The 1960s-70s brought widespread use of drugs and alcohol with our young adults BLOWING THEIR MINDS. One particular counter-culture was LSD BEATNIKS led by LEARY AND GINSBERG. These decades had WE THE PEOPLE as citizens able to vote and get rid of pols and control public policy to a far greater extent then now. The societal stance on drugs was -----we have too much drug use start the drug prevention public health policies. We showed yesterday where the CIA and military had since early 1900s been using hallucinatory drugs as part of mind-control experiments of THE BRAIN. It was this knowledge that forced our pols to pass laws forbidding the use of hallucinogens in research----
THEY WERE KNOWN TO DO HARM TO HUMANS.
Those behind mind-control BRAIN research need to create altered states of mind---from dreaming to hallucination -----to create a baseline for brain activity and to understand how far the mind can be taken. Now, will we get therapeutic outcomes from hallucinogens? We see marijuana proponents saying so------but marijuana is not normally hallucinating.
So, since the 1960s it has been illegal for scientific research to subject humans to these kinds of drugs. DECADE OF THE BRAIN moving towards mind-control now has no pols in office wanting to protect public interest----they are that 5% to the 1% global Wall Street and they do anything that 1% says including subjecting humans to hallucinogenic experiments.
Why Doctors Can't Give You LSD (But Maybe They Should)
For the first time since the 1970s, researchers are being allowed to study the potential medical properties of the most tightly controlled substances around. But it's not easy.
By Shaunacy Ferro April 16, 2013
Tripping On Science
When David Nichols earned a Ph.D in medicinal chemistry from the University of Iowa in 1973 by studying psychedelics, he thought he would continue studying hallucinogens indefinitely. "I thought I would work on it for the rest of my life," he says.
His timing was less than fortuitous. In 1970, the year after Nichols started grad school, Richard Nixon signed into law the Controlled Substances Act, designed to clamp down on the manufacture and distribution of drugs in the U.S. The act classified hallucinogenic substances like LSD, DMT, psilocybin (the psychedelic alkaloid in mushrooms) and mescaline as Schedule I substances--the most restrictive use category, reserved for drugs with high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use. Marijuana was also placed in this category, and 15 years later when ecstasy came onto the scene, MDMA was emergency-classified as a Schedule I substance as well. By contrast, cocaine, opium and morphine are Schedule II substances, meaning they can be prescribed by a doctor.
Despite some promising results from trials of psychedelics in treating alcoholism, psychiatric conditions and modeling mental illness, by the early '70s, the government had tightened control of Schedule I substances, even for research. It's only now that we're starting to return to the notion that these drugs could be medicine.
If you wanted to kill your career, you did research on psychedelics.
Starting in the early '90s, and as more scientists prove it's feasible, increasingly in the last decade, researchers have been approved to conduct clinical trials with human subjects, and there are promising results showing that substances like MDMA could be useful in treating depression and curing PTSD, and that classical psychedelics like psilocybin and LSD could be a way to soothe anxiety in the terminally ill, treat alcoholism and more. But it's still far from an easy field to break into.
In 1938, a Swiss chemist named Albert Hofmann synthesized LSD for the first time while studying ergots, a type of fungus. Though the pharmaceutical company that he worked for, Sandoz, didn't have any interest in the compound, Hofmann found himself inexplicably drawn to it. Five years later, in the spring of 1943, he synthesized it again, noticing that it seemed to have unusual properties: After accidentally absorbing small amounts through his fingertips one day in the lab, Hofmann had to leave work early, under the effects of what he called "a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition." A few days later, he experimented with taking what he thought was a small dose of LSD, about 250 micrograms (a common dose now is more on the order of 100 micrograms), and proceeded to trip out of his mind, an experience he describes in his book LSD: My Problem Child.
Thinking that it could have medical uses, Hofmann and fellow researchers at Sandoz research laboratories began testing LSD in animals, and in 1947, the first paper looking at psychiatric LSD use in was published. Researchers saw in acid the potential to model psychotic disorders in healthy brains--a way for psychiatrists to induce in themselves the kinds of sensations their patients experienced as a result of mental illness. It could also be a way to break down boundaries, freeing the mind so patients could open up in psychotherapy.
Despite its current reputation, LSD wasn't just for the Beatles and California hippies, it was seen as "an invaluable weapon to psychiatrists," as Time magazine called it in 1955. Research varied widely in legitimacy, but LSD was tested on an estimated 40,000 people around the world between 1950 and 1963.
The CIA saw insidious potential in LSD: They thought it could be a route to mind control.
In 1953, a pair of Canadian researchers tried to use high doses of LSD to scare alcoholics into sobriety, but discovered it instead produced a kind of mystical, near-religious experience for them that convinced them to stop drinking. They were onto something: A 2012 meta-analysis of LSD-alcoholism trials found though many of the trials from the late 1960s were too small to produce statistically-viable results on their own, in conjunction, they showed consistent, positive results.
At the same time, the government was also dipping its toes in an acid-filled pool. The CIA saw a more insidious potential in LSD: They thought it could be a truth serum or a route to mind control. Josef Mengele and other Nazi doctors had experimented on concentration camp prisoners with mescaline and other psychotropic drugs.In the midst of Cold War paranoia, the U.S. Navy thought mescaline could be used to get people to reveal information against their will. When the experiments ultimately proved unsuccessful, the government turned to Albert Hofmann's new wonder drug, already beginning to emerge as a psychiatric juggernaut.
