LET'S REMIND FOLKS WITH THE COMING DISCUSSION ON EMPLOYMENT-----IT IS DIFFERENT TO BE A SLAVE THAN AN EMPLOYEE. NO ONE WILL GO TO CERES, MARS, OR AN ASTEROID TO MINE UNLESS AS FORCED LABOR.
Below is a great slide show with boring stats but please take time to understand what is being presented in national media and by global Wall Street players. Slide 20 forward is informative and slides above 30 start to talk about trips to MARS and asteroid beltways. The Earth is unique in having an atmosphere that protects against the worst of space radiation. We hear of the harmful effects of simply having a break caused by OZONE. The last series of slides let's us know that space traveling to MARS or CERES WILL BE DEADLY. Now, these data are looking at transport in space not living for any length of time on a planet. Just a round trip flight creates great exposures----staying any amount of time----work is extremely hard in gravity fields different than Earth's ----who will volunteer to be the first round of research subjects?
Google this slide show.
Radiation Biophysics and Human Spaceflight Dr. John M. Jurist Adjunct Professor of Space Studies, Odegard School
Published byBeverly Reeves Modified about 1 year ago
Here is a corporate media outlet BUSINESS INSIDER giving some of the body harm to space travel and living and we can be sure they are protective of the very harmful effects and don't know what long-term planetary exposures do to our human body. We know radiation exposure will cause genetic defects----cancers------dementia-----gravity flux from Earth to space capsule to planet to ECODOME to mining zones----all of these constant changes wear our body systems down and out ---how quickly?
Strenuous work of mining on gravity challenged asteroids and planets has already been said to cause extreme exhaustion. It will not be like mining on Earth----breathing through air formula tanks compromises the body as well.
THIS IS A CORPORATE VIEW OF DAMAGE----LET'S KEEP LOOKING TO SEE PROJECTED LONGEVITY OF PLANETARY MINING SLAVES AND TECHNOLOGY MANAGERS.
8 weird things that happen to your body if you live in space for a year
- Feb. 1, 2017, 2:08 PM
Former NASA astronaut Scott Kelly.Bill Ingalls/NASA
In the name of science, former NASA astronaut Scott Kelly recently shoved himself into the top of a rocket, accelerated to 17,500 mph, and fell around Earth for 340 days — nearly an entire year.
The lack of gravity, radiation exposure, Kelly's diet, and other facts of life in orbit affected his body in significant ways — including, as NASA is learning now, even his genetic blueprint.
The Twin Study, which is still in progress, uses Scott Kelly's identical twin brother and fellow former astronaut, Mark Kelly, to unmask the subtle but important effects of long-duration space travel on the human body.
Business Insider's Dina Spector reported on some of the most fascinating preliminary results of the study, which NASA released at the end of January, including bodily changes caused by the possible existence of a "space gene."
Here are eight other biological oddities that happen to your body if you're in space for a year.
View As: One Page Slides
Your body liquid spreads out so your face looks puffy
If you do not exercise you will lose 12% of bone density
The fluid moving from legs to head could fill a 2 liter bottle
Your vision may worsen due to pressure changes in the brain
You don't need muscles when you are weightless so they shrink and are absorbed into tissue
You are probably sleep deprived since sleeping in space is weird-----
Radiation bombardment outside of Earth's atmosphere can increase your risks of cancer
Since gravity is not pushing you down your spine extends as much as 3 inches.
When trying to educate on these space physics data always go back before CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA and look for journals not directly tied to a global corporate Ivy League or Federal Space Agency because they are now led by global Wall Street appointments and the data WE THE PEOPLE see are juked to favor corporate profits. There is no public interest research being done in these global corporate universities.
As well, all data we have comes from astronauts inside space capsules that underwent decades of fine-tuning in human safety so data figures are not as bad as they will be in untested planetary conditions OR long-term exposures to colonization. The costs of transport will never be cheap enough for global Wall Street to want to rotate mining workers---they will leave folks there until they can no longer work.
LYING, CHEATING, STEALING, NO MORALS, NO ETHICS, NO US RULE OF LAW, NO GOD'S NATURAL LAW GLOBAL WALL STREET CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA NEO-LIBERALS COULD CARE LESS ABOUT HUMAN CONDITION---WE ARE HUMAN CAPITAL--PROPERTY TO USE AND DISCARD.
Here is a comment from a friend:
The problem with the idea of robots doing the mining is this------programming robots to do this first takes schematic data of humans actually doing this work----it takes development of robotics able to work with protective shields needed for even mechanical devices, and the radiation and energy forces in space are difficult to program around. Dementia in humans becomes short-circuiting in robotics.
