'The 25 officers of the Baltimore Central Regional Tactical Unit face 236 counts, including conspiracy to promote and maintain a criminal organization by unlawful means, participation and conspiracy to participate in a criminal gang, first and second-degree assault, conspiracy to commit misconduct in office, and other related charges'
Here in Baltimore we have been having a US FEDERAL JUSTICE investigation of UMMS-----and our MARYLAND CRIMINAL JUSTICE/JAIL system because it has these few decades of CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA been completely DEREGULATED----absolutely no oversight and accountability and like HOSTING SERVER NOSY NEIGHBORS AND THE GANG these 'security' gangsters are operating OPENLY in each community in Baltimore as HOSTING SERVER NOSY NEIGHBORS AND THE GANG illegal surveillance and 24/7 VIDEO PORN making money-----grabbing POWER-----being BRUTAL FOR CONTROL of community citizens and assets.
These 'SECURITY' officers rotate in these criminal justice structures and into the COMMUNITIES doing the same in both places.
STANFORD TOTAL PRISON MODEL HAS MY LIVING SPACE LOOKING JUST LIKE A MARYLAND PRISON/JAIL.
REMEMBER, the goal of MOVING FORWARD is to end BRICK AND MORTAR JAILS/PRISONS and install the CHINESE MAOIST SOCIAL CREDIT SCORE with HITTING and 24/7 surveillance WANT IT OR NOT.
Baltimore uses these FALSE FLAGS to create the idea that MOSBY as prosecutor is doing this for CIVIL RIGHTS ----when she IGNORES completely my case of HOSTING SERVER NOSY NEIGHBORS AND THE GANG------SAME PEOPLE as those 25 Baltimore correction officers.
THIS FEDERAL INVESTIGATION AND CRIMINAL CHARGES WILL BE USED IN MY LAWSUIT AS HOSTING SERVER NOSY NEIGHBORS AND THE GANG ARE THE SAME PEOPLE AS THESE 25 CORRECTIONS OFFICERS.
This is how I kept bringing my CASE back to SECURITY/POLICE ORGANIZED CRIME.
25 Baltimore corrections officers indicted for allegedly leading a 'criminal enterprise' and using excessive force
By Madeline Holcombe and Rebekah Riess, CNN
Updated 4:48 AM ET, Wed December 4, 2019
Baltimore City State's Attorney Marilyn Mosby, right, speaks during a news conference announcing the indictment of 25 corrections officers.
Baltimore City State's Attorney Marilyn Mosby, right, speaks during a news conference announcing the indictment of 25 corrections officers.
(CNN)More than two dozen Baltimore corrections officers have been indicted on charges related to using excessive force toward and intimidating detainees, officials announced Tuesday.
The 25 officers of the Baltimore Central Regional Tactical Unit face 236 counts, including conspiracy to promote and maintain a criminal organization by unlawful means, participation and conspiracy to participate in a criminal gang, first and second-degree assault, conspiracy to commit misconduct in office, and other related charges, Baltimore City State's Attorney Marilyn Mosby told reporters during a news conference.
"If you break the law and you break the trust the public has placed within you, you will face the consequences," Mosby said.
HMMMMM, WHO IS HITTING ME?
The indictments stem from a long-term investigation, led by the Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services, into allegations of excessive force toward and intimidation of inmates in state-run pre-trial facilities, Mosby said.
Investigators discovered that the officers were operating a "criminal enterprise" and their actions are alleged to have included violent assaults, tampering with and destroying evidence and falsifying official public documents to maintain dominance and shield its members from law enforcement, Mosby said.
"We are again making clear that we have absolutely no tolerance whatsoever for corruption of any kind in our state prison system or anywhere else in state government," Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan said in a statement. "Our correctional officers have one of the most difficult jobs in all of public safety, and we will not let the criminal behavior of the few tarnish the great work of the nearly 5,000 dedicated officers who serve with distinction every single day."