Between 1953 and 1964, in a project called MKULTRA, the CIA experimented with LSD on unwitting civilians, prisoners, government employees and even its own agents, in a manner that Senator Edward Kennedy later described to Congress as making "little scientific sense." It came to the point where "surprise acid trips became something of an occupational hazard among CIA operatives," as Martin Lee and Bruce Shlain describe in Acid Dreams.
The agents monitoring the experiments weren't scientists, and at least one person died after jumping out of a window under the influence of LSD. By the time the Senate held hearings on MKULTRA in 1977, many documents related to the operation had been destroyed on the orders of then-CIA Director Richard Helms in 1973.
Disturbed by the CIA's abuses, Congress restricted the use of hallucinogens like LSD to scientific research in 1965. By that point, the tide was already turning against psychedelics, in part due to unethical behavior (referred to by one contemporary researcher as "excessive enthusiasm") by some of the scientists studying them. Timothy Leary, a psychologist and the psychedelic advocate of "Turn on, tune in, drop out" fame," lost his appointment at Harvard University in 1963 due to the administration's concerns that he and other Harvard Psilocybin Project researchers were sloppy in their scientific approach, even conducting investigations under the influence of psilocybin themselves, and after giving an undergraduate student psilocybin off-campus.
Political motives, too, added to the pressure to halt hallucinogenic research like Leary's, even though it had been surprisingly successful in some aspects, like in reducing prisoner recidivism with psilocybin. LSD, psilocybin and other psychedelics were playing a vital role in a rising countercultural movement, as the forthcoming Albert Hofmann biography Mystic Chemist points out. They were agents of peace and love in a time when the government desperately needed soldiers for the Vietnam War, a war young people were increasingly refusing to serve in. In 1966 the U.S., soon followed by the rest of the world, made LSD illegal. Even the most promising psychedelic research slowed, and by the mid-70s, stopped.
This was the world David Nichols faced when he emerged from his Ph.D. program brandishing a dissertation on psychedelic drugs. "If you wanted to kill your research career in academics, you did research on psychedelics," Nichols remembers. To some extent, that's still true, because psychedelic research remains difficult to fund. As a distinguished professor at Purdue University, Nichols received funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) for 30 years to look into how exactly how these drugs work in the body. But since the organization concentrates specifically on stopping drug use, he couldn't study their potential medical properties.
As psychiatrist Charles Grob wrote in a 1994 article in the Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness:
Together with revelations of unethical activities of psychiatric researchers under contract to military intelligence and the CIA, the highly publicized and controversial behaviors of hallucinogen enthusiasts led to the repression of efforts to formally investigate these substances. For the next twenty-five years research with hallucinogens assumed pariah status within academic psychiatry, virtually putting an end to formal dialogue and debate.
In the early '90s, Nichols was at a scientific meeting telling a story he had told a million times: It's too bad there's not any clinical research, research with human subjects, with psychedelics. "You could do it, but you need private money." He decided he could find that private money, even though he didn't have the medical degree necessary to do clinical research himself. Along with Grob and others, he founded the Heffter Research Institute in 1993 to do legitimate, rigorous scientific research on psychedelics.
For many years when the FDA got a protocol to study psychedelics in humans, they just put it on a shelf somewhere.
Grob, a professor at the UCLA Medical School, was one of the first researchers to get FDA approval to conduct a research study on the therapeutic effects of psychedelics since research had slowed to a halt 35 years earlier. He was interested in using psilocybin (a drug with less political baggage than LSD or even MDMA) to ease the anxieties and depression in cancer patients with limited life expectancy.
So what changed? According to Nichols, now an adjunct professor at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, there wasn't an abrupt change in regulations, but just a slow shift in attitudes. "For many years when [the FDA] got a protocol to study psychedelics in humans, they just put it on a shelf somewhere."
Animal-based research went on, because the government was still interested in figuring out how these chemicals functioned, but "the presumption was that was impossible to do with humans," according to Mark Geyer, another Heffter Research Institute founder who has been studying the basic neuroscience of psychedelics on animals for almost 30 years with funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Even if the FDA had been willing to approve psychedelic trials with humans, there probably weren't many applications being submitted, because researchers assumed it couldn't be done.
"The goal wasn't to stop scientists, the goal was to stop street use… but the side effect of that was that even legitimate research was curtailed," Geyer explains. "It turns out, as I understand… there was no law on the books that forbade such research."
According to Nichols, sometime in the early '90s, a turnover in leadership loosened the agency's attitude toward human-based trials with psychedelics. After years of lobbying the federal government for permission, psychiatrist Rick Strassman was able to do a study with human subjects of the psychedelic compound DMT.
"Legitimate human research with hallucinogenic drugs, although of great theoretical and practical interest, involves daunting regulatory hurdles that have discouraged investigators from attempting such work," Strassman complained in a 1991 article for the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. Nevertheless, his study, involving 60 volunteers and hundreds of doses of DMT, didn't bring the world crashing around the FDA's ears, opening up the possibility that the agency might approve more clinical trials with psychedelics.
With the Heffter Research Institute, Grob designed and received FDA approval for a small trial to administer psilocybin to 12 terminal cancer patients between 30 and 60 years old. The patients came in for two sessions a month apart -- but everyone received a dose of psilocybin at one of the two sessions. "We didn't feel it was ethical to deny anyone the active treatment because they had limited life expectancy," Grob explains.