'Humans don't belong in space any more than fish belong on Mount Everest. It's dangerous beyond any means we have of shielding the people and there are many risks we probably aren't even aware of. NASA and other space geeks talk about simplistic and mostly fictional possibilities. The bottom line is that humans evolved with the Earth and that's where they belong. Our explorations of deep space should done by machines we build for that purpose. Our machines are becoming intelligent and capable of making decisions, exploring the celestial bodies and reporting their findings. They can be designed for the conditions they may encounter. They can remain indefinitely and are far less expensive than providing life support for humans. They can even be built to walk and move like humans if that is needed. If humans want to study Mars soil and rocks, let the machines gather samples and return them to Earth. It is unethical to endanger human lives when machines can do the job'.
What Happens to the Human Body in Space?
Data from astronauts who spent 340 days in orbit will add to almost 55 years of research on how low gravity sends Earthlings for a loop
Scott Kelly works on the International Space Station during a nearly eight-hour spacewalk in November 2015. (NASA)
By Maya Wei-Haas
March 1, 2016
After spending 340 days in space, U.S. astronaut Scott Kelly and Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko are scheduled to touch down on our little blue marble around 11:30 p.m. ET today.
Though not the longest stint in space, it is the longest anyone has spent on board the International Space Station (ISS) and the best opportunity NASA has had to study what happens to the human body after prolonged exposure to weightlessness, cramped quarters and damaging radiation.
There’s no escaping the fact that Earthlings evolved to thrive with a certain amount of gravity. So since the early days of space travel, NASA has been trying to figure out what happens to a human body beyond our planet's pull.
“All those normal things that we take for granted, nobody was sure quite what would happen,” says Valerie Neal, curator and chair of space history at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. “Will they be able to swallow properly? Will they be able to see properly? Will they be able to urinate?”
The earliest experiments were done with animal subjects--dogs, monkeys and mice, to name a few. Then in 1962, astronaut John Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth, along with a tube of applesauce.
“They picked a nice soft, slippery food and put it in a toothpaste tube and had him take just little bits at a time to see if he could swallow and if the food would move down to his stomach,” says Neal. But the short duration of these flights limited what scientists could test—and tested the patience of the pioneering space travelers. “Astronauts were so busy doing what they needed to do, and they weren’t necessarily inclined to be treated as guinea pigs,” Neal adds.
As the length of flights increased, so did physiology testing. These days, ISS astronauts are exposed to a battery of tests before flight, regular health checks in-flight and a lengthy rehabilitation once their feet return to firm ground.
But with their sights on Mars, NASA still has much to learn about the effects of longer treks. For Kelly and Kornienko, their "Year in Space" mission is the first to focus solely on the physiology of being in space—a project made even more intriguing because Kelly has a twin brother on Earth. That means scientists will be able to look at both men and better identify any genetic changes caused by spaceflight.
Though we likely will learn much more from Kelly and Kornienko in the coming months, here are a few of the big effects NASA will be looking out for:
Your inner ear works roughly like an accelerometer in a smartphone—it tells your body when you are moving or stopped, and when you are standing on your head or lying on your side. But in space, that little mechanism goes awry, which often gives astronauts motion sickness for a day or so after entering microgravity. Many also experience a similar problem when re-entering our planet’s pull, says Neal.
“It’s like coming off a ship and not having your land legs under you,” she says. Astronauts often initially report a sense of floating that eventually dissipates as their bodies re-adjust to Earth.
Bones and Muscles
One of the first things that scientists discovered in our ventures into space is that the low-gravity lifestyle doesn’t lend itself to strong bones and muscles, including the heart. While Earth-bound, these body parts actually work a fair amount just to keep us standing still. Without the downward force of gravity, the body works considerably less, causing muscle deterioration and loss of bone density.
In a single month in space, astronauts can lose as much bone mass as a postmenopausal woman does in a year, according to NASA. This startling decrease causes higher calcium levels in the blood, which can lead to a greater incidence of renal stones. To counteract these problems, astronauts exercise vigorously using specially designed machines aboard the space station. Kelly has exercised roughly 700 hours throughout the course of his mission, according to NASA.
Most of these effects can be counteracted upon landing, but it does take some work. “Just holding my head up is a bizarre new experience," astronaut Chris Hadfield told CBC News after a stint on the ISS in 2013. “I haven’t had to hold my head on top of my neck for five months.”
Every second, fluids rush throughout our bodies, and for the Earth-bound, gravity helps move these fluids down into the legs. But take away gravity, and the fluids float up to the head. According to NASA, over the course of his year in space, the amount of fluid shifting into Scott Kelly’s head could fill a two-liter soda bottle.
Because of this, the astronauts “tend to look cheekier,” says Neal. This fluidic drift also causes more serious conditions, including pressure on the optic nerve, which can affect vision. Once back on Earth, the eye troubles usually subside, but this is one of the big issues NASA wants to understand for longer-duration flights.