With that headline we will return to discussing BODY/BRAIN IMPLANTS tied to 5G low-orbit PHASE ARRAYS filling our atmosphere with deadly radiation and chemtrails with micro-----alloy metals all to capture and transmit radiation to the ground.
IT WILL TAKE FORCING OUR US 99% WE THE PEOPLE INTO THESE TRANSHUMANIST BODY STRUCTURE AND THAT IS WHAT HOSTING SERVER NOSY NEIGHBORS ARE DOING.
GLOBAL PRIVATE MILITARY TELEMEDICINE FOR ALL.
If we imagine what brutality existed in Maryland's jail system it is easy peasy to see what STANFORD TOTAL PRISON MODEL will look like when SMART CITIES with SMART HOUSES puts all 99% WE THE PEOPLE into these same JAIL/PRISON conditions.
NOSY NEIGHBORS SAYING---SHE CANNOT COME OUT----WE OWN HER---WE ARE MAKING MONEY FROM HER BY USING HER-------quite the same.
HOSTING SERVER NOSY NEIGHBORS as BARBER SURGEONS illegally implanting our US 99% over these few decades causing SICKO gateway medicine ----now need BLOOD LAB TESTS for HEAVY METALS like TITANIUM.
Natural TITANIUM is different than TITANIUM ALLOYS found in IMPLANTS and found in CHEMTRAILS-----so, a lab test looking for NATURAL TITANIUM would not necessarily show in CURRENT BLOOD LAB TESTS.
'Metals in Orthopedic Use | Titanium and Stainless Steel ...www.siiora.com/blog/metals-in-orthopedic-use Mar 19, 2019 ·
Ti6A14V ELI is often used for making orthopedic implants. Commercially pure titanium isn’t a single chemical element however is alloyed by a level of oxygen dissolved into the metal. It also has traces of nitrogen, iron, hydrogen and carbon'.
A BLOOD LAB TEST for IMPLANT TOXICITY would look for Ti 6A14V-----a TITANIUM ALUMINUM alloy. These implants started with the above but current implants are using a few other titanium alloys-----
The BLOOD LAB TEST below may give results saying NATURAL TITANIUM exposure is WITHIN NORMAL RANGE----very low. A BLOOD TEST for TITANIUM ALLOY METALS filling the HUMAN BODY via IMPLANTS and LOW-ORBIT PHASE ARRAYS and chemtrails would be detected while being DANGEROUSLY HIGH.
Titanium is an element that is used to make alloys with aluminum, iron and other elements producing an extremely lightweight and strong material used in manufacturing of many modern products from airplanes to orthopedic implants. Titanium is not naturally occurring in the human body and can cause serious problems in large doses.
A blood test for titanium measures the amount of titanium in the blood typically associated with industrial exposure or medical procedures.
Specifically titanium ( along with chromium and /or cobalt) are often used in artificial joints. They may corrode when they come in contact with body fluids, and when their surfaces dissolves the metals can enter into the bodys circulation. These three can also combine with the proteins in the body which can result in an allergic immune condition such as a skin rash. The problem is that when two dissimilar metals come into contact they can release metal alloy in the bloodstream. So when these three metals are used in joint replacement, they may react to each other.
Reviewed By: Dr. Kurt Kloss, MD
Last Reviewed Date: Oct 24, 2019
Titanium, Whole BloodTEST:
Test number copied
Include LOINC® in print
Expected Turnaround Time3 - 7 days
Turnaround time is defined as the usual number of days from the date of pickup of a specimen for testing to when the result is released to the ordering provider. In some cases, additional time should be allowed for additional confirmatory or additional reflex tests. Testing schedules may vary.
Minimum Volume0.5 mL
ContainerRoyal blue-top (EDTA) metal-free tube
Storage InstructionsSubmission/transport (<3 days): Room temperature. For storage beyond 3 days, specimen should be refrigerated or frozen. Stability: Room temperature: 7 days; Refrigerated: 56 days; Frozen: 94 days
Evaluate exposure to titanium
MethodologyInductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS)
Here we the ANIMAL/RAT medical testing for those IMPLANT DEVICES only in 1999-------by 2000 these implants studies were going wild. This is a BASELINE STUDY which said----
WE SEE NO DAMAGE IN RATS.