Because it was the first study to use psilocybin in decades, the FDA approved a very low dosage for the study. "People were not floridly hallucinating," according to Grob, but the effect was instead more like a waking dream. After a six-month follow-up, the subjects showed a significant, lasting reduction in anxiety. The study paved the way for other research into using psilocybin to ease end-of-life anxieties at Johns Hopkins University and NYU.
Though Strassman proved clinical research to be both legal and possible, it's still not an easy process for scientists. That's part of the reason groups like the Heffter Research Institute and the Santa Cruz, Calif.-based Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) exist: They have the resources and the motivation to wade through seemingly endless bureaucratic hurdles to move studies forward. The Heffter Research Institute can advise a researcher on what has worked in previous trials, and they provide a peer-review process for proposals. If their protocol is approved, the organization seeks private funding for it.
"It takes years to get all the approvals," as Grob says. His first study took a particularly long time to receive approval, though now that multiple studies have established safety parameters and feasibility for these types of trials, the process is somewhat smoother.
You have to really want to work with hallucinogens.
For studies involving people, not only does the research have to be approved by the university's institutional review board, as do most clinical trials, but it also has to be approved by the FDA and the researcher must be licensed to store and work with the drug by the DEA. The DEA requires intense security when it comes to storing the drugs, lest any resourceful college student try to relieve your lab of its drugs, and the licenses are specifically issued to one researcher in one lab--if you move rooms, you'll have to get the DEA's approval.
In clinical work, the drugs have to be manufactured in a specific pharmaceutical-grade manner to ensure quality. Though there aren't the same manufacturing standards, you also need the same Schedule I license to work with animals as you do with humans, even though less than one human dose of MDMA, for example, could supply a study with hundreds of mice.
"You have to really want to work with these," says Nichols, whose lab at Purdue made much of the clinical-grade hallucinogens for other researchers' trials. "Anybody who's a good chemist could probably do it, but there's no money in it."
Currently, according to the DEA, it takes about 9 months to get FDA and DEA approval for a license to research Schedule I substances, though researchers are a little more skeptical. "The DEA's not in a hurry to grant these licenses," according to Nichols.
Only 349 scientists have them, and that number is on the downswing: Three years ago, there were 550 licenses in the U.S. Nichols suggests that this could be a result of the DEA cracking down on researchers with extraneous licenses. In the past, Schedule I licenses had been renewed on a yearly basis without much fuss, but in recent years the agency has required Nichols to submit his current protocol and justify why he still needs the license.
Part of the problem with studying psychedelics--and other illicit drugs, such as marijuana--for medical use, is simply that they're not high-tech, and no pharmaceutical company needs or wants to get involved. There's no money in it for them. Though drugs like LSD and psilocybin are relatively easy to make in the lab, as MAPS founder Rick Doblin pointed out in a 2012 interview, "psychedelics are off-patent, can't be monopolized, and compete with other psychiatric medications that people take daily."
"My colleagues say to me, in these days of nanotechology and targeted therapy, what are you doing?" says Donald Abrams, a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco who has done research on medical marijuana. "We live in the 21st century. Studying plants as medicine is not where most investigators are putting their money."
And without the outside funding to continue researching, a scientist's career goes nowhere, so even fewer scientists want to get involved.
Organizations like the Heffter Research Institute and MAPS are funded by private donors and don't have the money to do the expensive, large-scale human trials that could show sound results one way or the other. Nichols hopes that federal funding will be available to do larger studies with psychedelics sometime in the next decade, if the ongoing smaller trials can show efficacy. "There's movement toward accepting the possibility that these [psychedelic substances] are useful and not all that dangerous," he says.
The stigma persists, though. "It's still harder for somebody to get involved in psychedelic research, in terms of professionally and funding," says MAPS communications director Brad Burge.
And although psychedelic research has made some headway in England and Switzerland, roadblocks against psychedelic research exist abroad, too. The first clinical trial using psilocybin to treat depression stalled in early April because U.K. regulations require drugs used in clinical trials to be made under strict Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards, and the researchers, from Imperial College London, have been unable to find a company to manufacture psilocybin at that standard.
"The law for the control of drugs like psilocybin as a Schedule 1 Class A drug makes it almost impossible to use them for research," Nutt said in a press statement. "The reason we haven't started the study is because finding companies who could manufacture the drug and who are prepared to go through the regulatory hoops to get the license, which can take up to a year and triple the price, is proving very difficult. The whole situation is bedeviled by this primitive, old-fashioned attitude that Schedule 1 drugs could never have therapeutic potential, and so they have to be made impossible to access."
There's a growing generation of students and researchers who aren't scared of studying the drugs.Yet despite the hurdles, for some researchers, the potential to cure some of our most troubling woes--like alcoholism, depression and PTSD--make the headaches of doing legitimate psychedelic science worthwhile. Later this week, around 1600 scientists from around the world devoted to this research will descend upon Oakland, Calif. to attend Psychedelic Science 2013, a three-day conference put on in part by MAPS and the Heffter Research Institute.
As Burge notes, the stigma that has haunted psychedelic science could be changing as a new generation of scientists arrive on the scene. "There's a generation of researchers and therapists that worked in the 1960s and '70s," he says, "but also there's this huge and growing generation of students and researchers who aren't scared of studying the drugs...looking for treatments to our most debilitating epidemics."
Having been a college student in these heady 1960-70s days I can attest I am no prude on recreational drug use ---and was open to try much of what was circulating. Moderation of any addictive substance is key----those drugs creating a addictive attachment on initial use are the ones most dangerous. As the saying goes----if the trip is better than life's current reality it becomes addictive. The concerns for many citizens and many scientists is this------bringing people to a childlike state as this article suggests creates that mind-control state if not in direct application----indirectly through making humans incapable of acting independently.
