Sir Knight DeWitt Clinton
First Grand Master of the Grand Encampment
by Sir Knight George L. Marshall, Jr., P.G.C.
- "Pleasure is a shadow, wealth is vanity, and power a pageant; but knowledge is ecstatic in enjoyment, perennial in frame, unlimited in space, and indefinite in duration." - DeWitt Clinton
As Chairman of the Grand Encampment Knights Templar History Committee for the current triennium, I felt it might be appropriate to author a series of articles on some of the more notable Grand Masters of the Grand Encampment. I chose to begin with our first Grand Master, DeWitt Clinton, whose eminence extended beyond the boundaries of Freemasonry and Templary. (Depending on the source consulted, his first name is spelled either Dewitt or DeWitt. I will use the latter style.)
We shared an article yesterday that told us of battles a WE THE PEOPLE vs OLD WORLD MERCHANTS OF VENICE FREEMASONS. Guess what? WE THE PEOPLE won and cleared those global Wall Street pols and players out of our people's government. At the same time these fights fell against installing a US FED for these same reasons. What happened in the 1900s to allow a 99% of people forget all those battles to keep freedom?
First, the vote was extended to white men who were not landed gentry and as today global Wall Street sold these ideas of being a MERCHANT OF VENICE but first they had to be that 5% to the 1% doing anything they are told and supporting CANDIDATES WHO WERE FREEMASONS. This is what brought the roaring 20s and Great Depression from ROBBER BARON FRAUDS and those Presidents in office were of course old world MERCHANTS OF VENICE FREEMASONS----THE ROBBER BARONS. This is when membership in local freemason groups soared and WE THE PEOPLE forgot these were the folks with whom we fought a revolution----TIME REMOVES MEMORY AND WEAKENS PASSIONS FOR FREEDOM AND JUSTICE.
'In the years between America’s founding and 1826, Masonry had only grown more powerful, especially in New York. Gov. DeWitt Clinton was not only a Mason but had also been the grand master of the Grand Lodge of New York and the highest-ranking Mason in the country. By one estimate, more than half of all publicly held offices in New York were occupied by Masons'.
Again, see how reading and thinking about all culture's history and literature allows one to educate on how to be on offense and defend our wealth and power? Read broadly and look for a nation's REAL citizens and not only global 1% BOUGHT PERSONALITIES----as today's 'stars'.
So we see why Bill and Hillary went back to New York and not ARKANSAS where they were just being players to rise in politics as a Cheney leaving Texas for Wyoming-----and unlike the 1800s when citizens in New York were fighting a then Governor Clinton as a freemason------the New York Assembly was FULL OF FREEMASONRY and as corrupt and fraudulent a crowd as could be found----outside of the assemblies of Maryland.
WHAT DOES THIS ARTICLE SAY ABOUT A SUPPOSED CATHOLIC CUOMO? IT SAYS HE IS NOT RELIGIOUS HE IS AN OLD WORLD MERCHANT OF VENICE PRETENDING TO CARE ABOUT THE POOR AND JOBS.
August 5, 2013
Governor Cuomo Announces Renovation of Historic Dewitt Clinton Hotel to Create More Than 200 Jobs And Spur Economic Growth in Capital Region
Governor Andrew M. Cuomo today announced that the historic DeWitt Clinton Hotel in downtown Albany, which has sat vacant for years, will be transformed into a full service, 204-room Renaissance by Marriott Hotel. The $48 million redevelopment project, located just steps away from the State Capitol, will provide an economic boost for downtown, spurring investment and job creation along the State Street Corridor. The project is expected to result in more than 200 construction and hospitality jobs.
Under this public-private partnership, we are transforming a long vacant property into an engine of economic growth in the Capital Region, Governor Cuomo said. This project will help create more than 200 jobs and continue our efforts to revitalize Downtown Albany. The new hotel will be a great asset in attracting visitors and new investment to the Capital Region, especially as the State works to increase tourism and bring new business to Upstate New York.
Empire State Development (ESD), the States chief economic development agency, designated $4 million in funding through the Upstate Regional Blueprint Fund, to support this project.
The renovation of the former DeWitt Clinton Hotel complements the revitalization efforts already taking place on State Street, and will allow this 1920s city landmark, that has sat vacant for years, to shine once again, said ESD President, CEO & Commissioner Kenneth Adams. With a thriving, new first-class facility in place, the Renaissance by Marriott will no doubt have a significant economic impact on the region, encouraging additional investment and jobs and driving more visitors to downtown Albany.
City of Albany Mayor Gerald Jennings said, The Dewitt Clinton Project will give new life to a historic property on one of the most important streets in the Capital Region. This exciting development will not only provide visitors to Downtown Albany with another option for high-end accommodations just steps from the Capitol, it will also provide quality career opportunities in the hospitality industry to our local residents.
The Renaissance Albany will have the feel of a boutique hotel and will include the buildings original breathtaking lobby. Located at the corner of State and Eagle Streets, the Renaissance will offer intimate meeting space for private events, 204 rooms, a full-service restaurant open to the public, a lounge and coffee shop. It will be the first time the region has had a full service Renaissance by Marriott Hotel.
The renovation of this key property at the top of State Street is a critical next step forward for the continued revitalization of Downtown Albany, said Capitalize Albany Corporation President and Commissioner of Development and Planning Mike Yevoli. We have seen tremendous expansion in the hospitality industry in Downtown over the past 10 years as interest in Albany, specifically Downtown, has continued to grow. Private investments like these, with the aid of public sector support, will keep people coming back to our City.
This development will have a positive economic impact on downtown Albany and will bring vibrancy to Albany County. We continue to work to attract top brands like Renaissance to our County, said Albany County Executive Daniel P. McCoy. I look forward to seeing new life injected into this beautiful building and congratulate all involved who have made this possible.
Columbia Development Companies has earned a reputation for taking on tough projects and for having success where others have walked away, said Joseph Nicolla, President of Columbia Development Companies. On the heels of our announcement a few weeks ago that is transforming long abandoned properties on Wellington Row, todays announcement continues the confirmation that State Street is the economic, commercial and residential foundation for downtown Albany. We are very pleased to work with local leaders to continue renovating the citys abandoned landmarks, and stay tuned for more exciting announcements regarding the Upper State Street Renaissance.
Our team at BBL Hospitality is excited to welcome Renaissance, a top national hotel to the Capital Region for the very first time, said Steve Obermayer, President of BBL Hospitality. Other cities like New York City and Boston have seen Renaissances model of renovating historic hotels create a distinctive excitement that pairs the hotel with its host city. Through our previous partnerships with the Marriott brand, we believe that Renaissance is a perfect fit for Albany and will provide an experience never before seen here.