So, as of 2000 BUSH ERA all US 99% WE THE PEOPLE became the ANIMAL RESEARCH STUDY for what we already knew would be DEVASTATING on HUMAN BODY/BRAIN.
JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE: MATERIALS IN MEDICINE 10 (1999) 847±851
Titanium levels in rats implanted with Ti6Al4V
treated samples in the absence of wear
D. RODRIÂGUEZ, F .J. GIL, J. A. PLANELL
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, CREB, Universitat
PoliteÁcnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona, Spain
E. JORGE, L. ALVAREZ, R. GARCIÂA
Experimental Surgery Service, Hospital Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, Spain
Department of Spectrophotometry, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
Department of Biology, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
The effect of implantation time and implant nitriding on titanium ion concentration in several
tissues of rats carrying Ti6Al4V implants was studied by means of inductively coupled
plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Histological studies were also performed in order to
check for tissue degeneration due to the Ti6Al4V implantation. The animals were divided into
four groups: one received Ti6Al4V implants, the second received nitrided Ti6Al4V implants,
the third group received nitrided and descaled Ti6Al4V implants and the last one was the
control group. Half the animals of the implanted groups received the Ti6Al4V implant for 30
days, while the other half received the implant for 120 days. Spleen, muscle, kidney, lung,
brain and bone samples were retrieved from these rats as well as the control group. Ion
concentration measures did not show signi®cant differences between control and implanted
rats for the studied period of time, although histological studies showed minor differences,
especially on liver tissue samples.
WOW----THIS RESEARCH PROVED BODY/BRAIN IMPLANTS WERE SAFE INSIDE BODY FOR 30-----120 DAYS-----HMMMM, HOW MANY YEARS FOR YOU!
4. Discussion and conclusions
The tissues samples examined with ICP-MS did not show
evidence of systemic accumulation of titanium ions due
to implantation of a Ti6A14V sample. The values
obtained are consistent with those of literature, considering
the different animal models and exposed surface/
weight ratio. The main differences observed were found
when control groups were compared to implanted rats,
although these slight variations are probably due to the
implantation process. These results are valid for both
treated and untreated Ti6A14V implants.
The medical research these few decades acknowledges the need to separate and identify the sources of metals like TITANIUM in implants---in low-orbit arrays---as opposed to naturally occurring.
EVERYONE KNOWS TOXICITY IS FAR WORSE IN ALLOYS THAN NATURALLY OCCURRING TITANIUM.
Below we see ONE study making clear this ALLOY of TITANIUM is NOT PURE TITANIUM. Look at the bottom of this reasearch article to see DATA FOR PURE TITANIUM says it is not DAMAGING TO BODY----that is NOT of what BODY/BRAIN IMPLANTS are made. PURE TITANIUM is NOT what our bodies are breathing or eating from CHEMTRAILS. There are no BLOOD TESTS identifying toxic levels of ALLOY TITANIUM.
About 50% of titanium used in the aerospace industry is the (α+β) alloy Ti-6Al-4V, the analogue of which is Russian VT6 alloy. This alloy possesses a perfect combination of operational and technological properties [1,2]'.
Below we see a current research article on TOXICITY OF METALS ---which again have no REAL DATA-----these research are done on patients having been implanted and are EXPERIMENTAL HUMAN STUDY PARTICIPANTS. The damage is done let's watch as the patient DETERIORATES and record all kinds of VARIABLES, BIAS, ABSOLUTELY NO SCIENTIFIC METHOD and just say ----
THERE DOESN'T SEEM TO BE ANY CANCERS.
My exposure to ILLEGALLY IMPLANTED DEVICES could have a start date of 2007-----2010 meaning I have exposure for 10 years. Following ME saying NO CANCER IN HER-----is FAKE NEWS FAKE DATA ---because BASIC SCIENCE from last century tells us 15 ---20 years is when CANCER shows.