“However, under LSD the separateness of these networks breaks down and instead you see a more integrated or unified brain.
Remember, we have ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE ONE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION taking over our US public health and they are that global 1% Wall Street and yes, they are the foundations funding these research.
We hope citizens will move away from the idea that legalizing drugs is cool and think to where MOVING FORWARD is going ----WE THE PEOPLE need to be clear of mind and body!
The Beckley Foundation is a UK-based think-tank and UN-accredited NGO, dedicated to activating global drug policy reform and initiating scientific research into psychoactive substances.
This is the goal-----
LSD makes the brain more ‘complete’, scientists say as they claim to have unlocked secrets of hallucinogenic drugs
By breaking down parts of the brain that are usually separate, drugs like LSD return us to a childlike state — and that effect on well-being could last long after the drugs’ effects have worn off
LSD tabs with a design on - each are roughly the size of a postage stamp RexLSD makes the brain more “complete”, scientists have claimed in a pioneering and controversial new study.
The drug breaks down the parts of the brain that usually separate different functions, like vision and movement, creating a more “integrated or unified brain”, the researchers claim. They also found that people who are having drug-induced hallucinations “see” with various other parts of their brain, not just the visual cortex that is active in normal vision.
Those effects might account for the religious feelings that people often report after having taken the drug, the researchers say — a claim that if true could answer some of the deepest questions of drug culture. And those same effects on a person’s well-being might carry on long after the effects of the drug has worn off.
"Normally our brain consists of independent networks that perform separate specialised functions, such as vision, movement and hearing - as well as more complex things like attention,” said Robin Carhart-Harris, who led the research and is the first scientist in 40 years to test LSD on humans, in a statement. “However, under LSD the separateness of these networks breaks down and instead you see a more integrated or unified brain.
"Our results suggest that this effect underlies the profound altered state of consciousness that people often describe during an LSD experience. It is also related to what people sometimes call 'ego-dissolution', which means the normal sense of self is broken down and replaced by a sense of reconnection with themselves, others and the natural world.
“This experience is sometimes framed in a religious or spiritual way - and seems to be associated with improvements in well-being after the drug's effects have subsided."
A trip through time: The history of LSD
By breaking down the constraints that usually keep parts of the brain separate, psychedelic drugs return their users back to a state that is more like childhood, the researchers said in work published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
"Our brains become more constrained and compartmentalised as we develop from infancy into adulthood, and we may become more focused and rigid in our thinking as we mature,” said Dr Carhart-Harris. “In many ways, the brain in the LSD state resembles the state our brains were in when we were infants: free and unconstrained.
“This also makes sense when we consider the hyper-emotional and imaginative nature of an infant's mind."
"We are finally unveiling the brain mechanisms underlying the potential of LSD, not only to heal, but also to deepen our understanding of consciousness itself."
Amanda Feilding, director of the Beckley Foundation
And those effects could be even further encouraged with the use of music, according to results from the same study, which was published in the journal European Neuropsychopharmacology. Listening to music while under the influence of the drug led the visual cortex to receive information from the part of the brain that usually deals with mental images and memory — and the more it did so, the more people reported seeing complex visions including those from earlier in their lives.
Those discoveries help answer questions that have been asked for decades about how exactly LSD works, and what it does to the brain, the researchers said.
Former Government drugs adviser Professor David Nutt, director of neuropsychopharmacology at Imperial College, one of the project's senior researchers, said: "Scientists have waited 50 years for this moment - the revealing of how LSD alters our brain biology.
"For the first time we can really see what's happening in the brain during the psychedelic state, and can better understand why LSD had such a profound impact on self-awareness in users and on music and art. This could have great implications for psychiatry, and helping patients overcome conditions such as depression," he said.
Professor Nutt was removed from his job as the chair of the Government’s drug advisory council in 2009, after he said that drugs including ecstasy and LSD were less harmful than alcohol and tobacco.
The new findings could prove similarly controversial, with some involved in the study suggesting that they could show how LSD could be used for healing and for finding new forms of knowledge. Eventually they might be used to treat psychiatric disorders and allow researchers to treat conditions such as depression and addiction, which tend to arise from entrenched thought patterns.
"We are finally unveiling the brain mechanisms underlying the potential of LSD, not only to heal, but also to deepen our understanding of consciousness itself,” said Amanda Feilding, director of the Beckley Foundation, a charity that promotes evidence-based drugs policy and worked with the researchers on the study.
The research looked at 20 volunteers, all of whom received both LSD and placebo and were deemed psychologically and physically healthy. Each of them had taken some kind of psychedelic drug before taking part in the study.
Everyone has their own convictions on trials and tribulations of life and how they need to be handled. We have gone through a few decades of what is called CHILD BEHAVIORAL mental disorder treatments leading to categories of ADHD and those drugs designed to CALM DOWN citizens----our experience with MORPHINE to counter HEROIN was a disaster. Here we have sedation to mask fear and depression.
Human evolution of the brain deliberately designed its circuitry to allow humans to do all of the above naturally----fight or flight---we have dulled our natural immune system with antibiotic medicine----cleaning solutions to the point our natural immune system does not work----that may not be an accident either.
Some folks will say all these applications are good------we are shouting---let's think of what the bad and ugly of these research could look like if used in a far-right, extreme wealth extreme poverty authoritarian dictatorship----
YOU KNOW----MOVING FORWARD ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE LED BY GLOBAL IVY LEAGUE UNIVERSITIES LIKE JOHNS HOPKINS.