Built in 1927, the DeWitt Clinton Hotel was named after the former Governor of New York State. Although hotel operations ceased in 1975, over the last several years state and local government and the private sector worked hand-in-hand to revitalize the DeWitt Clinton as a hotel operation.
So a Governor who was reviled and removed by citizens of New York in the 1800s is now getting a historic facelift in name and a revisionist history all under the mantra of JOBS, JOBS, JOBS. When WE THE PEOPLE allow ANY JOB ----we lose our status as CITIZENS.
Now we are told a CUOMO and a Bernie Sanders are not practicing their Catholic or Jewish religions but they are still champions of left social Democracy and the 99%. Clinton as we said weeks ago was also tied to being a General in the British navy fighting to keep America a COLONY.
So why did 99% of Democratic voters not know all this in the 1990s when Clinton was pushed to being that global Wall Street player? The American people had shed their duties as citizens to educate------to strategize------to keep governance under THEIR CONTROL in exchange for moving up the economic ladder on the backs of GLOBAL WALL STREET and not building local economies and businesses of their own.
Who were the biggest MOVERS AND SHAKERS for a Clinton Presidency? Our then national labor union leaders-----our then national Hollywood and Broadway stars----our national media allowing a story line of a CLINTON FROM SMALL TOWN HOPE, ARKANSAS----from a broken home and a son of alcoholic......
COME ON FOLKS-----IF WE DO NOT SUPPORT EDUCATION FOR ALL 99% BROAD LIBERAL ARTS AND HUMANITIES ---THEN LIES LIKE THIS WILL ALWAYS TRAP THOSE POOREST. OBAMA supposedly tied to Bush family was sold as well as HOPE -----
IT'S WHAT CANDIDATE AND POL IS NOT TELLING US THAT ALLOWS US TO KNOW THEY ARE GLOBAL WALL STREET PLAYERS.
When we watch a movie called GANGS OF NEW YORK with the immigrant workers pit against one another and a few very rich scheming to hold power----this is the period of our dear GOV CLINTON THE OLD WORLD MERCHANT OF VENICE FREEMASON and yes, it was TAMMANY HALL filled with fraud, corruption, extreme wealth and extreme poverty and yes those 99% rioted and protested and threw those 5% to the 1% out of office---even that pesky Governor DeWitt Clinton. Yes, it was this Clinton who moved more wealth to NYC---and it is why today's Clinton is tied to global Wall Street.
The Founder of Gotham’s Fortunes
Great cities grow, like trees or coral reefs, organically; yet at certain points in their lives, they are also made. Some individual of will, foresight, and often less admirable qualities takes hold of an already bustling town and galvanizes it in a way that makes it a magnet for expansive energies. In the old cities of Europe those defining shocks came from emperors, kings, or popes. New York, North America’s greatest city, got its imperial impetus from an early-nineteenth-century intellectual, politician, and visionary, DeWitt Clinton—for he was the chief expediter of the Erie Canal.
Other New Yorkers besides Clinton helped dig the Erie Canal: one reason the canal made it from drawing board to reality was that a significant cross-section of the state’s elite supported the project. But DeWitt Clinton was the leader of the elite canal-pushers. He took up the canal as an issue at an unpropitious time; he generated so much popular support that the skeptics in the political class had to bow to it; he presided over both the groundbreaking and the completion. And the Erie Canal was the foundation of modern New York’s prosperity. If DeWitt Clinton had never lived, you probably wouldn’t be living here, because New York would not have attracted you or your ancestors.
DeWitt Clinton, born in what is now Orange County on the west bank of the Hudson in 1769, had the luckiest ancestry of any young man in late-eighteenth-century America, with the possible exception of John Quincy Adams. For the Clintons, who had immigrated from northern Ireland only a few decades earlier, were about to become the leading family in New York politics. The American Revolution was their stepping-stone, first to glory, then to power. DeWitt’s father, James, fought as a general; DeWitt’s uncle, George, was not only a general but the first governor elected under the first state constitution in 1777. “His family and connections do not entitle him to so distinguished a predominance,” wrote a puzzled Philip Schuyler, the heir of Dutch landowners, who had wanted the job himself. But George Clinton would hold it, with a brief interruption, for 22 years. Young DeWitt moved in a heady world of patriotism and privilege. When he graduated first in his class from Columbia College in 1786, the 17-year-old delivered, as part of the commencement exercises, an oration in Latin to the Congress of the United States, which then met in the nation’s capital, New York.
The political creed of the Clinton family changed its name during DeWitt’s formative years: in the late 1780s, their party was the Anti-Federalists; a decade later, it was the Republicans. But their principles remained the same. George Clinton opposed ratifying the Constitution as an accretion of federal power, and, once it took effect, he opposed broad construction of its provisions. DeWitt was a loyal apprentice of his uncle. Both uncle and nephew wrote pamphlets attacking the Constitution during the ratification struggle, which was especially sharp in New York: George signed his with the sturdy republican pseudonym “Cato”; DeWitt assumed the falsely modest name “Countryman.” (The pro-Constitution essays organized by Alexander Hamilton and signed “Publius” wiped the floor with both Clintons.)
Throughout the 1790s, DeWitt served his uncle as secretary, and—when George Clinton took a brief hiatus from politics—held office himself as a state legislator. At the turn of the century, the Clintons and their small-government principles triumphed. George returned to the governorship in 1801; the following year, DeWitt became a U.S. senator—a post he abandoned in 1803 to take the more lucrative and locally more powerful job of mayor of New York, an office he would occupy for 11 of the next 12 years.
DeWitt Clinton proved a creative politician in his own right. He was an early practitioner of the spoils system, filling offices with supporters and driving out enemies. A reputation for political hardball followed him even in death: his friend Jabez Hammond wrote that he “enjoy[ed] the flattery of office seekers,” while Henry Adams called him “selfish” and “unscrupulous.” These criticisms are too severe. DeWitt Clinton did what most politicians do; he was only unlucky in coming after the idealism, actual and professed, of the Founding Fathers. Like many people who do a thing early and do it well, he bore the brunt of blame.
Clinton was also one of the first American politicians to cultivate the Irish vote. The flood of Irish driven here by the potato famine was still decades away, but Irish, both Catholic and Protestant (like the Clintons themselves), had been trickling in for decades, and Clinton reached out to them. On Christmas Day in 1806, he personally quelled a nativist riot outside Saint Peter’s Catholic Church on Church and Barclay Streets, and offered a $250 reward to anyone who would identify the ringleaders. His enemies in turn accused him of favoring Irishmen “staggering about our streets, brutalized with liquor” over “respectable and industrious Americans.”