The HIP IMPLANT people in this study looks from 2003----not long enough for the cancer to show---YET, these BARBER SURGEONS report IMPLANTS show more more risk of cancer then general population.
TOXICITY OF METALS RELEASED FROM IMPLANTED METAL DEVICES.
Brown, Fowler, Fustinoni, Nordberg 2015
Handbook on the Toxicity of Metals
BRAIN IMPLANTS are NEUROLOGICAL ------and circuitry like LOW-ORBIT PHASE ARRAYS. The likelihood of DAMAGE/CANCER from BRAIN IMPLANTS far exceeds these ORTHOPEDIC. APPLE AND ORANGES
Tuesday, 19 March 2019 / Published in Blog
Metals in Orthopedic Use
An ideal trauma implant material should be inert, non-toxic to the body, and completely corrosion-proof. It should be inexpensive, simply worked, and mouldable in various shapes without expensive manufacturing techniques. It should have high resistance to fatigue and great strength too. Such a material isn’t available at present.
There are at least fifty alloys and grades of alloys known as commercial stainless steel. Only a few are helpful as implant biomaterial in fracture surgery.
Stainless steel designated as ASTM F-55, -56 (grades 316 and 316L) is utilized extensively for fracture fixation implants. Stainless steel of type 316L is an iron-based alloy. Alloying with chromium generates a self-regenerating, protective chromium oxide layer which offers a major protection against corrosion.
The addition of molybdenum reduces the rate of slow, passive dissolution of the chromium oxide layer by up to thousand times. Molybdenum further protects against pitting corrosion. Nickel imparts any further corrosion resistance and enables the production process, while limited quantities of silicon and manganese are added to control some problems related to manufacturing.
The carbon component raises the strength, but its existence in the alloy is undesirable. Under certain conditions created as a results of improper heat treatment, the carbon segregates from the main elements of the alloy, taking with it a considerable amount of chromium in the form of chromium carbide precipitates. Carbides formed at grain boundaries, whereas corrosion selectively happens. Moreover, the carbides degrade the material’s mechanical properties. Mixing of small quantities of titanium or niobium lessens the creation of intergranular carbides by competing for carbon.
Stainless steel of type 316L has a very low permissible level of carbon to diminish this problem. To rise the resistance to fatigue failure, 316L stainless steel can be accessible in a special grade with smaller as well as more widely spaced inclusions. This grade, designated as AISI 316LVM and specified by ASTM F-138, is made by a special method known as ‘vacuum-melting’, which results in a cleaner metal. The strength of 316L may be greatly altered by the method of production, and it may be made extremely ductile (up to 55 percent strain to failure). The alloy selected F-745 is a high strength casting material, whereas 22-13-5 has much more yield strength than 316L for the same treatment method.
Though it is a stiff, strong, and biocompatible material, 316L stainless steel has a slow nevertheless finite corrosion rate. Concerns regarding the long-term effects of nickel ions, still, prevail. Stainless steel is best fitted for short-term implantation within the body as in fracture fixation. Stainless steel is often used because the base materials are cheap, the alloy may be formed using common techniques, as well as its mechanical properties may be controlled over a wide range for ductility and strength. The elastic modulus of stainless steel is approx. 12 times higher than the elastic modulus of cortical bone.
Titanium is the 9th most common element in the crust of earth, where it forms oxidic minerals (ilmenite, rutile). The pure element is very reactive; it’s the sole element that burns in nitrogen. Though, the metal quickly becomes coated with an oxide layer, making it resistant to most chemicals and physiologically inert. Titanium is utilized for making orthopaedic implants in 2 forms: commercially pure and a range of alloys.
Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (ASTM F-136) is generally known as Ti6A14V. This alloy is broadly used to manufacture implants. Impurities such as hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen tend to make it brittle, which describes why only minimal amounts are acceptable in titanium alloys utilized in surgical implants.
