WE THE PEOPLE THE 99% MUST ACT PROACTIVELY TO STOP BAD POLICIES AND NEED RIGHT WING AND LEFT WING TO COME TOGETHER IN THESE MAJOR SOCIETAL PUBLIC POLICY CHANGES. SHAKE RACE AND CLASS COME TOGETHER.
If we notice from yesterday a major stumbling block to colonizing MARS, MOON, and CERES--an asteroid-----is water as well as oxygen. If we notice global Wall Street CLINTON/OBAMA neo-liberals pretending to be GREEN------all that emphasis on water generation and artificial sources of water are not for sustainability just on Earth---they are funding sources of water to transport to these planetary colonies. THAT IS GLOBAL GREEN CORPORATION FOR YOU. When global 1% say they want to bring a global population from 5-6 billion to 1 billion----wars, famine, forced remote microchip contraception, and planetary colonization will be that goal. Obama placed ASTEROID MINING on his bucket list just as Bush started his mining infrastructure to the MOON.
Ceres (/ˈsɪəriːz/; minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Its diameter is approximately 945 kilometers (587 miles), making it the largest of the minor planets within the orbit of Neptune.
The idea that mining in space costs less than a gas plant when trillions of dollars in Federal funding for these basic science advances---the building of domes for food and housing etc of course all funded by taxpayer money then in coming global mining corporations.
HOW DOES THAT HELP WE THE PEOPLE GLOBALLY? THE HARM THESE POLICIES DO FAR EXCEEDS ANY GAINS.
At $27 Billion, Mining in Space Could Cost Less Than a Gas Plant
November 5, 2015, 2:00 PM EST
- NASA is cautious but believes investors are out there
- Business students cost moon mining mission at $9 billion
QuickTake Space Mining
A mission to Ceres, a dwarf planet 257 million miles from the Sun and the size of Texas, may cost about $27 billion. The expense includes 10 rocket launches to convey equipment, the extraction of metals and water, and the construction of an in-orbit facility to process the raw materials.
The costing comes from graduate business students at Australia’s University of New South Wales, which is also collaborating with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration on the economics of space mining. By comparison, Australia’s biggest single resources development -- Chevron Corp.’s Gorgon liquefied natural gas plant -- has an expected price tag of about $54 billion.
Still, getting investors to buy into the grand vision that mankind has a future in the stars is a high bar to clear.
“We shouldn’t drink the Kool-Aid too hard,” said Rene Fradet, deputy director of the engineering and science directorate at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and a speaker at the Off-Earth Mining Forum in Sydney on Thursday. “Investors are out there, but they need to know what the risk and return will be,” he said by phone.
Crucially, proponents no longer intend to deliver metals to Earth to replenish finite resources. The costs of a two-way journey are considered uneconomic and the focus instead is on providing materials for industries operating in space to power the exploration and eventual colonization of Mars and beyond.
Mining on the moon would be a relative snip with capital expenditure of about $9 billion, according to the research. Capturing parts of near-Earth asteroids, the target of companies already developing programs to begin mining in space, may be just $492 million.
Advocates insist space mining will eventually develop into a trillion-dollar-industry supplying metals and water for habitats and fuels for rockets in a market led initially by space exploration programs and satellite operators.
“Even if you found gold out there, I’d leave it out there,” said Julian Malnic, a board member of Moffett Field, California-based Deep Space Industries Inc., which plans to mine asteroids and conduct processing and manufacturing in space. “There’s a real economy out there to be built, and the materials are out there to build it from.”
Proof that the technology to mine in space is feasible is being established by programs including NASA’s Asteroid Redirect Mission, said Fradet. The key step is building a credible business case that can convince skeptics in the mining industry, he said.
“It’s not a profit-making venture yet,” said Jeff Coulton, a senior lecturer at UNSW’s School of Accounting, whose students made the space mining calculations and who also spoke at the forum being hosted by the university. “It may well be a profit making venture 20-to-30-to-50 years into the future,” he said.
Other costings are even lower. Each mission to mine an asteroid may cost only between about $50 million and $100 million, according to Planetary Resources Inc., an asteroid-mining venture backed by Google billionaires Larry Page and Eric Schmidt.