Politics in New York was as dangerous as it was exciting. In 1802, DeWitt Clinton fought a duel with John Swartwout, an ally of Aaron Burr. The dispute had nothing to do with party or principle—Clinton, Swartwout, and Burr were all Republicans. Rather it was an intra-party squabble over patronage. When, in the heat of the struggle, Clinton called Swartwout “a liar, a scoundrel and a villain,” Swartwout called him out, and the two men met at Weehawken, the favorite dueling spot for New York gentlemen. Clinton and Swartwout stood ten yards apart and exchanged fire five times. After each shot, Clinton’s second asked if the challenger was satisfied, but Swartwout was not. No one was hit the first three times, but Clinton’s fourth shot struck Swartwout’s left leg; his fifth shot hit Swartwout again. The wounded man wanted to keep going, but Clinton walked away, saying, “I don’t want to hurt him.” Two years later, Swartwout’s ally Burr and Alexander Hamilton would meet at Weehawken with more serious consequences.
Politics was DeWitt Clinton’s job but not his only interest. He thought of himself as what we would now call a public intellectual. He belonged to a public-spirited class of gentlemen who helped found the growing city’s learned societies—the American Academy of the Arts, the Literary and Philosophical Society, and the New-York Historical Society (which still exists). He gave a lecture, famous in its day, surveying American intellectual life: entitled “Introductory Discourse,” it proudly recounted our achievements (Benjamin Franklin’s inventions, Zebulon Pike’s discoveries) and anxiously fretted over our shortcomings (“we are far behind our European brethren in the pursuits of literature”). He kept his eyes and ears open to learn about natural phenomena; his diaries of occasional trips to the frontier, which then lay in upstate New York, carefully list birds, insects, and fish, and assess water quality (he found Lake Erie “green, transparent, and fit to drink”).
He also had a deep interest, part archaeological, part fanciful, in the origins of American Indians. He visited ancient mounds in Ohio and, in a common turn of thought for his day, sought to link the ancient history of the New and Old Worlds: perhaps, he wrote, the Indians were descended from the ancient Scythians. Such speculations would bear their gaudiest fruit when Joseph Smith learned, from the Angel Moroni, that the Indians were renegade Israelites.
The societies Clinton helped found did good work. Clinton’s own speculations did not quite rise to the same level of usefulness, and they drew mockery.
Of Clinton will I sing [wrote one satirist] . . .
His martial deeds uponHoboken’s shore [a reference to the duel]
His skill in conch-shells, andin Indian lore
His wondrous wisdom in ourstate affairs,
His curious knowledge of the tails of bears;
Tell, how the learned all his works review
In China, Lapland, Hayti and Peru. . . .
The only true savant among the statesmen of the founding and early republican periods was Benjamin Franklin. The rest were gentlemanly dabblers. DeWitt Clinton’s learning, though copious, was amateurish and pedantic, lacking the spark of genius.
Clinton’s highest ambition was to become president of the United States.
The national Republican Party (ancestor not of the modern GOP but of today’s Democrats) was founded on a geographical alliance of Virginia and New York. In the spring of 1791, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison took a tour of the Northeast, ostensibly to collect botanical specimens for the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, actually to collect political allies in their struggle within President Washington’s administration against Treasury Secretary Hamilton. The most useful allies they found were New Yorkers—Governor George Clinton, Aaron Burr, Robert Livingston. Jefferson won his second race for president in 1800 with Burr as his running mate. Jefferson and Burr soon fell out, but Jefferson knew he still needed support from New York. His running mate in 1804 was none other than the aging George Clinton, who declared the vice presidency a “respectable retirement.” When James Madison, the next leader of the Virginia dynasty, was elected president in 1808, George Clinton also served as his vice president. Virginia and New York were the twin props of Republican victory.
But why should Virginia take the lead? True, in 1776 it was the largest state in the nation. But the census of 1810 showed that New York had passed it in population, thanks to New Englanders settling land formerly owned by the Iroquois Indians, alongside and west of the Mohawk River. DeWitt Clinton thought a New Yorker should fill the top spot, and with his uncle hors du combat, he thought that New Yorker should be he.
There were many obstacles in his path, however. Virginia had talent in depth, and it pulled together. Jefferson had been succeeded by his oldest and most loyal advisor, Madison. Revolutionary War veteran James Monroe, after briefly challenging Madison’s priority, loyally took his place in line behind him. New York was equally fertile ground for politicians, but they all pulled apart. Untangling the factions of the New York Republican Party would be as tedious as it would be difficult: suffice it to say that Aaron Burr was only the first and most flamboyant of the state’s free lances. Clinton’s nemesis in his middle years was the rising young lawyer from Kinderhook, Martin Van Buren, who fought him not on the dueling ground, but on the darker field of local politics.
But his worst enemy was himself. Jefferson, Burr, and Van Buren were all charming men. Madison was at least shy and quiet. Everyone who knew DeWitt Clinton testified that he was as arrogant as he was gifted. The brilliant portrait of him by Samuel F. B. Morse that hangs in the Metropolitan Museum glows with an alarming aura. The big head, bright eyes, and steely mouth suggest brains, pride, and choler. Evan Cornog, Clinton’s most recent biographer, provides a telling anecdote. A farmer besought Daniel Tompkins, another Republican rival of DeWitt Clinton’s who had been elected governor, for a pardon for his imprisoned son. Twice Tompkins turned him down. When Clinton won the governorship, he invited the farmer to breakfast and issued the pardon. Yet the farmer admitted, “I like Governor Tompkins better than I like or can like Governor Clinton. I cannot tell the reason why.”
Clinton’s one shot at the White House came with the War of 1812. British bullying on the high seas, plus American greed for Canada, led Congress to declare war in June 1812. But commercial interests in New England and New York dreaded the war, foreseeing that it would annihilate trade. DeWitt Clinton reached out to the historical enemies of the Republican Party, the Federalists, still locally strong in the Northeast and some of the middle states, and assured them that he would wind the war up. But he also let Republicans know that he would prosecute it more vigorously. In the presidential balloting in 1812, Clinton carried New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and all of New England except Vermont. His both-ends-against-the-middle strategy came up short, however, for Madison carried Pennsylvania, which, with the South and West, gave him reelection. In normal, peaceful times, no strategy could ever have secured DeWitt Clinton a nomination; outside his own mind, he was never again a candidate for president.
Though Clinton’s political and intellectual ambitions never completely achieved fulfillment, the great stroke of his life, the Erie Canal, which fused politics and technology together, allowed his imperious and energetic qualities to secure him an honored place in history.