Take a look at which institutions are pushing this----LEARY/GINSBERG were of the Harvard circle for instance.
Psychedelic Science: The surge in psychiatric research using hallucinogens
by Stephanie O'Neill
May 19 2014
Dr Timothy Leary, a former Harvard Professor charged with illegal possession of marijuana, during a debate about the effects of psychedelic drugs. Leary claimed that teenage use of LSD was getting out of control. Keystone/Getty Images
This is Part One of our Psychedelic Science series. Click here for Part Two, here for Part Three, and here for Part Four.
Research into the therapeutic potential of illegal "psychedelic" drugs to treat an assortment of mainstream mental health conditions is undergoing a modern-day renaissance.
A host of published studies in the field is showing promise for psychedelics, such as psilocybin — the active ingredient in "magic mushrooms" — to help treat alcoholism, depression, drug addiction and severe anxiety caused by serious or terminal illness.
Other studies are finding that MDMA, also known as the party-drug "ecstasy," may be valuable in treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
"These drugs ... were researched extensively in the 1950s and the 1960s, through the early '70s," says Dr. George Greer, medical director for the nonprofit Heffter Research Institute, which raises donations for psilocybin studies worldwide. "There were hundreds of studies that were very promising."
But the psychedelic '60s changed all that.
LSD and other hallucinogens, once confined to the lab, exploded into mainstream culture after the pied-piper of psychedelics, Timothy Leary, urged a generation to try LSD and other hallucinogens as a way to "turn on, tune in, drop out." Many followed his advice, some with bad results. And that triggered a backlash that led the federal government to criminalize psychedelic drugs in 1970.
A year later, President Nixon launched the "War on Drugs."
Those measures helped to create a stigma that brought an end to the early phase of psychedelic research, says Rick Doblin, founder the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS).
"There is this tendency when drugs become criminalized for their non-medical use, their medical use then subsequently also becomes suppressed," says Doblin.
But since early 2000, a new willingness to look again at these drugs has shifted the research landscape. And thanks to the fundraising efforts of MAPS and the Heffter Research Institute, modern-day psychedelics studies are now happening at top academic research facilities, including Johns Hopkins University, New York University, the University of New Mexico and UCLA.
"These agents have very broad applicability within psychiatry and can be used for mood disorders, eating disorders, personality disorders," says Dr. Stephen Ross, a psychiatrist and psychedelics researcher at NYU School of Medicine. "They can be used for so many things that our treatment have not improved in recent years."
But the drugs are powerful and must be used with caution, especially since it's believed they can exacerbate serious mental conditions, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. However, used in a supervised setting with trained therapists, these drugs have the potential to offer properly-screened patients much-needed new treatment options.
"We are not at all referencing our work to the recreational drug-use world, which is rife with potential risks," says Dr. Charles Grob, director of the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center and a pioneer in modern-day psychedelics research. "We are talking about developing a new model ... to be used within medicine and psychiatry."
Grob says psychedelics offer a rather unusual paradigm in which many patients are reporting relief with as few as one or two supervised applications of the drugs, used in conjunction with limited psychotherapy.
"This is very different than conventional drug treatment, which, more often than not, administers a drug on a daily basis for weeks, months and even years," Grob says.
And research into these drugs is a bit less conventional as well. Because the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) classifies these illegal drugs as "Schedule One" substances — considered risky with "no currently accepted medical use" — scientists must adhere to strict protocols when researching them. Those include rules on how the drugs are used, handled and stored.
But a greater challenge remains financing. So far, the government has yet to fund research into psychedelics. That leaves private donations as the sole source of funding.
Scientists in this field say they believe as more evidence into the varied uses for these drugs is collected and published the government will be more likely to grant research funding requests.
And as more time passes, Grob says, the stigma brought on by the excesses of 1960s counterculture will further fade.
"The '60s are long over. As the Moody Blues used to sing, 'Timothy Leary is dead'…and many of those with whom he fought have also exited," Grob says, "It's a new world and there is a greater need than ever for more effective treatment models for individuals for whom our conventional treatment models are often sorely lacking.
Having lived in the 1960-70s I know the scientific and societal reactions to hallucinogens both the effects on citizens and research. If we Google LSD research today we cannot find one negative article. The problems lie with individual reactions to these drugs----the addictive nature----the fact that almost every PHARMA taken mainstream hits our street market as black market sales and new addictions. The term BLOWING YOUR MIND comes from the fact that some people taking these trips never recover. There was a spike in suicides ----mishaps leading to death-----all tied to hallucinogens. Under strict oversight these drugs may provide help----main stream they will create an epidemic of abuse.
We see below how this is already happening----
'LSD was first brought to the United States in 1949 by Dr. Max Rinkel, who carried out research using the drug on a population of 100 volunteers. Together with his colleague Dr. Paul Hoch they noted that LSD produced effects that mimicked schizophrenic psychosis. Indeed, they postulated that LSD produced a model psychosis—that is, it was “psychotomimetic.”'
'He and others worry that classifying Salvia as a Schedule One drug of abuse — a class that includes marijuana and LSD — could slow or even halt promising research. Yet because of salvia's powerful effects, few believe that the drug shouldn't be regulated at all'.
One would suspect the far-right wing of being the one's under REAGAN who emptied our mental health facilities and closed mental health clinics in our communities----whether today's far-right wing global Wall Street really has our most vulnerable citizens welfare in mind-------control.