Earth's magnetic field provides a form of natural shielding that protects life on the surface from a good amount of high-energy radiation, which could otherwise damage DNA. Outside this safe zone, artificial shielding on the ISS can partially protect astronauts from radiation exposure, but it isn’t effective for all radiation types, leaving astronauts more susceptible to cancer and other long-term health risks.
A trip to Mars will be even more brutal, because in addition to the exposure time in transit, the red planet has no natural magnetic shield. With the latest ISS mission, scientists are hoping to suss out exactly how space radiation might trigger changes in Kelly’s DNA, and what that might mean for future Mars-bound travelers.
Despite all these severe-sounding effects, most of the known damage can be reversed after an astronaut’s return to Earth. In a press conference from space last week, Kelly was in high spirits. Though he reports some minor effects to his eyes, he says overall that he feels well and is in good shape psychologically: “It’s not like I’m climbing the walls.”
“I’ve tried to do this with a very deliberate methodology and deliberate pace,” he says, adding that he has used each mission task as a milestone. “I think that’s important, having those kinds of milestones that break up a long-distance flight. The next milestone is coming home.”
As an aging human I already have problems with normal brain deterioration which we call forgetfulness and at its worse dementia. Neurological disorders are common enough here on Earth----all of the challenges of space travel and living on planets will expand those vectors. We are not just talking of an astronaut taking one trip to MARS and back---we are talking about human exposure over years on any of these planetary mining missions and colonization.
I asked a friend this: do you know our SUN is dying and radioactive bursts that come from this are getting worse and worse in the coming centuries-----making exposures harder to protect against whether human or robot.
"Performance decrements, memory deficits, and loss of awareness and focus during spaceflight may affect mission-critical activities, and exposure to these particles may have long-term adverse consequences to cognition throughout life."
MAKE NO MISTAKE----NO MATTER HOW MUCH NASA DEVELOPS THAT PERFECT SPACE ROBOT---MINING ROBOT----IT WILL NOT BE ABLE TO DO THE WORK -----HUMANS WILL BE LEADING THAT EFFORT WHETHER MINING ASTEROIDS OR PLANETS.
Mars astronauts could develop dementia on journey to Red Planet
Dangerous space radiation could mean astronauts develop dementia before ever setting foot on Mars
A lengthy Mars trip could spark dementia for astronauts Photo: GETTY
By Sarah Knapton, Science Editor
7:00PM BST 01 May 2015
The technological challenge of getting to Mars may seem like a huge hurdle but it may be biology that holds humanity back from venturing to the Red Planet.
Astronauts could develop irreversible dementia on their journey because their brains are being bombarded with destructive space radiation, scientists fear.
The University of California found that exposure to highly energetic charged particles - much like those found in the galactic cosmic rays – can cause significant damage to the central nervous system, resulting in brain impairments.
"This is not positive news for astronauts deployed on a two to three year round trip to Mars," said Charles Limoli, professor of radiation oncology in UCI's School of Medicine.
"Performance decrements, memory deficits, and loss of awareness and focus during spaceflight may affect mission-critical activities, and exposure to these particles may have long-term adverse consequences to cognition throughout life."
At its closest orbit Mars is around 34,000,000 miles from Earth and it takes between 150 and 300 days to reach the Red Planet depending on speed of launch. It means that simply travelling there and back could see astronauts being subjected to dangerous radiation levels for nearly two years.
Female astronauts are known to be more susceptible to space radiation and generally spend 30 per cent less time in space.
To test the impact, rats were exposed to fully ionized oxygen and titanium to simulate space radiation, at Nasa's Space Radiation Laboratory.
The researchers found that exposure to these particles resulted in brain inflammation, which disrupted the transmission of signals among neurons.
Imaging revealed that the brain's communication had been damaged by reductions in the structure of nerve cells called dendrites and spines and alterations to synapses, which allow neurons to communicate with each other.
The rats also performed less well in tasks designed to test learning and memory.
While cognitive deficits in astronauts would take months to manifest, Prof Limoli said, the time required for a mission to Mars is sufficient for such deficits to develop.
People working for extended periods on the International Space Station do not face the same level of bombardment with galactic cosmic rays, as they are still within the protective magnetosphere of the Earth, the Van Allen belt.
The irradiated particles that compose these galactic cosmic rays are mainly remnants of past supernova events.
Prof Limoli's work is part of NASA's Human Research Program which is looking at the impact of extended periods in space and how the problems could be mitigated.
He recommends building a spacecraft which would have increased shielding at areas where astronauts rest and sleep.
However, these highly energetic particles will traverse the ship nonetheless, he said, "and there is really no escaping them."
"We are working on pharmacologic strategies involving compounds that scavenge free radicals and protect neurotransmission.
"But these remain to be optimized and are under development."