Planetary Resources' prospector spacecraft in low earth orbit
Source: Planetary Resources Inc.Planetary Resources has held talks on its plans with chief executive officers and exploration heads of mining firms, President and Chief Engineer Chris Lewicki said by phone, declining to name the companies. The approach from miners is “how can we engage on this, so we’re not caught behind the times as it develops,” he said.
Top executives aren’t dismissive. Rio Tinto Group’s CEO Sam Walsh said in February that space mining poses interesting questions and if it can be developed, his company will be there.
Remember when all the hype hit the media when our astrological societies started voting to change how PLANET DESIGNATION was applied? Well, these planet-mining policies are tied to this---as we see in this article an asteroid CERES is now being labelled PLANETARY. Thinking no doubt people would rather go to a planet than an asteroid.
There are scientists who will willingly go to the worst of environments for study--look at ANTARCTICA and stations there in the worst of climate. Scientific curiosity is far different than forced transport of mining slave labor. The ethics and morals are no where in sight as global 1% pragmatic nilists think of financial gains and empire-building only.
No doubt Hollywood and national media will make it seem COOL to live on an asteroid.
When the CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA pols and players MOVE FORWARD all these policies these few decades they no doubt think they are MERCHANTS OF VENICE in these colonizing deals----their children and grandchildren will be under the bus first on the flight to be those planetary miners.
What Would It Be Like to Live On Dwarf Planet Ceres in the Asteroid Belt?
By Joseph Castro, Space.com Contributor | February 24, 2015 05:00pm ET
NASA's Dawn spacecraft took these images of the dwarf planet Ceres. What would it be like for a human to live on Ceres?
The aptly named asteroid belt is a region of space between Mars and Jupiter that's home to the majority of the asteroids in the solar system.
In recent years, asteroid belt objects have gained much attention as potential locations for future space mining operations that seek to harvest water for long-distance space missions (water can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen to make rocket fuel).
One potential resource is Ceres — the largest object in the asteroid belt, comprising up to a third of the belt's mass. Once labeled an asteroid, Ceres is now classified as a "dwarf planet," a step below a full-fledged planet. It may contain more subsurface water ice than all the fresh water on Earth, and its high gravity compared with other belt objects makes it one of the most suitable locations for a permanent base in the asteroid belt. [Learn more about how to live on Ceres (Infographic)]
Ceres, orbiting between Mars and Jupiter, has almost no gravity, warmth or atmosphere. See what it would be like on Ceres in our full infographic.
Credit: By Karl Tate, Infographics Artist "But you probably wouldn't start mining there first because it's very far away," said Chris Lewicki, president and chief engineer of the asteroid mining firm Planetary Resources. "From a resource and mining standpoint, lots of other objects are closer."
NASA's Dawn spacecraft is expected to become the first spacecraft to ever visit Ceres when it arrives in orbit around the dwarf planet in March. The probe has already beamed back some amazing images of Ceres. As such, the surface of Ceres is largely a mystery — images from terrestrial and space telescopes show it has a mixture of bright and dark spots, but it's not clear what these spots are (some could be craters).
The European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory found that water vapor ejects into space from Ceres, possibly from volcanolike icy geysers or ice patches on the dwarf planet's surface. However, these vapor jets would be far too weak to pose any danger to you if you walked near them. They're so tenuous that "they would probably be difficult to even see," Lewicki told Space.com.
Most asteroids orbit the sun within a broad belt located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter: the asteroid belt. Get the facts about the asteroid belt in this SPACE.com infographic.
Though Ceres is the largest asteroid belt object, its gravity is still only less than 3 percent of Earth's gravity. Yet, Ceres is "one of the few asteroids you could probably walk around on," Lewicki said. And traversing its surface wouldn't take very long — Ceres has the diameter of Texas and the surface area of India. It's not clear, however, what kind of health effects would arise from living with that gravity for an extended period of time, he said.
Ceres's low gravity also means it has virtually no atmosphere, so you wouldn't experience weather or see any sky colors while living on the dwarf planet. Instead, the sky would be a clear black, though you likely wouldn't be able to see many other asteroids through your spacesuit helmet because objects in the belt are generally about one million miles apart from each other.