Powerful hallucinogens reduce anxiety and depression in cancer patientsRobert Ferris | @RobertoFerris
Friday, 2 Dec 2016 | 2:24 PM ETCNBC.com
A single dose of a hallucinogenic drug helped cancer patients stave off depression and anxiety for months on end, according to two new studies from major U.S. institutions.
Salvia: Legal Herb Hallucinogen Draws Teens, Critics
March 20, 20062:14 PM ET
Heard on All Things Considered
A head shop on Chicago's North Side advertises that it sells the hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum.
David Schaper, NPR A powerful and legal hallucinogenic herb is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults. Salvia divinorum is also raising concerns among parents and lawmakers across the country.
The herb, sometimes called "Magic Mint," "Ska Maria Pastora" or "Sally D," is widely available on the Internet and at some tobacco shops, head shops and stores selling herbal remedies. Critics say it is being marketed and sold misleadingly as producing a high; in fact, it induces an intense, dreamlike experience that can be unpleasant for first-time users. Two states have banned Salvia. Legislation to make it a controlled substance has failed twice in Congress.
Scientists See Research Value in Salvia
Salvia divinorum is a member of the sage family. It's also a cousin to the popular flowering salvia plants that many of us may have in our gardens. Its active ingredient, Salvinorin A, is a powerful hallucinogen.
Courtesy Daniel Siebert Parents of teenagers are becoming concerned about an emerging drug of abuse that, until recently, few had ever heard of: Salvia divinorum.
Salvia is a member of the sage family. It's also a cousin to the popular flowering salvia plants that many of us may have in our gardens.
Scientific researchers say the public is right to be concerned about the herb's growing abuse. But some say salvia is also showing promise in legitimate laboratory research.
Salvia divinorum's active ingredient, Salvinorin A, is a powerful hallucinogen, "as potent as LSD, and essentially, the most potent naturally occurring hallucinogenic drug," says Dr. Bryan Roth, a biochemist and neuroscientist at Case Western Reserve University.
Roth also directs the National Institute of Mental Health's Psychoactive Drug Screening Program. Three years ago, he and others in his Cleveland lab discovered how Salvinorin A affects the brain.
"What we found is quite remarkable and unprecedented among naturally occurring drugs of abuse," Roth says. "This compound seems to have absolute specificity for a single receptor site on the brain."
Studies have shown that Salvinorin A works in the same place in the brain as morphine and related pain reducers known as opioids.
"There's been some showing that by modulating opioid receptors, you can potentially treat stimulant abuse," says Thomas Prisinzano, a University of Iowa professor in the division of medicinal and natural products chemistry.
Most studies of salvia's effect on the brain have been on rodents, and no one knows yet whether the results can be duplicated in humans. Such scientific developments still may be a long way off.
Other medical, biochemical and pharmacological scientists have published early studies suggesting that research on Salvia divinorum and Salvinorin A might eventually lead to new drugs that could be used to treat Alzheimer's, schizophrenia and other diseases.
"The bottom line is, we really don't know enough and we need to know more," Prisinzano says. "The field is really beginning to grow, and we are beginning to know and understand more of what Salvia and Salvinorin A are able to do in the body."
He and others worry that classifying Salvia as a Schedule One drug of abuse — a class that includes marijuana and LSD — could slow or even halt promising research. Yet because of salvia's powerful effects, few believe that the drug shouldn't be regulated at all.
"Even experienced hallucinogen users say that the effects of Salvia divinorum are qualitatively and quantitatively different than any other hallucinogen that they have ever taken," Roth says. "It appears to cause an experience that we have dubbed 'spacio-temporal dislocation.'"
In other words, if the dose is strong enough, users take an instantaneous trip to another time and place, an experience many first-time users of salvia find too intense, disturbing and even frightening. Those who try salvia often don't like it and won't try it again.
"Most people who do it hoping to have just an interesting high find it confusing and disappointing," says Daniel Siebert, who has researched Salvia divinorum extensively and urges its responsible use. "It's not something that's fun to do. It doesn't have a stimulating effect. It doesn't really have a euphoric effect."
Siebert worries that salvia is being marketed to teens and young adults as producing a marijuana-like high, when nothing could be further from the truth. He thinks salvia should be regulated in the same way as alcohol — and be kept strictly off-limits to teens.
We will end this week's discussion on THE DECADE OF THE BRAIN with this consideration. One of the leading research finding and application of hallucinogens is reduced plasticity meaning the divisions of circuitry duties of brain are reduced to allow what is terms CHILDLIKE thought processes. This relieves our defenses to fear and anxiety. What that childlike state means-----is a reduction or removal of EGO-----of ID AND EGO.
Now, EGO is not an attractive quality especially when it is allowed to run amuck. It is what gives individuals mental strength, confidence, perseverance, and leadership qualities. When EGO dissolution occurs WE THE PEOPLE become very MALLEABLE.
'Another study, to be published in Current Biology4 and led by Robin Carhart-Harris of Imperial, looks at how ego dissolution correlates with an increase in global connectivity — all the parts of the brain communicating with each other to a greater degree'.
What is the Ego ?
Published by Gary van Warmerdam February 26th, 2013
Closed The ego is an identity of our own construction, an identity which is false. If we take all the beliefs of what we are – beliefs about our personality, talents, and abilities – we have the structure of our ego. These talents, abilities and aspects of our personality will be attributes of our skills, but the mental construct of our “self” is artificial. And while this description might make the ego seem like a static thing, it is not. Rather, it is an active and dynamic part of our personalities, playing an immense role in creating emotional drama in our lives.