Americans dreamed of opening the interior of their continent with canals as early as the eighteenth century. New York seemed like a favored spot, since the Hudson and Mohawk Rivers bisected the mountain chain that ran from Canada to Georgia. In 1792, the state chartered the Western Inland Lock Navigation Company, a private venture with some state backing. Gouverneur Morris, an eccentric Federalist who owned land in western New York, spent the first decade of the nineteenth century exploring possible routes and writing rapturous letters to his friends about New York’s potential.
But no private American company, it turned out, could raise enough capital for such a project. Perhaps the federal government might pick up the tab? Jefferson, pleased with his progress in paying off the national debt, hinted as much in his second term; he included canals in a list of “objects of public improvement” that might properly be added “to the constitutional enumeration of federal powers.” The New York Legislature, encouraged, picked a bipartisan commission in 1810 of seven members, including Morris and DeWitt Clinton, to study possible routes. The moment was ideologically fluid. The Clintons, and the Republican Party nationally, had come to power as foes of big government. But now DeWitt Clinton was helping to plan a canal that would seek federal assistance.
The commissioners began by inspecting the terrain. Most of them set off from Albany in midsummer for a boat trip up the Mohawk. Clinton’s journal of the trip describes the wretched accommodations and abundant vermin they encountered. (Morris, who knew the territory, went ahead by carriage, taking his new wife and a French cook.) When the commissioners rendezvoused at Lewiston, New York, at the western end of the state, the major decision they had to make was whether to choose a short route, following the Mohawk, then hooking northwest through Oneida Lake and the Oswego River to Lake Ontario, or to push overland all the way to Lake Erie. The second route, though longer and harder, would be more attractive to vessels coming from Ohio and points west, since it avoided an irksome portage around Niagara Falls. The commissioners wisely made the tougher choice.
In December 1811, Clinton and Morris went to Washington to lobby for their project. The administration seemed favorable; Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin thought of a way to avoid a direct federal appropriation by earmarking money from western land sales for the scheme. But Congress let the matter drop. One reason was jealousy of New York. The state had just become the nation’s biggest; should Congress help it grow bigger still? The more urgent reason was the impending war with Britain. Everyone expected it to be short, but why take on an extra expense?
When it came, the War of 1812 in fact lasted two and a half years and was marked by as many humiliations as victories. Peace finally came early in 1815, but the canal was as far off as ever, and DeWitt Clinton was out of a job, Republicans loyal to Madison having ousted him from City Hall.
Clinton seized this low moment for action—and seized greatness. On December 30, 1815, “one hundred gentlemen” met at the City Hotel at Broadway and Cedar Street. Among the gentlemen was John Swartwout; he and Clinton managed not to shoot each other. The meeting’s purpose was to mold public opinion. Clinton presented a draft of a memo to the State Legislature, urging New York to begin work on the canal: “If it be important that the inhabitants of the same country should be bound together by a community of interests, and a reciprocation of benefits; that agriculture should find a sale for its commodities; manufacturers a vent for their fabrics; and commerce a market for its commodities: it is your incumbent duty to open, facilitate and improve internal navigation.”
He argued, more pointedly—and prophetically—that a canal would be good for New York City: “If we were to suppose all the rivers and canals in England and Wales, combined into one, and discharging into the ocean at a great city, after passing through the heart of that country, then we can form a distinct idea of the importance of the projected canal.”
The meeting voted to print 1,000 copies of Clinton’s memo and to organize petitions asking the legislature to endorse its recommendations. It was an elite effort to rally the public and to inspire and pressure the political establishment.
The campaign worked, despite a last-minute setback in Washington. In March 1817, on the eve of his retirement, President Madison vetoed a federal canal bill on the grounds that the national government lacked the power to spend money directly on canals. By then, however, New York decided, in Morris’s words, to make “a manly and dignified appeal to her own power.” The state sold bonds to wealthy investors, and to savings banks, which bought them with the deposits of ordinary working people.
The first shovel of earth was turned in Rome, New York, on July 4, 1817. Rome was the sort of highfalutin American town name that made European visitors smile. But if the canal could be completed, New York, if not Rome, might live up to its potential. The governor who presided over the groundbreaking was none other than DeWitt Clinton, who had used the issue of the canal to restore his political fortunes. He had done well by doing good. But since the state stood to benefit far more than any individual politician, no one took his ambition amiss.
The canal progressed rapidly. Laborers worked ten- to 12-hour days, for 80 cents a day—then a princely wage. Many of them belonged to Clinton’s favorite ethnic group, the Irish. The channel, four feet deep, was 40 feet wide at the surface, 28 feet wide at the bottom; a canal boat drawing three and a half feet of water could carry a 75-ton load. The first work was done in the flat center of the state. By October 1819, the first short segment, from Rome to Utica, was open for business, and Governor Clinton made a ceremonial trip down the waterway. The builders then began tackling those portions of the route that required locks and aqueducts; the aqueduct that carried the canal over the Genesee River in downtown Rochester was 802 feet long.
The canal’s rolling opening proved its viability; tolls generated by the sections as they opened made a head start on paying off the $6 million price tag. By 1822, the canal was attracting English investors; the Times of London predicted that the canal would make New York City the “London of the New World.” Until then, European investors had made money in the New World chiefly from natural resources—pelts or sugar—or they had blown money in pie-in-the-sky land speculation. Here was a way of making money through economic development. Foreign capital flooded in.
Clinton’s political fortunes were less bullish. The Van Buren faction managed to force him out of the governorship in 1822, then added insult to injury by driving him off the canal commission. Even Van Buren himself concluded that this was too much— “There is such a thing in politics as killing a man too dead,” he averred—and a sympathetic backlash elected Clinton governor once again, just in time for the canal’s completion in 1825.
The formal opening ceremonies, which began at the end of October, were an apotheosis for Clinton and a celebration of New York’s great achievement—and even greater prospects. Clinton and other dignitaries set off on October 26 from Buffalo in a canal boat, the Seneca Chief, to lead an “aquatic procession” to New York. In the cabin hung a portrait of Clinton in a Roman toga. Following the Seneca Chief was a string of other boats, including Noah’s Ark, which carried “birds, fish, insects, two young bears and two Seneca boys.” The trip down the Erie Canal and the Hudson was one long string of parties and speeches.
The climax came in New York City on November 4, a glorious fall day. When the Seneca Chief approached the Battery, a city official hailed it: “Whence come you and where are you bound?” “From Lake Erie,” came the answer, “bound for Sandy Hook!” Clinton gave a prophetic speech: “The valley of the Mississippi will soon pour its treasures into this great emporium . . . and wherever wealth is to be acquired, or enterprise can be attempted, the power and capacity of your City will be felt, and its propitious influence on human happiness, will be acknowledged.” At Sandy Hook, two casks of Lake Erie water were poured into the Atlantic, along with water from the Elbe, the Seine, the Thames, and the Tagus. Everyone then went back to the city for a parade of 7,000 marchers and 100,000 spectators. That night, 1,542 wax candles and 764 oil lamps blazed in City Hall.