Astronauts face a series of health problems related to spending long periods in space. Microgravity causes the heart to pumping as strongly causing muscle mass loss. Often astronauts pass out when they return to Earth.
Most struggle to sleep in space, only getting an average of six hours a night, which is bad for long term health.
Hearing and sight loss is also common. Of the 300 US astronauts examined since 1989, vision problems developed in 29 percent of those on two-week missions and a 60 per cent of those who spent several months on the International Space Station.
Astronauts are also at greater risk of kidney stones because of microgravity and the difficulty in staying dehydrated.
Space flight may also make astronauts infertile. Animal experiments have shown that both male and female reproductive organs are affected by microgravity.
Although most astronauts have already had their families by the time they go into space, Nasa is so concerned that it now offers egg and sperm freezing.
The Mars One mission is currently scheduled to land its first crew on the planet in 2025, but it has warned volunteers that conception may not be possible in reduced gravity and that a fetus born on Mars may not develop properly.
The first spacecraft ever to make the journey from Earth to Mars was NASA’s Mariner 4, which launched on November 28, 1964 and arrived at Mars July 14, 1965. It took just 21 photographs.
The research was published in the journal Science Advances.
I showed a video of Harvard's science research labs and their excitement over ROBOTIC BEES. At a time when MONSANTO ----the Green Revolution corporation is killing our domestic bee population the answer is---create another product. Here we see the same dedication to MOVING FORWARD no matter the human consequences whether on EARTH or MARS. Indeed, having a robot operate a space ship or shuttle is doable---yes, having robots before humans allows for data collection in future building projects but the actual work whether in mining and maintaining an ecodome will fall to humans for quite the time.
GET RID OF GLOBAL WALL STREET POLS AND PLAYERS---WE NEED TO TAKE BACK THE DIRECTION OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT TO BEING FOR WE THE PEOPLE! SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IS ALWAYS WELCOME----THIS IS NOT.
NASA gives MIT a humanoid robot to develop software for future space missions
Team led by Professor Russ Tedrake of CSAIL to develop algorithms for 6-foot-tall “Valkyrie” robot to travel to Mars and beyond. Watch Video
Adam Conner-Simons | CSAIL
November 17, 2015
NASA announced today that MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is one of two university research groups nationwide that will receive a 6-foot, 290-pound humanoid robot to test and develop for future space missions to Mars and beyond.
A group led by CSAIL principal investigator Russ Tedrake will develop algorithms for the robot, known as “Valkyrie” or “R5,” as part of NASA’s upcoming Space Robotics Challenge, which aims to create more dexterous autonomous robots that can help or even take the place of humans “extreme space” missions. (NASA’s challenge is divided into a virtual competition using robotic simulations, and a physical competition using the robot.)
Tedrake’s team, which was selected from groups that were entered in this year’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robotics Challenge, will receive as much as $250,000 a year for two years from NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directive.
Exploring deep space by bot
NASA says it is interested in humanoid robots because they can help or even replace astronauts working in extreme space environments. Robots like R5 could be used in future missions either as precursor robots performing mission tasks before humans arrive or as human-assistive robots collaborating with the human crew. While R5 was initially designed to complete disaster-relief maneuvers, its main goal is now to prove itself worthy of even trickier terrain: deep-space exploration.
“Advances in robotics, including human-robotic collaboration, are critical to developing the capabilities required for our journey to Mars,” said Steve Jurczyk, associate administrator for the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) at NASA Headquarters in Washington, in a NASA press release. “We are excited to engage these university research groups to help NASA with this next big step in robotics technology development.”
Autonomy for autos, robots and more
As head of CSAIL’s Robot Locomotion Group, Tedrake has extensive experience with autonomous robots. Over the past three years he led a team of more than 20 researchers to develop algorithms for a government competition to get another 6-foot-tall humanoid robot named Atlas to open doors, turn valves, drill holes, climb stairs, scramble over cinder blocks, and drive a car — all in the space of one hour.
Tedrake is also part of CSAIL’s new $25 million Toyota-funded research center for autonomous cars, specifically focused on advanced decision-making algorithms and systems that allow vehicles to perceive and navigate their surroundings safely, without human input. The larger collaboration will be coordinated by Gill Pratt PhD ’89, a former MIT professor who most recently served as program director at DARPA’s Defense Sciences Office.
In addition to Tedrake’s team at CSAIL, NASA also awarded a R5 robot to a team led by Taskin Padir at Northeastern University.
We will end this week's discussion on public policy tied to astrophysics with this reminder------our Earth's Sun is dying and with that comes a once dependable Sun operating the same each day it rises to one that will act increasingly like a car with a compromised electrical system. We have been researching the increased intensity of SOLAR RADIATION BLASTS from the SUN for decades and we know things will get worse over decades. This dying of the SUN will be over billions of years so nothing so drastic for worry. WE THE PEOPLE need our politicians focused on how to keep our EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT functioning for the global 99%-----and they are doing the opposite.