ASTM F-136 limits the oxygen concentration to a particularly low level of 0.13%, referred as the ELI (extra low interstitial) grade. Limiting the extent of dissolved oxygen improves the material’s mechanical properties, mainly increasing its fatigue life. Aluminium stabilizes the alpha material’s form while vanadium stabilizes the beta form. Combination of both components forms a two-phase alloy with good strength properties and one that may be heat treated. Ti6A14V ELI is often used for making orthopedic implants.
Commercially pure titanium isn’t a single chemical element however is alloyed by a level of oxygen dissolved into the metal. It also has traces of nitrogen, iron, hydrogen and carbon. The presence of these trace elements effects the mechanical properties of the titanium. International standard ISO 5832/2 defines the extent of permissible impurities.
Titanium has an elastic modulus approx. half that of the cobalt-chromium alloys and stainless steel. The lower stiffness of bone plate made of titanium decreases the severity of stress shielding and cortical osteoporosis. Another benefit of lower stiffness is that a titanium plate is less susceptible to fatigue failure than a stainless-steel plate. The elastic properties of titanium need that contouring be attained by slight over bending; it’s important however, that no metal should be twisted or bent repeatedly at the same location. The titanium’s modulus of elasticity is still roughly 6 times that of cortical bone. The ductility of titanium alloy is considerably less than that of most stainless steels. Because of this difference a surgeon needs some adaptation of his feel when knowing the optimal amount of torque to be applied to the bone screws. The feel should be acquired prior starting to use these bone screws in clinical practice.
The corrosion resistance of pure titanium is outstanding as a very dense and stable layer can be destroyed mechanically at the time of implantation by instruments such as bending pliers. The passive layer is restored spontaneously, quickly and effectively (re-passivation). In the presence of unstable fixation, the components of titanium of an internal fixation system are exposed to fretting conditions and make metal debris. Such debris causes black or grey coloration of the surrounding tissues. This discoloration, which isn’t a result of corrosion, is harmless. Special surface treatment of the ortho implant lessens such discoloration.
AND YET-------here we see GLOBAL HEDGE FUND JOHNS HOPKINS has already identified MARKERS are all kinds of CANCERS.
ONE SINGLE BLOOD TEST-----HMMMMM, COULD IT BE TESTING FOR IMPLANT ALLOY TITANIUM/ALUMINUM levels? High levels equate CANCER.
The BLOOD test for PURE TITANIUM----that is the NATURAL will always be minimal/norm range. The toxicity of these IMPLANT DEGRADATION is already KNOWN to be HIGHLY CANCEROUS.
'contrails vs. chemtrails | Metabunk
www.metabunk.org/contrails-vs-chemtrails.t726 Aug 27, 2012 ·
Chemtrails are manufactured mixtures (not compounds) composed of aluminium metal, aluminium oxide, barium sulphate, strontium chloride and additives to allow the heavier barium sulphate to ballast the other particles to keep them from blowing (too quickly) away This formulation isnt an accident, the main aspect is the high reflectivity and high ...'
HOSTING SERVER NOSY NEIGHBOR THE BARBER SURGEON WHO ILLEGALLY IMPLANTED ME IS SAYING-------SHE ALREADY HAS CANCER SHE WILL DIE SOON.
No doubt that ONE SINGLE BLOOD TEST advertised as FAKE PHARMA/MEDICAL DEVICES -----was what was used to make that DIAGNOSIS.
The only existing way to identify pre-cancerous stages are the same------LOOKING FOR SYMPTOMS. That is what NOSY NEIGHBORS AND THE GANG working for BARBER SURGEONS are being paid to do.
NOSY NEIGHBORS AND THE GANG WORKING FOR POLITICAL MACHINES ARE USING TELEMEDICINE FOR DEATH ROOMS AND EUTHANASIA----
Eight cancers could be diagnosed with a single blood test
For many cancers, diagnosis is a long and challenging process. A new blood test, however, could offer a much-needed simpler and more effective diagnostic technique. Called CancerSEEK, it has the potential to identify eight cancer types from one blood sample.
Researchers have created a blood test that could detect eight cancer types.In the new study, researchers reveal how the blood test demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection in more than 1,000 people with the disease.