When we have thoughts about our self that we agree with we construct a self-image. The kinds of thoughts that contribute to the ego structure are:
“I’m not good at math.”
“I am smart.”
“My freckles make me ugly.”
“Nobody likes me.”
“I am better than you.”
“That was stupid of me.”
The ego hides behind the “I” and “me” in those declarative thoughts and statements about our identity.
When we have such thoughts and agree with even the slightest conviction that these ideas define us, then we are building, or reinforcing, an ego. We first have these thoughts when we are kids, perhaps when we were teased on the playground, or when reprimanded or praised by a teacher or parent. In all cultures, developing a self-image is a normal part of socialization. Problems arise, however, when that self-image is negative, inaccurate, or even overly positive. Considering that we develop our concept of “self” as children, it is inevitable that our self-image doesn’t map to reality as adults.
The Ego Unmasked
Why is the ego so hard to explain or describe? The ego is difficult to define because the ego isn’t one specific thing. It is actually made up of many different beliefs that a person acquires over their life. Those beliefs can be diverse and even contradictory. To further complicate it, each person’s ego is different. If someone were to clearly identify and describe all the parts of their ego and what it drives them to do, you might not get a good description of what yours looked like. The challenge of becoming aware of what your personal ego looks like becomes more difficult because our culture doesn’t reward us for directing our attention inward and noticing such things.
How to Spot the Ego
The ego is difficult to see, because it hides behind opinions that appear true – our attachment to descriptions of our identity – and because we haven’t practiced looking. You can get a glimpse by noticing certain thoughts, similar to those listed above. The easier way to spot the ego is by the trail of emotional reactions it leaves behind: Anger at a loved one, a need to be right, a feeling of insecurity in certain situations, feelings of jealousy that are unexplained, the need to impress someone, and so on. These emotions can be attributed to the false beliefs that comprise the ego. In the beginning it is easier to see the symptoms of resulting emotions and drama, rather than the ego that caused it.
One of the most deceptive aspects of the ego is that it generates powerful emotional reactions, and then blames us for how it made us feel. The anger we react with comes from ego based beliefs of being right and “knowing better’ than someone else. Perhaps there is also a victim interpretation of betrayal or injustice underneath. After we overreact with anger we might feel badly for what we expressed. The ego shifts to a “righteous self” that “knows better” and berates us for overreacting with anger. At the same time, it assumes the identity of being the “stupid idiot” that didn’t know any better and takes the blame for overreacting. All these attitudes, thoughts, and beliefs take place in the mind, and even though they are completely different, we assume all of them come from us. If they really were expressions coming from our genuine self, they wouldn’t contradict, and we would be able to stop them.
To the unaware person, it is difficult to discern the difference between what is ego and what is really them. They are left to wonder, “What came over me that I reacted that way?” Even their post-emotional analysis lacks the consideration to see the different parts of their belief system at work as separate from themselves. As a result, everything they express is blamed on “themselves” by one of the condemning voices in their head. In effect, the ego hijacks the analysis and turns it into a self-criticism/blame process. When the ego controls the self-reflection process you have no chance of seeing the root cause of your emotional dramas, as the ego reaffirms itself and hides in the self-criticism.
Is the ego arrogant or insecure?
“Having an ego” is usually associated with arrogance and is a term used to describe someone who thinks they are better than others. Yet this is only one part of the ego. In fact, it is possible to have some positive self-esteem and some negative self-esteem – we are aware of these different beliefs at different times. The negative beliefs about our self make up our negative self-esteem, while our positive thoughts comprise our positive self-esteem. Together, the negative and positive esteem forms our ego.
Quite often, these two aspects of our personality are nearly equal in magnitude and offset each other emotionally. A person who is very hard on themselves with their inner critic may have feelings of worthlessness. This is a painful emotion to live with, and in order to mask the pain, they might cover it up with bravado, projecting an image of security and confidence, all the while struggling with feelings of insecurity, worthlessness and inadequacy.
Arrogance is markedly different from the confidence that doesn’t come from ego. A person can be completely confident in their ability, skill, or self-acceptance, without letting it “go to their head” and impacting their interactions with others. And while humility may often be mistaken for shyness and insecurity, a person of true humility is fully present and at peace with themselves and their surroundings. Confidence without arrogance, humility without insecurity, these are manners of personality that are without the self-image dynamics of the ego.
Letting Go of the Ego
Because the ego has multiple aspects, it is not practical or effective to dissolve all of it at once, nor is it likely that you could do so. Much like a tree or large bush that is overgrown in the yard, you don’t just lift it out and throw it away – you cut off manageable pieces instead. The same approach is effective with letting go of the false beliefs that make up the ego. You begin by detaching from individual thoughts that reinforce the ego, then let go of beliefs, separating yourself from the false identity of your ego.
We have spent years building our ego self-images, living inside of them, and reinforcing them. Extracting our genuine self out of this matrix of false beliefs will take more than a few days. Yes, it will take a while… so what. It also took a while to learn to read, do math, walk, and develop proficiency at any valuable skill. Things worth doing take time and practice. What better thing do you have to do than let go of what is causing you unhappiness?
Please be aware of the hype in our scientific journalism now that global Wall Street controls all research with no oversight and accountability----no patients rights---no DO NO HARM HIPPOCRATIC OATH. We really need to reverse MOVING FORWARD now as they MOVE FORWARD to SMART CITIES levels of control of human capital. Nothing prepares citizens to be planetary mineral mining slaves than a good dose of hallucinogen therapy.