Solar flares are still blocked somewhat by our EARTH's atmosphere but in space that intensity is felt full force. A MARS, MOON, CERES has little if no atmosphere to protect. Do we hear any of these considerations in all the media coverage telling us everything is coming up roses and daffodils in MOVING FORWARD TO SPACE MINING?
Robotics respond as badly to these shifts in energy fields----constantly looking only to update a robot spending more and more and more money on just that AND NOT ON THE NEEDS OF HUMANITY-----WE THE PEOPLE -----is criminal and crimes against humanity.
'But with the sun’s constant stream of heat and energy comes an overwhelming phenomenon so powerful that it can totally wipe out all possibility of life on Earth as it did on Mars. And it would were it not for the earth’s magnetic field which shields the planet’s surface from these massive solar occurrences'.
What water we are hearing our global Wall Street scientists are now saying they are finding on all these planets to be mined will be affected by these solar flares.
Telecommunications as with all energy processes are compromised in these solar flares----what happens to those in space as these events increase in number and intensity?.................
'Sun begins new solar cycle, flinging radiation at the Earth
As a new solar cycle of activity begins this year, the Earth will once again be bombarded with increased radiation from the sun. This effect may damage satellites and interfere with GPS, television and communications'.
Earth’s Greatest Threat: The Sun and Its CMEs
By Eric McLamb, May 1, 2014
The Planet’s Source of Life Can Also Devastate Modern Society
The sun is a nuclear furnace 93 million miles from Earth and the planet’s primary source of life. It is also the most destructive force Earth faces. (Image: NASA-ecology.com)
The greatest threat to Earth sits right at the heart of our solar system. The warm, life-giving nuclear factory we call the sun is essential to all life as we know it, yet it is millions of times more violent and destructive than any other force our planet faces.
This is the same sun that eradicated the atmosphere on Mars some four billion years ago when that planet lost its magnetic field (remember this!). Earth sits much closer to the sun than Mars does and is thus more intensely subjected to the sun’s formidable power. Not only does the sun generate temperatures on its surface upwards of more than 10,000° F (5,538° C), but its core temperature is over 27 million degrees Fahrenheit (15 million degrees Celsius)!
It is at the center of the sun where its fuel, hydrogen, fuses to create helium in a nuclear fusion process (like the plutonium atomic bomb that was used at the end of World War II) and is the ultimate source of its fierce energy in the form of light, heat and other radiation. This process is why life thrives on our planet… but it is also why life is impossible on others and constantly poses dangers to Earth itself.
The “Goldilocks” Zone of Life
The key to life on Earth is that it is in the Goldilocks Zone as many scientists like to call it. It is not too close to the sun and it is not too far away… its average distance from the sun (just under 93 million miles/150 million kilometers) is just right for Earth to create optimum conditions for life.
At 93 million miles from the sun, Earth lies at the perfect distance for life as we know it. Of the 1,783 planets found outside the solar system so far, less than two dozen could harbor life, but only Earth is known to so far. (Image: NASA)
While the sun constantly blankets Earth with its warmth and energy, it also emits harmful radiation. Most of the harmful rays are in the form of ultraviolet radiation (this is what causes sunburns), but they also include x-rays and extremely dangerous gamma radiation. While some of these rays actually make it to Earth’s surface, Earth’s atmosphere – including its magnetosphere — serves to absorb and shield most of these harmful rays from life on and above the surface while also retaining life-sustaining levels of warmth and energy. These normal processes and relationships have evolved and existed since Earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago.
But with the sun’s constant stream of heat and energy comes an overwhelming phenomenon so powerful that it can totally wipe out all possibility of life on Earth as it did on Mars. And it would were it not for the earth’s magnetic field which shields the planet’s surface from these massive solar occurrences.
The Power of A Billion Hydrogen Bombs
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are violent ejections of solar gas, plasma and electromagnetic radiation that can propel more than ten billion tons of solar matter outward from the sun’s atmosphere with the power of over a billion hydrogen bombs. (Source: China’s State Key Laboratory of Space Weather and University of California, Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory) They can extend billions of miles into space. Once jettisoned from the sun’s hold, they can accelerate to several million miles per hour and can reach Earth within one to three days.
This CME erupted out into space on August 31, 2012, at 900 miles per second and glancing off Earth’s magnetic field three days later on September 3. CMEs can be several thousand times larger than Earth similar to the above photo comparison. (Image: NASA)
The more powerful CMEs travel much faster and are the most destructive. They can also be millions of times larger than the earth itself. When a massive CME reaches the distance of Earth’s orbit around the sun they can be well over 45 million miles in diameter, about half of the distance between the earth and the sun and nearly 6,000 times larger than Earth’s diameter!