While living on Ceres, you'd be subject to extreme shifts in temperature. The daytime temperature is usually about minus 100 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 73 degrees Celsius), and the nighttime temperature is minus 225 F (minus 143 C). But throughout Ceres's year (4.6 Earth years), you wouldn't see much seasonal temperature changes because of the object's low axial tilt (3 percent).
Ceres is nearly three times as far away from the sun as Earth is. In the middle of Ceres's 9-hour-long day, the sun would only be about 15 percent as bright and a third as large as it would be at noon on Earth.
And sunrises wouldn't be much to write home about — it takes all of 45 seconds to go from pitch black to full sun on Ceres, Lewicki said. But if you did send a message home, you could expect a response from between 15 minutes to more than 30 minutes, depending on how close Earth and Ceres are.
'Once company telescopes spot a mining prospect, there's only one way to determine what resources the asteroid contains: Get close'.
All of the Federal funding that came to our US communities to build local economies, to create communities in public interest, with services and programs that created a quality of life is now directed at either a global Department of Defense protecting Foreign Economic Zones around the world---or it is being funneled into research and development for PLANETARY MINING----MINING, MINING, MINING-----replaces JOBS, JOBS, JOBS, HOUSING, HOUSING, HOUSING and global Wall Street pols CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA pretending to be left social Democrats know this.
COULD WE THE PEOPLE HAVE BOTH STRONG DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICS WITH DEVELOPED NATION STANDARDS OF LIFE AND SATISFY PLANETARY COLONIZATION? OF COURSE IF WE DID NOT ALLOW ALL WEALTH TO BE ACCUMULATED BY A GLOBAL 1%----WE NEED TO REDISTRIBUTE THAT WEALTH---GET RID OF GLOBAL WALL STREET POLS AND PLAYERS.
How to Mine an Asteroid
A group of aerospace veterans and investors—including Google's Larry Page, filmmaker James Cameron, and X-Prize Foundation founder Peter Diamandis—announced an audacious venture: a company, Planetary Resources, dedicated to mining asteroids.
By Michael Belfiore
Oct 27, 2014
Step 1: Get prospecting
To mine an asteroid, a company like Planetary Resources first has to find one that promises a good return on investment. But asteroids don't glitter like stars. They are small, dark, and easily obscured by the distorting effect of Earth's atmosphere. The best way to hunt for them is with a telescope floating in space. At the Bellevue, Wash., headquarters of Planetary Resources, chief engineer and company president Chris Lewicki is assembling the components of the first privately owned space telescope, the Arkyd 100 series.
The 44-pound spacecraft will be smaller and simpler than any government-funded space telescope. The $1.5 billion Hubble Space Telescope has a 94-inch-diameter primary mirror; Arkyd's mirrors will be 9 inches wide. Hubble has a wide field of view, as well as other instruments to scan objects in distant space. Arkyd needs only to look in our own solar system for targets. Being small saves money: Rockets carrying larger sats could also haul these telescopes as secondary payloads, decreasing launch costs.
Space sells, but who's buying?
Planetary Resources plans to build a fleet of space telescopes to help drive the per-unit cost down to less than $10 million. Having multiple telescopes is insurance in case one fails. "We need to make something in an assembly line," says Lewicki, a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory Mars mission manager. "We can't just build one precious jewel that we treat with kid gloves."
The Planetary Resources team will also rent out the Arkyd 100s, the company's first stab at making money. Its space telescopes can be used by cosmic researchers or by Earth scientists who want to examine the planet from space at a resolution of about 6 feet per pixel. Planetary Resources hopes to launch the first satellite by the end of 2013; company officials say rental prices have not yet been determined.
A NASA engineer stands in front of six segments of the James Webb Space Telescope's primary mirror. Space miners may field the first privately owned space telescopes—and rent them out.
Step 2: Assay and stake a claim
Once company telescopes spot a mining prospect, there's only one way to determine what resources the asteroid contains: Get close.