The team — from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, MD — recently published their results in the journal Science.
Worldwide, cancer remains one of the leading causes of death. It is estimated that by 2030, the number of cancer deaths will have risen from 8 million to 13 millionTrusted Source.
Early diagnosis is key to reducing cancer-related deaths; the earlier the disease is diagnosed, the higher the chances of treatment success. But sadly, many cancers are not caught until the later stages, and this is largely due to a lack of fast and effective diagnostic tools.
However, the Johns Hopkins researchers believe that CancerSEEK could bring us closer to a quick, simple way to detect cancer in its early stages.
Test produced high sensitivity and specificity
When cancerous tumors form, they release small fragments of mutated DNA and proteins into the bloodstream, and these can act as markers for cancer.
The new blood test works by identifying the markers for 16 gene mutations and eight proteins that are associated with eight different cancer types. These include breast, lung, and colorectal cancer, as well as five cancers — ovarian, liver, stomach, pancreatic, and esophageal — for which there are currently no routine screening tests for people at average risk.
"A novelty of our classification method is that it combines the probability of observing various DNA mutations together with the levels of several proteins in order to make the final call," explains study co-author Cristian Tomasetti, Ph.D., an associate professor of oncology and biostatistics at Johns Hopkins University.
For their study, the researchers tested CancerSEEK on 1,005 individuals who had been diagnosed with non-metastatic forms of one of the eight cancers.
They found that the test was able to identify 70 percent of the cancers, with sensitivity ranging from 33 percent for breast cancer to 98 percent for ovarian cancer. Sensitivity ranged from 69 percent to 98 percent for the five cancers that currently have no routine screening tests, the researchers report.
In terms of specificity, the test yielded an overall result of more than 99 percent. On testing CancerSEEK on 812 healthy adults, it only produced seven false-positive results.
As study co-author Kenneth Kinzler, Ph.D. — co-director of the Ludwig Center for Cancer Genetics and Therapeutics at Johns Hopkins — notes, "Very high specificity was essential because false-positive results can subject patients to unnecessary invasive follow-up tests and procedures to confirm the presence of cancer."
What is more, the researchers found that their test was able to pinpoint the location of tumors for 83 percent of patients.
Test could 'substantially impact patients'
The researchers note that larger studies will now be needed to further determine the efficacy of CancerSEEK as a routine screening test for cancer, and such studies are in the pipeline.
However, the team believes that the results of its current research are encouraging.
"This has the potential to substantially impact patients. Earlier detection provides many ways to improve outcomes for patients," says study co-author Dr. Anne Marie Lennon, Ph.D., who is an associate professor of medicine, surgery, and radiology at Johns Hopkins.
THESE DOCTORS DO NOT SEEM TO BE WORRIED ABOUT BARBER SURGEON BODY/BRAIN IMPLANTS MAKING BALTIMORE ONE OF THE HIGHEST IN CANCER DIAGNOSES.
"Optimally, cancers would be detected early enough that they could be cured by surgery alone, but even cancers that are not curable by surgery alone will respond better to systemic therapies when there is less advanced disease," she adds.
The team hopes that CancerSEEK will one day offer a simple, noninvasive, and fast strategy for diagnosing cancer in its early stages.
"This test represents the next step in changing the focus of cancer research from late stage disease to early disease, which I believe will be critical to reducing cancer deaths in the long-term."
Study co-author Dr. Bert Vogelstein, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
SCIENTISTS who are REAL PHYSICIANS AND DOCTORS have used themselves in testing the efficacy of any new MEDICAL or chemical released to GENERAL PUBLIC. We did not see PRODUCTS on market until we knew MADAME CURIE died for radiation exposure.
SHE WAS THAT EXPERIMENTAL HUMAN----LIKE ME ALTHOUGH SHE KNEW HER RISKS.
These few decades of CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA took our STRONG US PUBLIC HEALTH AND MEDICAL RESEARCH and absolutely GUTTED these protections. As BARBER SURGEONS they said------
WE WILL 'USE' THEM WHILE EARNING BILLIONS WE DON'T CARE.