“CMEs are huge events,” says Dr. Jeffrey Newmark, Solar Physics Scientist in NASA’s Heliophysics Division. “They have been hitting Earth since it formed and will continue to hit our planet. Every few weeks a CME hits our planet but they have been small and have relatively little impact.”
However, most CMEs that hit Earth do not make direct impact.
It is the immense coronal mass ejection that hits Earth head-on that would spell major trouble for modern society’s way of life. Even today, the smaller CME events shut down satellites and global communications systems, as well as interrupt airline control and electric power grids. A massive CME that hits Earth directly would be exponentially more dangerous.
Most CMEs rocket harmlessly through space; however, about 30 of them hit Earth every year with most of them skimming off the planet’s atmosphere. A direct hit from a very large CME is a one-in-100-year event according to solar research at NASA and the European Space Agency.
Low Probability, but Possible at Anytime“The probability of a massive CME directly hitting Earth is pretty low, but still it could happen at any time,” says Dr. Newmark. But if and when a CME hits Earth head on, he says, the results could be catastrophic to modern human society.
Video of the massive CME of August 31, 2012, was captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) from Noon to 1:45 AM – EDT the next morning. The sun generates between 3-5 CMEs per day during the height of the solar cycle. (Video Courtesy: NASA)
The frequency of CMEs varies according to the solar activity cycles which have an average duration of about 11 years. At the height of each cycle, two to three CMEs are generated per day whereas at the low end of the cycle there is an occurrence of about one per week. “Right now we are at about the peak of the solar cycle,” said Dr. Newmark. “But the frequency of CMEs does not mean one cannot hit Earth directly at any time.”
Not only could the costs of such a direct hit by a massive CME range into the trillions of dollars, but it would set back the progress of society many years. The entire technology infrastructure on which human life has become totally dependent – from electricity and power generation to communications, business transactions, healthcare, commerce, agriculture and other critical infrastructures of modern society – would be decimated and take many years to recover. General electricity throughout the world would all of sudden be widely wiped out and it would take years to restore.
A Solar Revolution?
“It could essentially shut down the Industrial Revolution,” says ecology.com’s Weather Ecology Specialist, Frank Billingsley, who is also the Chief Meteorologist for KPRC-TV2 in Houston, Texas. “If so much of our technology and electrical systems along with the plants that supply them are shut down, then we are going to go back to the time of the Industrial Revolution.”
A CME setback in today’s technological society to the scale of the early years of the Industrial Revolution “might put us toward a solar revolution,” Billingsley added. ”We may have to depend much more heavily on solar and wind energy as an extreme coronal mass ejection could knock out our immediate dependence on fossil fuels, our primary source for power and electricity. Whereas, If we depended on the sun primarily, and a CME hits, the relevant technology could likely just let us go back to using solar energy the next day.”
Just knowing that such an occurrence is possible — and certainly probable at some point in the future — should make society rethink how to best prepare for the advent of a massive CME by looking even more seriously at the use of solar and other renewable energy at the personal and industrial levels, according to Billingsley. “It’s easier said than done, but also quite possible and a certain path to the future.”
Though the probability may be low that a massive, human life-altering CME will hit Earth directly, it has happened in the past as well as there have been numerous near misses. While the sun constantly radiates its electrically charged solar wind in all directions, CMEs are single creations of solar activity that are jettisoned out in one direction.
From that perspective, Earth is but a small dot in a massive universe millions of miles away. So the chance that a CME would head precisely in Earth’s direction is mathematically low. The downside to that is the sun generates a lot of them and sometimes they are massive and they connect.
Solar Super Storm of 1859The CME of August 31, 2012 produced this huge, brilliant aurora over Whitehorse, Yukon in Canada. It did not hit Earth directly but contacted it’s magnetic field. (Photo: NASA, courtesy Joseph Bradley)
On September 2, 1859, the largest solar storm ever recorded propelled an intensely powerful CME directly at Earth. The CME from the Solar Storm of 1859 (also referred to as the Solar Super Storm of 1859) created perhaps the most prolific auroras (natural atmospheric lights generated by the interaction between Earth’s magnetic field and the electromagnetically charged radiation from the sun) seen on the planet extending from both the north magnetic pole as far south as Cuba and the south magnetic pole as far north as Queensland, Australia.
But it also knocked out the leading technology of the day throughout all North America and Europe: the global telegraph system. The CME was so strong it literally gave telegraph operators electric shocks and created auroras more brilliant than the moon.
Fortunately, technology was not nearly as advanced and essential to human life then as it has become today. The Industrial Revolution had only begun to take root in human society that would eventually pave the way for today’s highly developed technologically dependent society. In fact, the first electricity producing utility companies would not be established until nearly two decades later.