The Planetary Resources team envisions a swarm of prospecting bots heading out to conduct close flybys of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). "We're talking about building interplanetary probes at a fraction of the cost [of current models], which requires doing things very differently," Diamandis says. NASA has used this form of propulsion twice for deep-space exploration. It uses electricity to positively charge xenon atoms, which are pulled out of the craft by magnets. The repulsive force provides thrust that propels a vessel, building speed over the course of years. It takes a while, but when it gets going the craft can exceed 200,000 mph.
The asteroids of interest likely will be less than 1 mile in diameter, too small to have appreciable gravity. Spacecraft don't land on such small asteroids; they dock to them. A spacecraft will slowly approach, getting close enough to barely touch the asteroid's surface before deploying an anchor. Grappling hooks might just grab a chunk of surface material and float away. A better option is to deploy drills in each landing pad that secure the craft to the surface.
"We're talking about building interplanetary probes at a fraction of the cost."
The robot would then analyze the water and metal content of the asteroid and beam the results to Earth. The tool of choice for this assay would be a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system, or LIBS. Lasers vaporize surface material so sensors can analyze the light emitted by the resulting plasma to identify elements. The first LIBS to be deployed to another world, ChemCam, is currently en route to Mars aboard NASA's Curiosity rover.
The prospecting craft might also tag the asteroid by planting a radio beacon on its surface. According to company officials, the beacon would do more than help future missions get a fix on an asteroid's location. "Placing a beacon is part of building a case for ownership," Diamandis says.
A private company's claim to an asteroid is uncharted legal territory. In the next decade lawyers may have to factor in the presence of private-sector entrepreneurs in the Outer Space Treaty, first signed in 1967 and ratified by more than 100 nations. If it turns out that possession really is nine-tenths of the law, then a simple radio transmitter could help make the miner's case.
Step 3: Start digging
Space miners will prize water more than gold. Its value manifests when it is split into its elements: Hydrogen can recharge power cells and be recombined with oxygen to produce energy-rich fuel. Harvesting water in space is cheaper than shipping it from Earth. Every gallon, at a weight of 8.33 pounds, can cost tens of thousands of dollars to launch. Planetary Resources could profit by selling space-harvested water to governmental or private spacecraft at a premium but for less than it would cost to deliver from Earth.
Carbonaceous chondrite asteroids are the best prospects for water. The surface of these so-called C-type asteroids is crumbly, says John Lewis, professor emeritus at the University of Arizona and author of Mining the Sky, the seminal book on the space industry. "You can hold a cube between your thumb and your forefinger and crush it," he says. There's no need to burrow; you can just scrape the surface of a C-type asteroid to mine its water.
A swarm of mining bots, clinging with barbed feet to the surface of an asteroid, would slurp up water-laden soil through proboscis-like drills, while others would vacuum the debris left in their wakes. The robot would then pull out the soil, or regolith, and deposit it in a sealed container. The robot would walk, float, or crawl to a processor lashed to the surface or floating above it. The processor would heat the regolith to release water vapor, which would be collected into a storage tank.
Space miners face a more difficult challenge when harvesting metal. M-type asteroids, essentially big flying chunks of solid metal, might not feasibly be mined, says Harry McSween, geoscientist at the University of Tennessee and chair of the surface composition group for NASA's Dawn asteroid probe. Anchoring to such a body would be hard enough—drill-style landing pads wouldn't work—let alone sawing off a chunk of the asteroid for processing. "When you think about how much energy would be required, it seems pretty unrealistic," McSween says.
"You can hold a cube between your thumb and your forefinger and crush it"
But Lewis figures that some asteroids might be made up of as much as 30 percent metal, in the form of an iron-nickel-cobalt and platinum-group alloy. "The temptation is to simply use a magnet to pluck the metal grains out of that regolith," he says.
Some metal-rich asteroids might be worth taking closer to Earth, as close as the moon, in their entirety. "The concentration of metal is so high that you have to wonder whether you could just bring the whole thing back," Lewis says.
Step 4: Deliver the goods
Space sells, but who's buying?
It remains unclear who will purchase the goods that space miners have gone to such pains to gather.
