the International Space Station. It could take decades.
There is a possible work-around, though, that astronauts could start out with.
SpaceWork found a Chinese medical study in which trauma patients stayed in torpor for longer periods.
"They had a sample of about 80 people that went through therapeutic hypothermia for all sorts of traumatic injuries. And those periods did range from three to up to 14 days."
The patients who stayed under for two weeks fared as well as those who were put under for a shorter time.
Two weeks is a time frame SpaceWorks can live with and one that Bradford says his medical partners at the Mayo Clinic and Johns Hopkins University are more comfortable with.
Aboard the spacecraft
Here's how it would work during space flight.
The two-week torpor periods would be straddled, so that there is always one astronaut who is awake for a brief period.
The colleague currently awake could check in on the other ones who are still unconscious to make sure their intravenous feeding tubes are clear, and urine removal systems and so on are working properly.
He can also communicate with Earth. "He can check emails," Bradford says.
Then after two or three days, he wakes up the next astronaut by activating a heating system that brings his or her body temperature up to normal.
Then the awakened astronaut straps the other into the hibernation module, hooks up the medical systems and inserts a body cooling tube through a nostril. Heating pads behind the astronaut make sure the nasal tube doesn't cool down their body too much.
A temperature drop of only about five degrees Fahrenheit is necessary -- from 98.6 to about 93 degrees.
Trace amounts of sedatives in the feeding line would suppress the astronaut's shiver reflex.
The habitat unit housing the sleepers would rotate to create centrifugal force simulating gravity. That would help to mitigate the reduction in bone density that naturally occurs in zero gravity.
How long until this is scenario is reality? Less than 30 years, Bradford thinks.
"I think it's something that can and will be used on the first mission to Mars."
Lighter, easier, happier
Getting astronauts to hibernate like bears makes the mission much easier and more affordable, Bradford says.
They can be stacked up in small habitats; with minimal metabolism, they don't need as much food, no daily change of clothes. Exercise equipment is replaced by electrodes that stimulate their muscles while they're asleep.
That saves lots of space and altogether more than half the weight of the fully equipped rocket that it would take to transport a crew that was not sleeping through the voyage in torpor.
And it would be more pleasant for the crew.
Astronauts traveling in waking condition would likely arrive in decent physical shape, but "mentally, I'd worry about them," Bradford says.
"You're going to be in a pretty tight space -- nothing as voluminous as the ISS -- for the mission," he said.
Space is dark and feels isolating.
In June 2010, Russia's space agency simulated a trip to Mars by closing up astronauts in a mock space ship for about a year and a half to see how it affected them psychologically.
They became reclusive, got depressed and slept 12 to 14 hours a day because there was nothing to do, Bradford said.
After six months of travel to Mars, the astronauts would face a 500-day mission on the barren planet's surface, according to SpaceWorks' assessment.
Then they'd have to endure another 180 days in the cramped rocket to get home to Earth.
Ideally, Bradford would like to see the astronauts complete both travel phases in torpor stasis and not even have to wake up every two weeks.
Therapeutic hypothermia would also allow space agencies to pack more astronauts into one ship. That's vital to meeting an often-mentioned possible ultimate goal for travel to Mars, he says.
"If we're looking at colonizing, you've to do more than send six or eight people every year."
'Launching humans to an asteroid has been mentioned by NASA in recent years as a possible goal. New vehicles capable of traveling in deep space would have to be developed. The job is complicated by the very low surface gravity of an asteroid, requiring different equipment than that developed to operate in either the microgravity of Earth orbit or the one-sixth gravity of our moon’s surface'.
How Asteroid Mining Could Work (Infographic)
By Karl Tate, SPACE.com Infographics Artist | January 22, 2013 05:26pm ET
Planetary Resources' announcement of their intention to mine the asteroids rekindles dreams of the early Space Age.
Credit: Karl Tate, SPACE.com ContributorLong a staple of science fiction, space mining could soon become a reality. Here is a look at what’s out there and how we might get it.
These bodies of rock, metals and ice range in size from a few feet across up to 610 miles (975 kilometers) in the case of the largest, Ceres. Asteroids are often classified according to their spectral type, which has to do with the type of light they reflect.
C-type (carbonaceous): 75 percent of asteroids are made of dark materials (example: 253 Mathilde)
S-type (silicon-based, or stony) comprise about 17 percent of the asteroids (example: Eros)
In addition to these major classes, there is also an X-group that includes various types with similar spectra, but likely different compositions, as well as other smaller asteroid classes.
The study of meteorites, space rocks that have fallen to Earth, reveals a variety of useful materials that could be extracted:
• Platinum: precious metal used in electronics and as a catalyst in chemical reactions. Carmakers used $7 billion worth of platinum in 2012
• Palladium: harder than platinum, similar uses
• Water: can be broken into hydrogen and oxygen for use as rocket fuel or life support for humans
The majority of asteroids orbit in a belt between the planets Mars and Jupiter. These objects may be remnants from the early formation of the solar system. Other groups of asteroids, such as the Trojans and Greeks, hang out in stable points near the orbit of Jupiter. Near-Earth asteroids are those that traverse the inner solar system and can pass close to or cross the orbit of the Earth.
Much of the energy required to get anywhere in the solar system is used in just getting off the Earth. Reaching a near-Earth asteroid requires less total energy than landing on the moon. Reaching an asteroid belt destination is easier than landing on Mars.
Planetary Resources revealed in 2012 its intention to extract valuable materials from asteroids. First, the Arkyd-100 space telescope would be located in low Earth orbit to gather spectral data to determine asteroids’ composition and market value. Swarms of low-cost robot spacecraft would crisscross an asteroid to extract its resources. Small ice-rich objects could be captured for towing back to the vicinity of Earth for extraction of their water.
Deep Space Industries announced in 2013 an ambitious scheme ultimately involving robotic manufacturing plants that could 3D print components from asteroid metals. First, tiny Firefly cubesats would be sent into the inner solar system on one-way reconnaissance missions to targeted asteroids. Then, larger Dragonfly spacecraft would be sent to capture samples (or even small asteroids) for return to Earth. Later the Harvestor tug would be developed, capable of towing an entire asteroid back to Earth orbit. Eventually, manufacturing could be done in space; for example, 3D printing of components for a space habitat.
Launching humans to an asteroid has been mentioned by NASA in recent years as a possible goal. New vehicles capable of traveling in deep space would have to be developed. The job is complicated by the very low surface gravity of an asteroid, requiring different equipment than that developed to operate in either the microgravity of Earth orbit or the one-sixth gravity of our moon’s surface.
The new company Planetary Resources, Inc., is backed by a team of billionaire investors and luminaries like filmmaker/explorer James Cameron with a single goal: to mine near-Earth asteroids for precious resources like rare metals and water ice. The project is aimed at tapping into the resources of the solar system while furthering space exploration in an audacious way. See how asteroid mines like those envisioned by Planetary Resources could work in the SPACE.com infographic above