What did the Erie Canal accomplish? Toll money poured into the canal’s coffers. By 1825, receipts were already running $100,000 over the yearly sum needed for debt service. The surplus revenue, held in a canal fund, helped New York City rebuild after a devastating fire in 1835 and helped New York merchants ride out the Panic of 1837.
The canal cut shipping time and costs from Lake Erie to Manhattan dramatically. Before the canal, a ton of flour worth $40 took three weeks to go from Buffalo to New York, at a cost of $120. After the canal, the same trip took eight days, at a cost of $6. As Clinton predicted, the produce of the Midwest began to flow into New York, not south down the Mississippi or overland to other East Coast cities. In 1835, the Northeast was receiving 23.7 percent of the Midwest’s commodities. By 1853, it had collared 62.2 percent. By then, New York City was handling more tonnage than Boston, Baltimore, and New Orleans combined. New York City and the Midwest grew in tandem—as did the fortunes of New Yorkers like Isaac Bronson, Robert Lenox, and John Jacob Astor, who invested in real estate both in and out of town.
New York also cemented its primacy as a financial hub. When new great capital-intensive projects came along later in the century—supplying the Union army during the Civil War, building the transcontinental railroad—New York money men were well positioned to take the lead. The long era of “Wall Street” being a synonym for “finance” began with the Erie Canal.
Upstate New York blossomed, too. Cash flowed into the area, along with an innovating spirit. Inventions, as measured by patents, proliferated along the route of the Erie Canal; so did strange religions and strange political movements, from Mormonism to table-rapping to anti-Masonry. Upstate New York was the California of the second quarter of the nineteenth century.
So great was the Erie Canal’s success that every state wanted to repeat it. Many came to grief. Pennsylvania embarked on its own canal in 1826 but had not factored in its mountainous terrain. The Pennsylvania canal system cost $12 million, twice as much as the Erie Canal, but tolls did not come in at the expected rate, and Pennsylvania defaulted in the early 1840s. Burned European investors now turned on the United States as a bad risk. As in real estate, location and timing were everything.
As for DeWitt Clinton, he went back to his presidential dreams. He fancied a run for the White House in 1828, not seeing that that year was predestined for a rematch between John Quincy Adams and Old Hickory. Death spared him from disappointment: he died early in the year, a month shy of his 59th birthday. The first president from New York would be not he, but Andrew Jackson’s second vice president—Martin Van Buren.
So Clinton failed to win the highest office in the land. No matter. Instead, he turned out to be one of the greatest benefactors of the greatest city in the world.
The American people became UNINFORMED over US history as REAGAN/CLINTON took hold and controlled text content including history ----what happened to our US history since 1990s? It became simply a boring lists of dates----names-----battles----that is colonial history for serfs and not CITIZENS.
Baby boomers remember when our history was full of these political battles between political philosophies---between corporate power-players vs patriots. We were educated on all of what we speak at CITIZENS' OVERSIGHT MARYLAND it was broad, liberal arts and humanities for 99% of citizens----while those generations from 1990s education tied to TEXAS TEXTBOOKS---and consolidated press houses captured our US history into what will be A GLOBAL COMMONER CORE-----history controlled by only that global 1%!
This is how a National Public Media was allowed to sell the Clintons and Obama as main street and populist when they were tied closely to old world GLOBAL 1% MERCHANTS OF VENICE and global freemasonry.
This is why we call our Maryland global Wall Street player MARTIN O'MALLEY that same TAMMANY HALL BOSS TWEED tied to these same global old world MERCHANTS OF VENICE----he is a wannabe top freemason.
Left social Democrats were shouting in the 1980s and 90s because we KNEW THIS----we educated to be citizens because we wanted FREEDOM AND LIBERTY for our children and grandchildren-----but sadly most Americans believed the media hype that all this was CONSPIRACY THEORY----please do research broadly!
It All Began in a Place Called Hope
President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, in the small town of Hope, Arkansas. He was named after his father, William Jefferson Blythe II, who had been killed in a car accident just three months before his son was born. Needing to find a way to support herself and her new child, Bill Clinton's mother, Virginia Cassidy Blythe, moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, to study nursing. Bill Clinton stayed with his mother's parents in Hope. There he was surrounded by many relatives who gave him love and support and who played a significant role in his upbringing.
Bill Clinton's grandparents, Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, taught him strong values and beliefs. They owned a small grocery store just outside of Hope, and despite the segregation laws of the time, they allowed people of all races to purchase goods on credit. They taught their young grandson that everyone is created equal and that people should not be treated differently because of the color of their skin. This was a lesson Bill Clinton never forgot.
His mother returned from New Orleans with her nursing degree in 1950, when her son was four years old. Later that same year, she married an automobile salesman named Roger Clinton. When Bill Clinton was seven years old, the family moved to Hot Springs, Arkansas. Known for its natural mineral hot springs, its scenic beauty, and its racetrack, Hot Springs was bigger than Hope and offered better employment opportunities. Roger received a higher paying job as a service manager for his brother's car dealer-ship and Virginia was able to find a better job as a nurse anesthetist. In 1956. Bill Clinton's half-brother, Roger Clinton, Jr., was born. When his brother was old enough to enter school, young Bill had his last name legally changed from Blythe to Clinton.
In 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected President. Two years later, when Bill Clinton was a senior in high school, he was selected to go to Washington, D.C., to be a part of Boys Nation, a special youth leadership conference. The young men of Boys Nation and the young women of Girls Nation were invited to the White House to meet President Kennedy. Bill Clinton was one of the first in line to shake President Kennedy's hand in the Rose Garden. That event was one of the most memorable, important experiences of his youth. After that, he knew he wanted to make a difference in the lives of the people of America by becoming President.
That same year, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., gave his historic "I Have a Dream" speech at the foot of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. Bill Clinton watched the speech on television and was so deeply moved by Dr. King's words that he memorized them. He admired Dr. King's gift for communicating a clear vision and his ability to pull people together to work toward a common goal. Dr. King became one of Bill Clinton's heroes.
Inspired by the success of these leaders, young Bill thrived on the hard work that his academic and extracurricular activities required. As an active member of his church, he raised money and organized charity events. Most important, he learned about working with people and being a good citizen. In his spare time, he enjoyed reading. Some of his favorite books were The Silver Chalice, The Last of the Mohicans, The Robe, and Black Beauty.