The most lucrative opportunity might be platinum-group metals—one category of the few space commodities that would be shipped back to Earth. "These materials enable so many different high-tech processes that we use," Lewicki says. Today, platinum-group metals are essential to catalytic converters in petroleum engines, as catalysts in the production of silicone, and in the manufacturing of glass. They are incorporated into hard drives; in spark plugs, where their low corrosion rates allow 100,000-mile life spans; and in medical devices, where they are prized for their biocompatibility.
A 500-ton asteroid with 0.0015 percent platinum metals—a common percentage—would have three times the richest concentration found on Earth. "To have more of this material will open up economies that we can't even predict," Lewicki says.
But most asteroid commodities will only be marketable in a future where ambitious spaceflight is a regular human activity; for example, extraterrestrial depots where spacefarers could top off their fuel tanks and water supplies while on long trips. If there are no such trips, there is no business model.
Similarly, the idea that common metals will be useful in space is predicated on a manufacturing industry that is building space stations and spacecraft in orbit. Assembling structures in space, rather than launching them from Earth, is appealing because it avoids the cost of launch. A lack of orbital construction or the advent of cheaper launch systems could obviate this business.
If space stations are growing food for full-time residents, they could become lucrative markets for more than iron and steel. Asteroid-derived nitrogen and ammonia would be in demand for fertilizer. Such industries are vital if humans are to make their home in space. "We're talking about technologies that break the umbilical cord to Earth," Lewis says.
Planetary Resources' scheme is more than a business plan, it's a rose-colored blueprint for supporting space exploration. Its existence speaks to humanity's drive to explore, to spread, and to support the most audacious of our dreams.
Now, here is the problem for 99% of WE THE PEOPLE. As all agencies inside NASA are privatized and global 1% will continue to privatize all Federal agencies----things like our HUBBLE TELESCOPE great scientific data becomes co-opted to serving only the interests of planetary mining corporations.
We are already seeing the proprietary closing of Hubble operations----and as we stated yesterday we can no longer trust the image data we see is correct ---as to simple questions like----is there gold, silver, silicon, platinum, iron on a MOON, MARS, CERES because of course global 1% do not want anyone to know where the best CLAIMS will be. All planetary ownership of real estate is moving from planting a flag for national identity to planting a flag for a global 1% family ownership of high-value mining zones on each of these planets.
'The HST was built by the United States space agency NASA, with contributions from the European Space Agency. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) selects Hubble's targets and processes the resulting data, while the Goddard Space Flight Center controls the spacecraft'.
We are MOVING FORWARD from a JFK planting a flag on the MOON saying ONE STEP FOR MANKIND----to complete global 1% corporate control of all flag-planting while building expense comes from FEDERAL TAXPAYERS being told AUSTERITY IS IN STORE FOR 99% OF AMERICANS.
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Here we see a statement saying FOR NOW the public has access because all Hubble activities are totally taxpayer funded but the clause leaves open the fact that a TRANS PACIFIC TRADE PACT heavily protects PATENTS----and our universities once tied to public education are now moving to being global corporate campus research and patent mills as with Johns Hopkins having Hubble Telescope ties. We love our Hubble---we want to keep it public domain.
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Being OVERLY SIMPLISTIC these planetary mining movers and shakers are of course seeking to create the lowest cost for transporting slaves, colonist life-support, and mineral loads to and from earth. Higgs Boson is a particle associated with giving mass------it is believed not simply the particle itself but a HIGGS FIELD creates that mass and it can be controlled to give mass or take it away. A field can be energy----gravity---and is tied to everything from WORMHOLES TO BLACK HOLES.
We have seen fantasy showing movement through wormholes. The idea is to find these breaks to transport more quickly and cheaply needs for planetary colonization. Many theories in THEORETICAL PARTICLE PHYSICS come and go----but the goal of unified theory is tied with these kinds of transport mediums.
DR SHELDON COOPER LOOKS DOWN ON MERE APPLIED PHYSICISTS----where mechanisms needed to build these planetary mining goals come from these applied physicists like LEONARD. These are the 99% of citizens who are real genius---where the global 1% getting control of patented research are only good at LYING, CHEATING, AND STEALING.
Currently global corporate universities like Johns Hopkins have the modus operandus of finding all those exceptional geniuses to move forward these planetary mining goals with those geniuses getting very little if any financial reward while planetary mining corporation owners ----those pesky old world MERCHANTS OF VENICE being handed all our NASA will become incredibly rich.