Recent Near Miss
In more recent history, on July 23, 2012, the sun hurled a rapid succession of coronal mass ejections directly through Earth’s orbit. According to scientists Dr. Ying D. Liu of China’s State Key Laboratory of Space Weather and research physicist Janet G. Luhmann at the University of California at Berkeley, this CME would have made a direct impact on Earth had the CME arrived nine days earlier. This CME was so powerful that it reached Earth’s orbit in 19 hours.
Should a CME of the magnitude of the one that erupted from the Solar Storm of 1859 or the near-miss CME on July 23, 2012, hit Earth head on today, modern civilization would be severely disrupted. The technologies that essentially support and enable human life today would be fried by the immense solar force, overwhelming the earth’s protective magnetic field.
Earth’s ‘Shield’ Against CMEs
It is Earth’s magnetic field that forms a “protective cocoon” called the magnetosphere that shields the planet from these high energy particles. “CMEs do not pose any direct threats to humans or our ecology, rather their impacts can be felt in our high technology,” says Dr. Newmark.
Although the planet’s magnetic field protects Earth from harmful radiation, it is not strong enough to ward off the full intense electromagnetic impact of a massive CME. The magnetic field would continue to work which is why you would see the brilliant Northern and Southern Auroras like those that appeared during the 1859 solar storm. About the same amount of solar energy would hit the planet as it did then. The difference is that today there is an extraordinarily advanced level of human technology and innovation that would be exposed and highly vulnerable to the power of a massive CME.
“Earth generates its own shield with its magnetic field,” says Dr. Weijia Kuang, Geophysicist and Applied Mathematician for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. “When solar winds come to Earth, they will be deflected because of the magnetic field, causing the charged particles to move away from the earth. The magnetic field is the planet’s primary shielding not only from solar wind and CME activity but harmful cosmic rays and similar activity from interstellar sources as well.”
Earth’s magnetosphere is shaped by the magnetic field and deflects most harmful radiation away from and around the planet as seen here. Without it, Earth would be toast! Read more about Earth’s Shield of Life… (Image: European Space Agency).
But the strength of the Earth’s magnetic field is relatively weak in general. Compared to a strong, common refrigerator magnet, the earth’s magnetic field would range from about 25 – 65 percent of the strength of the magnet — stronger at the poles and weaker in-between the poles. Still, the magnetic field is currently strong enough to shield Earth from the regular occurrences of solar and related interstellar electromagnetic radiation.
But Earth’s magnetic field is currently weakening according to Dr. Kuang.
“The magnetic field can only protect the earth but so much,” he said. But he explains that the magnetic field has been weakening for about the last hundred years or so indicating that a reversal of the magnetic poles may currently be in the making. It is during this time that the field is at its weakest point. When the last complete reversal took place before the development of human society, scientists have determined Earth’s magnetic field dropped to five percent of its current strength.
“The weakening of the field is a natural process,” according to Dr. Kuang, stating that Earth’s magnetic poles typically take about 200,000 – 300,000 years to reverse or flip with each other, although it has been twice that long since the last reversal. “If the field continues to weaken, in time we will see more and more disturbances or events that could be harmful to human activity… somewhere between disaster and disturbances. The weaker the field, the closer the shield gets to us, and thus the more that electrical particles can get to us.”
“We Can Get Prepared” – The Earth Will Be Fine
The bottom line is this: Earth’s surface and life will generally not be directly affected by a massive CME, but the technology on which today’s modern civilization is absolutely dependent could be devastated if one were to hit Earth head on especially if the magnetic field is in a weak state.
“But we can get prepared for what happens,” Dr. Kuang concludes. “Just like an earthquake, we cannot create them, but if we know when and where they will occur we can take preventive action to reduce or eliminate damages and loss.”
Earth view at night from the international Space Station. It is human technology that can be shut down by a massive CME strike, yet that same technology can be applied to protect it. (Photo: NASA-Johnson Space Center)
NASA’s Dr. Newmark sums it up in very plain terms. “Earth has been around for 4.5 billion years… CMEs have been hitting Earth for 4.5 billion years. It’s pretty safe to say the earth itself will not care much.”
But humankind will care. The difference is in the technological infrastructure that dominates and sustains human life today. That same innovation can and should be used to protect mankind’s technological society with the understanding of our exposure to the sun’s most powerful threatening hold over our planet… maybe long odds and maybe not, but very real.
This concept of being able to transform these rocky, dead planets into lush green oceanic hospitable environments is one great big figment of imagination. THE LAND OF OZ HAD A MAN BEHIND THE CURTAIN----full of tricks of imagery as does A CAMERON AND PANDORA/AVATAR
The Interstellar Venture Star arrives at Pandora
The ISV Venture Star, and the other ships of its class, represent the highest technological achievement in human history. As with the other ships of the “Cap...