Playing the saxophone was his favorite pastime. He loved music, practiced every day, and played in jazz ensembles. Each summer, he attended a band camp in the Ozark Mountains. His hard work paid off when he became a top saxophone player at his school and won first chair in the state band's saxophone section.
Bill Clinton recognized that although college would be expensive, it would give him the education he needed to accomplish his goals. His hard work in school, combined with his musical ability, earned him many academic and music scholarships. With the help of those scholarships and loans from the government, he was able to attend Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He chose Georgetown because it had an excellent foreign service program; he was also excited about going to school in the nation's capital.
While earning his Bachelor of Science degree in International Affairs he worked as an intern in the office of Arkansas Senator J. William Fulbright. There he learned how government worked and what it was like to be a politician. He admired Senator Fulbright for his accomplishments and beliefs.
When Bill Clinton finished college in 1968, he won a Rhodes Scholarship, which allows select students to study at Oxford University in England. While at Oxford, he studied government and played rugby. Upon his return to the United States, he began law school at Yale University. At Yale, he continued to work hard. He maintained his interest in government by campaigning for a Senate candidate in Connecticut. He also met Hillary Rodham, whom he would later marry.
When he graduated from law school in 1973, Bill Clinton returned to Arkansas to teach law at the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville. There he could concentrate on his goal of running for political office. In 1974, he had his first opportunity when he ran for Congress against Republican incumbent John Paul Hammerschmidt. Although he lost the race, Bill Clinton learned much about politics and met people who have remained his lifelong friends. Hillary had joined him in Arkansas and helped him campaign. She also began teaching at the University of Arkansas. They were married on October 11, 1975.
In 1976, Bill Clinton was elected Attorney General of Arkansas. Two years later, at the age of thirty-two, he became the youngest governor in the United States. As governor of Arkansas, he concentrated on improving the state's educational system and building better roads. On February 27, 1980, the Clintons' daughter, Chelsea Victoria, was born. The Clintons describe this day as the happiest one of their lives.
Later that year, in a close election, Governor Clinton lost the race for a second term to Republican Frank White. Feeling that he had not accomplished all that he wanted to do, he ran as the Democratic candidate in the next gubernatorial election. Campaigning throughout the state, he assured the voters that he would address their needs, and he was re-elected in November 1982.
Again, his most important goal as governor was to enhance the quality of education in the state. He raised teachers' salaries and began a program of testing students after the third, sixth, and eighth grades. He also encouraged parents to participate in their children's education. His new educational standards ensured that every child in Arkansas, regardless of the size or wealth of his or her community or of family income level, would receive a quality education.
From August 1986 to August 1987, Governor Clinton served as chairman of the National Governors' Association. During that time, he led the governors' efforts to reform the welfare system and the educational systems of the states.
By the fall of 1991, Governor Clinton believed that the country needed someone with a new vision and plan, and he decided to run for President. He also felt that he had the experience and the best ideas for changing our country for the better. He wanted to strengthen the health care system, to improve the school system, and, most of all, to bolster the economy and create new jobs. He brought his message to the country by going door to door, holding one-on-one talks with people in town hall meetings, and appearing on various talk shows.
After a long primary process, Governor Clinton was nominated as the Democratic presidential candidate. He chose Senator Al Gore, of Tennessee to be his vice-presidential running mate. Together, Bill Clinton and Al Gore set out by bus to meet the people of America and to hear about their concerns and their hopes for the future. They campaigned on the concept of "putting people first'---preserving the American Dream, restoring the hopes of the middle class, and reclaiming the future for the nation's children.
When election day arrived on November 3, 1992, voters turned out in record numbers to cast their ballots. Bill Clinton was elected the 42nd President of the United States and Al Gore the 45th Vice President. They had succeeded in bringing the people together in their efforts to change our country.
Throughout his life, President Clinton has worked to make a difference in the lives of others. To him, Hope means more than a small town in Arkansas; it means working to ensure that each American has the opportunity to fulfill his or her dream.
American EXCEPTIONALISM is that revisionist history of global Wall Street and the OLD WORLD GLOBAL 1%-----they are now writing their own history making LYING, CHEATING, STEALING, NO MORALS OR ETHICS, NO US RULE OF LAW, NO GOD'S NATURAL LAW all OK because those who rose to the top were EXCEPTIONAL. As we said earlier SOCIAL DARWINISM is a myth----and CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA'S had no talent other than fooling the masses----that 99% OF AMERICANS.
This is why Bush/Obama pushed RACE TO THE TOP written by global Wall Street in corporatizing our democratic public schools-----GLOBAL COMMON CORE allows that global 1% to control all information a global citizenry accesses. If one cannot get real information but is saturated with FAKE NEWS as all mainstream media is today----one cannot be a leader----a citizen with power over governance and public policy.
TEXAS throughout last century tried to be that power over K-12 classroom education and led in making history simply boring dates and battles. The states fighting COMMONER CORE are those still having leadership wanting to control information in their neck of the woods---this does not mean they are helping their 99% of state citizens---they are the same players trying to revise history to their benefit
WE LIVE IN STATES NOT SEEING US AS CITIZENS IF WE SEE THESE ATTACKS ON OUR STRONG PUBLIC SCHOOLS STEEPED IN EDUCATING BROADLY IN ALL CULTURES AND THEIR HISTORIES----WHO IS ATTACKING PUBLIC SCHOOLS TODAY? BALTIMORE PUBLIC SCHOOLS HAVE BEEN UNDER ATTACK FOR DECADES BY GLOBAL WALL STREET BALTIMORE DEVELOPMENT AND JOHNS HOPKINS AND OUR 5% TO THE 1% FAKE RELIGIOUS LEADERS.
During the DARK AGES of KINGS AND QUEENS and old world MERCHANTS OF VENICE the 99% of global citizens were in this same position------they had an oral history for WE THE PEOPLE-----telling the stories of holding POWER ACCOUNTABLE----White Europeans had TROUBADOURS ---travelling minstrels able to memorize history and spread it from town to town region to region. Now, if a singer or songwriter claims to be that TROUBADOUR and somehow finds themselves TOP OF THE CHARTS-----they have then become global Wall Street players. Global Wall Street has for a thousand years sought to silence REAL 99% information-----
We see MALI DURING THESE SAME TIMES------having oral history ---we saw the Catholic Church tied to global 1% having their scribes ----both of these were tied to the royal histories of power. Look for the REAL TROUBADOURS and rebuild our ORAL HISTORY handed down from our children to grandchildren to generations----let them know how to play politics to hold power accountable and protect the center of our CHESS BOARD for WE THE PEOPLE as citizens controlling governance and public policy----
George Strait - Troubadour
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Revised AP U.S. History Standards Will Emphasize American Exceptionalism
By Zoë Schlanger On 7/29/15 at 5:18 PM
Opponents of the 2014 AP U.S. history standards, seen by some as anti-American, rally in Golden, Colorado, on October 2, 2014. On Thursday, the College Board will release a new version of the standards, which adds, among other things, a section on "American exceptionalism."