This is where the policies of RACE TO THE TOP AND CORPORATE K-CAREER segue with goals in STEM like these. We can bet that 99% of global labor pool tied to these planetary space corporations will be educated only to operate and survive in these planetary environments....COMMONER CORE.
What is the Higgs Field?
Peter Higgs awaits the July 4, 2012, official announcement that CERN has found evidence consistent with the Higgs boson that he predicted in the 1960's. CERN, copyright 2012
by Andrew Zimmerman Jones
Updated January 31, 2016Question: What is the Higgs Field?
Answer: The Higgs field is the theoretical field of energy that permeates the universe, according to the theory put forth in 1964 by Scottish theoretical physicist Peter Higgs. Higgs suggested the field as a possible explanation for how the fundamental particles of the universe came to have mass, because in the 1960s the Standard Model of quantum physics actually couldn't explain the reason for mass itself.
He proposed that this field existed throughout all of space and that particles gained their mass by interacting with it.
Discovery of the Higgs Field
Though there was initially no experimental confirmation for the theory, over time it came to be seen as the only explanation for mass that was widely viewed as consistent with the rest of the Standard Model. As strange as it seemed, the Higgs mechanism (as the Higgs field was sometimes called) was generally accepted widely among physicists, along with the rest of the Standard Model.
One consequence of the theory was that the Higgs field could manifest as a particle, much in the way that other fields in quantum physics manifest as particles. This particle is called the Higgs boson. Detecting the Higgs boson became a major goal of experimental physics, but the problem is that the theory didn't actually predict the mass of the Higgs boson. If you caused particle collisions in a particle accelerator with enough energy, the Higgs boson should manifest ...
but without knowing the mass that they were looking for, physicists weren't sure how much energy would need to go into the collisions.
One of the driving hopes was that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) would have sufficient energy to generate Higgs bosons experimentally, since it was more powerful than any other particle accelerators that had been built before.
On July 4, 2012, physicists from the LHC announced that they found experimental results consistent with the Higgs boson, though further observations are needed to confirm this and to determine the various physical properties of the Higgs boson. The evidence in support of this has grown, to the extent that the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Peter Higgs and Francois Englert. As physicists determine the properties of the Higgs boson, it will help them more fully understand the physical properties of the Higgs field itself.
Brian Greene on the Higgs Field
One of the best explanations of the Higgs field that I've run across is this one from Brian Greene, presented on the July 9 episode of PBS' Charlie Rose show, when he appeared on the program with experimental physicist Michael Tufts to discuss the announced discovery of the Higgs boson:
Mass is the resistance an object offers to having its speed changed. You take a baseball. When you throw it, your arm feels resistance. A shotput, you feel that resistance. The same way for particles. Where does the resistance come from? And the theory was put forward that perhaps space was filled with an invisible "stuff," an invisible molasses-like "stuff," and when the particles try to move through the molasses, they feel a resistance, a stickiness. It's that stickiness which is where their mass comes from.... That creates the mass....
... it's an elusive invisible stuff. You don't see it. You have to find some way to access it. And the proposal, which now seems to bear fruit, is if you slam protons together, other particles, at very, very high speeds, which is what happens at the Large Hadron Collider... you slam the particles together at very high speeds, you can sometimes jiggle the molasses and sometimes flick out a little speck of the molasses, which would be a Higgs particle. So people have looked for that little speck of a particle and now it looks like it's been found.
The Future of the Higgs Field
If the results from the LHC pan out, then as we determine the nature of the Higgs field, we'll get a more complete picture of how quantum physics manifests in our universe. Specifically, we'll gain a better understanding of mass, which may in turn give us a better understanding of gravity. Currently, the Standard Model of quantum physics does not account for gravity (though it fully explains the other fundamental forces of physics). This experimental guidance may help theoretical physicists hone in on a theory of quantum gravity that applies to our universe.
It may even help physicists understand the mysterious matter in our universe, called dark matter, that cannot be observed except through gravitational influence. Or, potentially, a greater understanding of the Higgs field may provide some insights into the repulsive gravity demonstrated by the dark energy that seems to permeate our observable universe.