It is no accident that CAMERON named his planetary mining 3D movie PANDORA-----indeed it represents what will be a STUPID MISTAKE all in the quest of a global 1% extreme wealth quest. Unleashing societal ills globally and killing our American civilization MOVING FORWARD back to the DARK AGES.
The Meaning of Pandora's Box - A Curse from Zeus on Mankind
The Ancient Greeks Blame Women (and Zeus) for the World's Suffering
by N.S. Gill
Updated April 04, 2017A "Pandora's box" is a metaphor in our modern languages, and the proverbial phrase refers to a source of endless complications or trouble arising from a single, simple miscalculation. Pandora's story comes to us from ancient Greek mythology, specifically a set of epic poems by Hesiod, called the Theogony and Works and Days. Written during the 7th century BC, these poems relate how the gods came to create Pandora and how the gift Zeus gave her ultimately ends the Golden Age of humankind.
The Story of Pandora's BoxAccording to Hesiod, Pandora was a curse on mankind as retribution after the Titan Prometheus stole fire and gave it to humans. Zeus had Hermes hammer the first human woman--Pandora--out of the earth. Hermes made her lovely as a goddess, with the gift of speech to tell lies, and the mind and nature of a treacherous dog. Athena dressed her in silvery clothing and taught her weaving; Hephaestus crowned her with a marvelous golden diadem of animals and sea creatures; Aphrodite poured grace on her head and desire and cares to weaken her limbs.
Pandora was to be the first of a race of women, the first bride and a great misery who would live with mortal men as companions only in times of plenty, and desert them when times became difficult. Her name means both "she who gives all gifts" and "she who was given all gifts". Never let it be said that Greeks had any use for women in general.
All the Ills of the WorldThen Zeus sent this beautiful treachery as a gift to Prometheus' brother Epimetheus, who ignored Prometheus's advice to never accept gifts from Zeus. In the house of Epimetheus, there was a jar--in some versions, it too was a gift from Zeus--and because of her insatiable greedy woman's curiosity, Pandora lifted the lid on it.
Out from the jar flew every trouble known to humanity. Strife, sickness, toil and myriad other ills escaped from the jar to afflict men and women forever more. Pandora managed to keep one spirit in the jar as she shut the lid, a timid sprite named Elpis, usually translated as "hope."
Box, Casket or Jar?But our modern phrase says "Pandora's box": how did that happen? Hesiod said the evils of the world were kept in a "pithos", and that was uniformly employed by all Greek writers in telling the myth until the 16th century AD. Pithoi are huge storage jars that are typically partly buried in the ground. The first reference to something other than a pithos comes from the 16th-century writer Lilius Giraldus of Ferrara, who in 1580 used the word pyxis (or casket) to refer to the holder of evils opened by Pandora. Although the translation was not exact, it is a meaningful error, because a pyxis is a 'whited sepulcher', a beautiful fraud. Eventually, the casket became simplified as "box".
Harrison (1900) argued that this mistranslation explicitly removed the Pandora myth from its association with All Souls Day, or rather the Athenian version, the festival of Anthesteria. The two-day drinking festival involves opening wine casks on the first day (the Pithoigia), releasing the souls of the dead; on the second day, men anointed their doors with pitch and chewed blackthorn to keep the newly released souls of the departed away.
Then the casks were sealed again.
Harrison's argument is bolstered by the fact that Pandora is a cult name of the great goddess Gaia. Pandora is not just any willful creature, she is the personification of Earth itself; both Kore and Persephone, made from the earth and rising from the underworld. The pithos connects her to the earth, the box or casket minimizes her importance.
The Meaning of the MythHurwit (1995) says that the myth explains why humans must work to survive, that Pandora represents the beautiful figure of dread, something for which men can find no device or remedy. The quintessential woman was created to beguile men with her beauty and uncontrollable sexuality, to introduce falsehood and treachery and disobedience into their lives. Her task was to let loose all the evils upon the world while trapping hope, unavailable to mortal men.
Pandora is a trick gift, a punishment for the good of Promethean fire, she is, in fact, Zeus's price of fire.
Brown points out that Hesiod's story of Pandora is the icon of archaic Greek ideas of sexuality and economics. Hesiod didn't invent Pandora, but he did adapt the story to show that Zeus was the supreme being who shaped the world and caused the misery of the human lot, and how that caused human descent from the original bliss of a carefree existence.
Pandora and EveAt this point, you may recognize in Pandora the story of the Biblical Eve. She too was the first woman, and she too was responsible for destroying an innocent, all-male Paradise and unleashing suffering ever after. Are the two related?
Several scholars including Brown and Kirk argue that the Theogony was based on Mesopotamian tales, although blaming a woman for all the evils of the world is definitely more Greek than Mesopotamian. Both Pandora and Eve may well share a similar source.