U.S. American history Education Higher Education
The company behind Advanced Placement courses for U.S. high school students will release a revision to the standards for AP U.S. history on Thursday morning, after significant pushback from conservatives who claimed the redesigned course framework, released last year, painted American history in too negative a light.
The new framework significantly pares down last year’s framework, simplifying and condensing the course’s Thematic Learning Objectives from 50 to 19, according to an official at the College Board, the nonprofit organization that administers AP exams. In the process, a new section on the concept of “American exceptionalism” has been added. Some names that were omitted from last year’s framework, such as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton and John Adams, have been added—a key sticking point for critics of the prior document, who objected to Founding Fathers being omitted and negative aspects in American history being more emphasized, they claimed, than positive periods. Ben Carson, a GOP presidential candidate, said the curriculum was so anti-American that students who complete it would be “ready to sign up for ISIS.”
The revised framework will be effective immediately, and doesn’t require a change in any textbooks, according to the College Board. High school classes in many parts of the country begin in three weeks. Teachers Newsweek spoke with say that AP tests are typically written a year in advance, and said they expected the test will be reviewed in light of the changes. According to College Board, however, the test has not yet been written.
Last year, after the College Board released its redesigned standards for AP U.S. history, a document more than a decade in the making, Oklahoma, Georgia and Texas all introduced bills threatening to pull the course altogether. The Jefferson County school district in Colorado convened a board committee to review the curriculum, stating that all materials should promote “patriotism” and “respect for authority,” and “should not encourage or condone civil disorder.” The district stopped pursuing the review after hundreds of students walked out of classes in protest. The issue made it to the Republican National Committee, which passed a resolution accusing the AP U.S. framework of promoting "a radically revisionist view of American history that emphasizes negative aspects of our nation’s history while omitting or minimizing positive aspects," and recommending that Congress withhold federal funding to the College Board pending a rewrite.
In October, the College Board began accepting comment from teachers and the general public on the standards. In April, Trevor Packer, College Board’s head of AP, announced that revisions would be published in July based on the feedback.
Teachers Newsweek spoke with, who sat on a committee to draft the framework, stressed that the document was never meant to be a description of the totality of what an AP U.S. history teacher must teach, but rather a simplified outline that guides the course toward certain themes. The impetus for the original revision, published last year, was to redirect the course away from rote memorization of facts and more toward “historical thinking skills,” according to Ted Dickson, a teacher at Providence Day School in Charlotte, North Carolina. For example, when he used to teach about the Protestant Reformation in the United States, his students “had to learn 20 different names. Now with the new course it’s more about understanding a few of them well.” Dickson has been involved in the drafting of the new revision since its inception a decade ago, and served as co-chair of its development committee. He has taught AP U.S. history for 25 years.
But Geri Hastings, a teacher at Catonsville High School in Catonsville, Maryland, who has been teaching AP U.S. history for 35 years and also helped draft the redesign, said on Wednesday that nuance had been lost on critics.
“The amount of press it got was entirely ridiculous because I don’t think they understood what it was meant to be. It was a framework that meant to let teachers understand the limits of what would be tested. You add examples, you teach it how you want to teach it, just make sure you teach these important concepts,” Hastings said. But critics saw it as excluding, among other things, favorite Founding Fathers and historical events that contribute to America’s legacy, such as its role in winning World War I and World War II. In the new framework, America’s military achievements are given a greater emphasis than in the last document.
The College Board official did confirm that “American exceptionalism” was added to the new document. The official said that the phase didn’t appear in the 2014 edition because the organization assumed it wasn’t something it needed to spell out as part of what would be taught in an American history course.
In other areas, language was changed or eliminated. “If there were places where we felt like the language of the framework seemed to unintentionally indicate some kind of a bias we tried to eliminate that. There were places where some critics...felt like the way things were phrased was anti-American. It didn’t make any sense to me. But if it felt like the way things were phrased indicated any kind of a bias or slant, we tried to neutralize that bias.”
Hastings says that the changes were for the sake of removing some value judgments from the framework, and letting facts speak for themselves.
“Some of the changes sound less pompous. Less morally judgmental,” Hastings says. “I think if [language] was tamped down, it was less about the criticism, but [rather] to make it less value-based. Just to put it out there, and teachers could then massage it as they taught it. I think before it was a little more value-laden. Now it’s like, here are the facts, teach it how you want to teach it.… I think it’s just more balanced, more mainstream, yet it doesn’t push things under the rug. There have been problems in our country. We enslaved people, and it was horrible. Again, you can’t just focus on that to the exclusion of other things.”
As the College Board put it in a statement to Newsweek , the revised framework will “clarify and encourage a balanced approach to the teaching of American history, while remaining faithful to the requirements that colleges and universities set for academic credit.”
“Given the substantive feedback we have received from educators and the general public representing a range of political viewpoints, we are confident that the concerns some have expressed over the past year will be resolved by the new edition.”
When our African American citizens shout THIS AMERICAN HISTORY IS NOT OUR HISTORY ----they are right! What is taught in our public schools is almost entirely coming from a white supremacy view of history. As with all population groups today that 5% to the 1% work for a global 1% of WHITE MEN......if they have positions in our universities----first those private IVY LEAGUES and then our public universities they were appointed because they were identified as global Wall Street players so any history they write will be just as revisionist as our white textbook houses. They are trying hard to hide what those 5% to the 1% tied to Clinton/Obama brought as public policy in moving forward ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE----
We don't have to read any version of history without understanding and correcting for these biases. We need to hear a national media painting Bill Clinton as HOPE ARKANSAS to understand our media outlets are captured and handing us propaganda----same for our black and brown citizens and their history writers---these players are doing the same so know what their bias brings and MOVE AWAY from all political and societal structures that favor wealth and corporate power---
LIKE SECRET SOCIETIES------GREEK ORGANIZATIONS----FREEMASON GROUPS----they are all tied to pledging TO DO ANYTHING A GLOBAL 1% TELLS THEM.
Our black and brown citizens in US have a double-whammy in finding REAL information navigating what is clearly white supremacy in controlling media and print AND navigating around those captured 5% to the 1% having money and power while working for old world MERCHANTS OF VENICE that enslave.
The black and brown 99% have great ties to those secret society structures-----please consider how easy building local, small business economies will lift all to business-ownership and cultural wealth----we don't need these MERCHANTS OF VENICE institutions to create jobs and local economies!