Nature | News: Q&A
Brain scans reveal how LSD affects consciousness
Drug researcher David Nutt discusses brain-imaging studies with hallucinogens.
Under the influence of LSD, the brain's visual cortex has increased connectivity with other brain regions (right) than when imaged under placebo (left).
Researchers have published the first images showing the effects of LSD on the human brain, as part of a series of studies that are examining how the drug causes its characteristic hallucinogenic effects1.
David Nutt, a neuropsychopharmacologist at Imperial College London who has previously examined the neural effects of mind-altering drugs such as the hallucinogen psilocybin — an active ingredient in magic mushrooms — was one of the study's leaders. He tells Nature what the research revealed, and how LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) might ultimately be useful in therapies.
Why study the effects of LSD on the brain?
For brain researchers, studying how psychedelic drugs such as LSD alter the ‘normal’ brain state is a way to study the biological phenomenon that is consciousness.
We ultimately would also like to see LSD deployed as a therapeutic tool. The idea has old roots. In the 1950s and 1960s, thousands of people took LSD for alcoholism; in 2012, a retrospective analysis of some of these studies2 suggested that it helped to cut down on drinking. Since the 1970s, there have been lots of studies with LSD on animals, but not on the human brain. We need that data to validate the trial of this drug as a potential therapy for addiction or depression.
Why hasn’t anyone done brain scans before?
Before the 1960s, LSD was studied for its potential therapeutic uses, as were other hallucinogens. But the drug was heavily restricted in the United Kingdom, the United States and around the world after 1967 — in my view, due to unfounded hysteria over its potential dangers. The restrictions vary worldwide, but in general, countries have insisted that LSD has ‘no medical value’, making it tremendously difficult to work with.
How did you get approval to give volunteers LSD?
United Nations conventions and national laws do permit academic research on heavily restricted drugs such as LSD. In the United Kingdom, this sort of study is legal as long as the drug is not being used as a therapeutic. This was not a clinical trial: we gave LSD to volunteers who were already experienced with the drugs and took their brain scans over eight hours in the lab in Cardiff, UK, in 2014. It took us nine months to get approval from a UK ethics committee for the work: the research was funded by the Safra Foundation [a philanthropic foundation based in Geneva, Switzerland] and the Beckley Foundation [a charity near Oxford, UK, that promotes drug-policy reform], although we needed to crowdfund through Walacea.com for the resources to analyse the data.
What were the results of the study?
To take advantage of the “long trip” produced by LSD — an eight-hour experience, as compared to, say, four on psilocybin — we put our participants through a huge range of tests.
In one study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, we looked at blood flow in different parts of the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and at electrical activity using magnetoencephalography1. We found that under LSD, as compared to placebo, disparate regions in the brain communicate with each other when they don’t normally do so. In particular, the visual cortex increases its communication with other areas of the brain, which helps to explain the vivid and complex hallucinations experienced under LSD, and the emotional flavour they can take.
On the other hand, within some important brain networks, such as the neuronal networks that normally fire together when the brain is at rest, which is sometimes called the ‘default mode’ network, we saw reduced blood flow — something we’ve also seen with psilocybin — and that neurons that normally fire together lost synchronization. That correlated with our volunteers reporting a disintegration of their sense of self, or ego. This known effect is called ‘ego dissolution’: the sense that you are less a singular entity, and more melded with people and things around you. We showed that this could be experienced independently of the hallucinatory effects — the two don’t necessarily go together.
Among other studies, one of our team, Mendel Kaelen, a PhD student at Imperial College London, has a paper which will appear next week in European Neuropsychopharmacology3 looking at how listening to music affects the experience of taking LSD. He found that communication between the parahippocampus [a brain region important in memory storage] and the visual cortex [which processes information input from the eyes] is reduced when you take LSD. But when you hear music as well, the visual cortex receives more information from the parahippocampus, and this is associated with increases in ‘eyes-closed’ imagery and personal memories. So music enhances the LSD experience and might be important in therapeutic settings.
Another study, to be published in Current Biology4 and led by Robin Carhart-Harris of Imperial, looks at how ego dissolution correlates with an increase in global connectivity — all the parts of the brain communicating with each other to a greater degree.
With only 20 participants — and only 15 quality data points because 5 people moved too much inside the brain scanner — how confident can you be in your findings?
We got very clear and significant effects — and they were consistent with the data from previous studies with psilocybin4, although the effects with LSD were much stronger.
Are other scientists working with LSD?
We think there is only one other group in the world currently working with LSD in humans. They are based at the University of Zurich in Switzerland, led by Franz Vollenweider. They seem to be focusing on using antagonists [which block LSD and its effects] to clarify the pharmacological targets of LSD. They have done their own fMRI scans, but taken during psychological tasks, rather than when the brain is at rest, as we did. Their results haven’t been published yet, so I can’t comment on their findings.
What studies will you do next?
We have plans to do separate experiments to look at how LSD can influence creativity, and how the LSD state mimics the dream state.
More importantly, we have already completed a trial on psilocybin as a therapy for treatment-resistant depression funded by the UK Medical Research Council: not as a daily drug, but in targeted psychotherapeutic sessions. Results will be presented next month. The basic argument for this is that we know that the default-mode network is overactive in people who are depressed, and we know from our earlier study5 that psilocybin reduces how integrated that network is — at least during the ‘trip’ itself.
Our latest brain-imaging study suggests that LSD has similar effects — suggesting that it could be trialled therapeutically, too.