We will end our discussion of LOW-ORBIT PHASE ARRAY CHEMTRAIL FOR 5G SMART CITIES SMART HOUSES -------with all these BODY/BRAIN IMPLANTS with this:
We do not see ANY REAL RESEARCH being done in US ------in Baltimore nor do we see any Federal agency like FDA-----protecting our US 99% WE THE PEOPLE. The research saying this DOES NO HARM is always followed by DIDN'T SEE THAT COMING ----CLASS ACTION LAWSUITS.
WE WILL DO MEGA DATA COLLECTION AND PRETEND WE CAN UNDERSTAND COMPLEX DISEASE VECTORS HAVING TONS OF VARIABLES---TONS OF GENETIC/ENVIRONMENTAL UNKNOWNS ALL WHILE HAVING TONS OF BIAS.
More than 80 years after she passed away, Marie Curie’s remains and personal items are still dangerously radioactive
Feb 27, 2018 Domagoj Valjak
Completed in 1790, the French Pantheon is a giant neoclassical mausoleum situated in the Parisian Latin Quarter. It houses the remains of a number of renowned French citizens, including Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Victor Hugo, and Louis Braille. Alongside many men currently interred in the Pantheon are several women, and one of them is Marie Curie, the Polish-French scientist whose pioneering research earned her the 1903 Nobel Prize in physics, which she shared with her husband, Pierre Curie, and the 1911 Nobel Prize in chemistry.
The majority of her research focused on radioactivity: Among other achievements, she coined and defined the term “radioactivity” and discovered two important radioactive elements; radium and polonium, which she named after her home country of Poland. Unfortunately, since the negative effects of radiation on human health were unknown at the time, Curie never protected herself from them during her experiments. Ultimately, her own discovery most likely led to her demise: in 1934, she died of aplastic anemia, a condition that was caused by prolonged exposure to radium and polonium. Even her daughter Irene Joliot-Curie, who also received a Nobel Prize in chemistry, died of leukemia, which was likely a direct result of her mother’s constant exposure to high levels of radiation.
Pierre and Marie Curie in the laboratory
She was buried at the Sceaux Cemetery in southern Paris, alongside her husband who died almost 28 years earlier. However, in 1995, their remains were transferred to the Pantheon to join the remains of other icons of French history. In fact, their remains are quite unique: When they were disinterred from their original resting place, they were so radioactive that they were interred in the Pantheon in inch-thick lead coffins that prevent the radiation from harming those who come to honor them. Actually, since the unfortunate Curies were contaminated with radium 226, the most stable isotope of radium that has a half-life of approximately 1,500 years, their remains will stay dangerously radioactive for at least that long.
Furthermore, since Marie Curie never thought that her experiments were harmful, she contaminated her entire household along with many of her personal items. She frequently carried samples of radium and polonium in the pockets of her lab coat and brought them home to analyze in her spare time. She unwittingly contaminated her all of her clothes, her books, notebooks and cookbooks, her jewelry, furniture around her home, and various other personal items.
Nowadays, more than 80 years after her death, many of her personal artifacts are stored in Paris, at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, the National Library of France. The items are kept in special boxes that are reinforced with lead to prevent the radiation from harming their handlers. Just like Curie’s body, they will remain highly radioactive for at least 1,500 years.
Still, Curie’s radioactive items are accessible to the public. Anyone who wishes to study the original notebooks that contain the handwritten details on her groundbreaking research is required to sign a liability waiver and wear all kinds of protective gear while browsing the dangerous documents.
In the years after the Curies revealed radioactivity to the public, it was thought that radioactivity was actually beneficial for human health. Also, the strange fluorescent luminosity was an appealing novelty for many people across the world. In the first two decades of the 20th century, during the era of the so-called “Radium Craze,” many household items, including clocks and kitchen utensils, contained radium simply because it was known to glow in the dark. Furthermore, a number of supposedly reinvigorating tonics containing radium entered the market and were regularly consumed.