We have shouted these several years that the global Wall Street CLINTON/OBAMA policies tied to GREEN and fighting GLOBAL WARMING are a bunch of left progressive posing from pols creating policies of Foreign Economic Zone industrialization that has LEVEL 5 CLIMATE CHANGE soaring. While locally we have a few million thrown at COMMUNITY GARDENS AND COLLECTING WATER IN RAIN BARRELS----the hundreds of billions of dollars tied to water is going to create solutions to PLANETARY COLONIZING AND WATER AND OXYGEN NEEDS. Here we see one applied application and this is to where all Federal research funding is heading.
Meanwhile home on PLANET EARTH----all our fresh water supplies are being depleted by global corporate industrialization and/or polluted.
DON'T WORRY SAYS GLOBAL WALL STREET---WE WILL MANUFACTURE THAT FRESH WATER FOR A PROFITABLE PRICE!
At the same time we are being told there is not enough natural resources for a global population of 5-6 billion----WHICH IS NOT TRUE----global Wall Street is selling these ideas as future Hollywood and national media makes it sound necessary to ship off global planetary colonists and slaves.
IT'S ALL FOR THE COMMON GOOD!
25 September 2009
How astronauts could ‘harvest’ water on the moon
By David Shiga
If the moon’s water could be collected, lunar astronauts could use it as drinking water and split it into oxygen and hydrogen to make rocket fuel for their return journeys to Earth(Image: NASA)
Newly confirmed water on the moon could help sustain lunar astronauts and even propel missions to Mars, if harvesting it can be made practical. A microwave device being developed by NASA could do just that.
Three spacecraft – India’s Chandrayaan-1 and NASA’s Cassini and Deep Impact probes – have detected the absorption of infrared light at a wavelength that indicates the presence of either water or hydroxyl, a molecule made up of a hydrogen and an oxygen atom. All found the signature to be stronger at the poles than at lower latitudes.
Some of these molecules may be created continuously when solar wind protons – hydrogen ions – bind to oxygen atoms in the lunar soil. Comet impacts may also have brought water to the moon.
Water delivered by comets or generated by the solar wind could randomly diffuse over time into permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles, which were recently measured to be colder than Pluto.
“Once it gets in there, it’s not going to come out,” says Carle Pieters of Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, lead scientist for the NASA-built instrument that made the Chandrayaan-1 measurements.
‘Railroad to space’
So far, the water does not appear to be very abundant – a baseball-field-sized swathe of lunar soil might yield only “a nice glass of water”, Pieters told New Scientist.
But if it could be harvested, lunar astronauts could use it as drinking water and split it into oxygen and hydrogen to make rocket fuel for their return journeys. That would slash launch costs, since it would reduce the amount of fuel they would need to lug with them from Earth.
Rocket fuel produced on the moon might even help mount a human mission to Mars. Because of the moon’s weaker gravity, it would take less energy to loft fuel into space for a Mars mission from the lunar surface than it would from Earth.
“It completely changes the spaceflight paradigm,” says Paul Spudis of the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas. “It’s like building a transcontinental railroad to space.”
But how do you extract water that is likely locked up as small concentrations of ice in the lunar soil? Microwaves could provide the key, according to work by Edwin Ethridge of NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and William Kaukler of the University of Alabama, both in Huntsville, who first demonstrated the technique in 2006.
They used an ordinary microwave oven to zap simulated lunar soil that had been cooled to moon-like temperatures of -150 °C.
Keeping the soil in a vacuum to simulate lunar conditions, they found that heating it to just -50 °C with microwaves made the water ice sublimate, or transform directly from solid to vapour. The vapour then diffused out from higher-pressure pores in the soil to the low-pressure vacuum above.
On the moon, the vapour could be collected by holding a cold metal plate above the soil. The rising water vapour would then condense as frost onto the cold plate and “you could scrape it off”, Kaukler says.
Baking and processing dry lunar soil at high temperatures could also release oxygen and hydrogen for rocket fuel or other uses. But that would take about 100 times as much energy as extracting them from native lunar water, Spudis says: “Everything becomes easier and cheaper and quicker.”