History of the African American Literature and Culture Society
Founded in May 1993, during the annual conference of the American Literature Association (ALA), with the encouragement and support of Alfred Bendixen, Executive Director, and its Executive Board, the African American Literature and Culture Society (AALCS) initiates and encourages critical dialogue, scholarly publications, conferences, programs, and projects devoted to the study of the African American Literature and Culture. Its specific objectives are to (1) explore more fully the study of African American literature within the context of contemporary theory and more traditional discourses, (2) validate a larger cultural context and avenue for understanding this body of material, (3) broaden and expand the appreciation of the context of this body of literature; and above all, (4) encourage participation of undergraduate and graduate students in this venture.
At present, the AALCS sponsors panels at the annual conferences of ALA in Boston and California. It also plans to present panels at the annual College Language Association and Twentieth Century Literature conferences. Some of the recent panels presented at the 15th ALA Annual Conference in San Francisco, May 27-30, 2004, were on "Race, Class, and Identity in African American Literature and Culture," "Black Bay: Innovators and Outriders," "Masculine Configurations in 20th Century African American Literature," "Teaching the Harlem Renaissance," and "Queerness and Race."
At the 16th ALA conference in Boston on May 26-29, 2005, panels were presented on "Women of the Harlem Renaissance," "Poetics and Politics in Gwendolyn Brooks and Langston Hughes," "Contemporary African American Novelists," "Subjectivity and Sexuality in Contemporary African American Women Writers," "Racial Representations," and there was a Roundtable on Nineteenth-Century African American Writing. During the 17th ALA conference in San Francisco, May 25-28, 2006, panels were presented on "Contemporary African American Fiction," "African American Literature: International Perspectives," "Nineteenth-Century African American Writing," "Contemporary African American Poetry," "African American Literature and Other Arts," and "August Wilson." In Boston, at the 18th ALA conference, members presented scholarly papers on six panels: "August Wilson's Women," "Revisiting the South in African American Literature I & II," "Re-examining Migration in African American Literature," Examining African American Popular Literature," and "Race and Visual Culture."
At the 19th ALA conference in San Francisco on May 22-25, panels were presented on “The Life and Writings of Ann Petry,” “Re-Reading Contemporary African-American Women’s Fiction,” “Visualizing the Black Writer: Recent Photographs,” “18th and 19th Century African American Literature,” and “20th Century African American Literature.”
In addition to engaging panels at ALA, the AALCS hosts "In the Tradition: Generations of African American Poetry," a guest writers series inaugurated in 1995, that has showcased and introduced new poets and writers, such as As-Salmai (1996), William Henry Lewis (1999), Mel Donalson (2000), and Jeffrey Allen (2001).
Through its Stephen E. Henderson Award, the AALCS recognizes outstanding achievement in literature and poetry. Recipients include: Sam Cornish (1995); Ouincy Troupe (1996); E. Ethelbert Miller (1997); Sherley Anne Williams (1998); Clarence Major (2002); Askia Toure´ (2003); Charles Johnson (2004); Al Young (2006), the poet laureate of California; Marilyn Nelson (2007); Nathaniel Mackey (2008); and inaugural poet Elizabeth Alexander (2009).
There is also the Darwin T. Turner Award. Past winners include: Loretta G. Woodard (2009), Maryemma Graham (2005) and Jerry W. Ward, Jr. (2000).
Our newest award is the Sterling A. Brown Award. The first recipient of this award is Eugene Redmond (2007).
During former president Wilfred Samuels' leadership, the AALCS coordinated the ALA’s Seventh Annual Symposium in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico, in October 1998. Looking Back with Pleasure II: A Celebration, was its second international conference held at the Little America Hotel, October 25-29, 2000, in Salt Lake City, Utah, which drew over three hundred scholars and critics to the birthplace of Wallace Thurman, including representatives from the Chesnutt, Baldwin, Horton, Morrison, Wideman, and Wright Societies. Also represented were faculty and students from the Departments of English of the University of Utah, Brigham Young University, Utah State University and Westminster College.
Keynote speakers and literary voices joining us at the conference were Ai, Jeffrey Allen, Maya Angelou, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Amiri Baraka, Karla F.C. Holloway, Randall Kenan, Yusef Komunyakaa, William Henry Lewis, Paule Marshall, E. Ethelbert Miller, Sandra Jackson Opoku, Quincy Troupe, Daniel Wideman, John Edgar Wideman, and Kalamu ya Salaam. Other highlights of the conference were the exhibits, workshops, an Ailey II performance and the church service at the Calvary Baptist Church (founded by Ma Jackson, Thurman’s grandmother), Dr. Francis A. Davis, pastor.
An inaugural issue of the AALCS Newsletter, featuring the president’s message, guest essays, short essays by members, book reviews, a comprehensive bibliography, conference pictures, and general information and announcements, was published in May 1996. Subsequent issues will appear online. The newsletter will be revived in the spring of 2005.
At the 16th Annual ALA conference in Boston, May 25-29, 2005, the AALCS made plans for its next symposium, which was hosted by Saint Louis University in St. Louis, Missouri, October 25 - 27, 2007, during the 40th anniversary celebration of African American Review. Over 100 scholars attended.
In San Francisco, at the 21st ALA conference, May 27-30, 2010, panels were presented on "The State of the Nation: Contemporary African American Poetry," "Novel Approaches to the Black Novel: Contemporary African American Literature," "African American Nature Writing," "Nineteenth-Century African American Fiction: New Perspectives," and "African American Women's Poetics."
On May 26-29, 2010, at the 22nd ALA conference in Boston, members presented on such panels as "New Readings of Nella Larsen," Bodies and Language in Contemporary African American Writing," "Rereading Neo-Slave Narratives," "Reading Narratives of Slavery," and "Jean Toomer and Claude McKay."
2010 and 2011 Stephen Henderson Award recipients, inaugural poet Elizabeth Alexander (2009), C.S.Giscombe (2010), and Ed Roberson (2011).
The charter members of AALCS are: Warren Carson, James Coleman, Gloria Cronin, Mary Kemp Davis, Marilyn Elkin, Lee Greene, Candis LaPrade, Dan Ragean, Wilfred D. Samuels and Virginia Smith-Whatley.
The former officers of AALCS include: Aldon Nielson, Immediate Past Present; Loretta G. Woodard, Immediate Past President, Marygrove College; Wilfred D. Samuels, Founding President, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; James Coleman, First Vice President, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Virginia Whately-Smith, Second Vice President, University of Alabama-Birmingham; Warren Carson, Secretary/Treasurer, University of South Carolina, Spartenburg, and Loretta G. Woodard, Interim-President and Secretary, Marygrove College.