The idea of radioactive elements as beneficial for human health was shattered in 1938 when radioactive consumer products were banned in the U.S. by an act issued by the Food and Drug Administration. By that time, it was known that radioactive elements can be used as a powerful and efficient energy source, but also that their effects on health can be devastating.
We don't want to get to COMPLICATED-----but computing research already has computer technology that satisfies the needs of US 99% WE THE PEOPLE. The goals MOVING FORWARD of QUANTUM PHYSICS----COMPUTER ----is DARK HORSE meaning no one knows and basic science says
NONE OF THIS WILL WORK----ALL OF THIS WILL HARM BE DEADLY.
Why do it? It offers the MOST POWERFUL system needed to reach far into SPACE.
As someone having followed SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH for 45 years seriously, we KNOW this QUANTUM computing is a DARK HORSE meaning there is no basic science----there is no practical application beyond limited capacities.
“We’re operating in a space where no one has been able to experiment before.” What the outcome of that progress will be, he says, is something “we don’t know yet, because we’ve just got here.”
Who is HOSTING SERVER NOSY NEIGHBORS AS BARBER SURGEONS? They are global hedge fund IVY LEAGUE RESEARCH CORPORATIONS working with GLOBAL GOOGLE to EXPERIMENT on PEOPLE and environment ----
HITTING MORE AND MORE AND MORE 99% WE THE PEOPLE black, white, and brown into CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITIES------EXPERIMENTAL MEDICAL RESEARCH.
and yet--ALL FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES are being built as SMART CITIES SMART HOMES
Hands-On with Google’s Quantum Computer
Staking its claim for “quantum supremacy,” the company pulls back the curtain on its landmark Sycamore chip
- By Neil Savage on October 24, 2019
I am standing in front of a gigantic touch screen in a garagelike laboratory at Google’s facility in Goleta, Calif., using my finger to move little squares containing symbols—an X, a Y, an H and other, more arcane glyphs—across the display. The squares represent functions that can be performed on a quantum bit—a qubit—inside a large, silvery cylinder nearby. Of the myriad functions on offer, some cause the bit to flip from 1 to 0 (or from 0 to 1); one makes it rotate around an axis.
Another square on the display reveals the state of the qubit, represented by what looks like a lollipop moving around inside a sphere, its stick anchored in the center. As it moves, numbers beside it oscillate between 1.0000 and 0.0000. This is one of the strengths of qubits: they do not have to be the all-or-nothing 1 or 0 of binary bits but can occupy states in between. This quality of “superposition” allows each qubit to perform more than one calculation at a time, speeding up computation in a manner that seems almost miraculous. Although the final readout from a qubit is a 1 or 0, the existence of all of those intermediary steps means it can be difficult or impossible for a classical computer to do the same calculation. To the uninitiated, this process may appear a bit like magic—a wave of the hands, a tap of a touch screen and, presto, a rabbit is pulled from a quantum hat. Google has invited me here—along with a select group of other journalists—to pull back the curtain on this wizardry, to prove it is not magical at all.
On the right half of the screen, squiggly lines display waveforms that correspond to the functions being performed on the qubits. Next to that section is a box about the size of a desktop printer, which sends those waveforms as electrical pulses through wires and into the silver cylinder. If the cylinder were open, one would see a series of six chambers, arranged in layers like a wire-festooned upside-down wedding cake. Each chamber is chilled to a temperature significantly colder than the one above it; the bottommost layer is a frigid 15 millikelvins, nearly 200 times as cold as the depths of outer space. Wires passing through the successive stages relay control signals from the warm outside world and pass back results from the chamber.
That chamber is in vacuum, shielded from the light and heat that would otherwise disrupt the delicate qubits, which sit on a chip at the end of all the wires, isolated in the dark and cold. Each qubit is about 0.2 millimeter across, big enough to be visible through an ordinary microscope. But chilled and hidden away from external influences, each becomes a superconductor that lets electrons flow freely, acting as if it were a single atom so that the laws of quantum mechanics scale up to dictate its behavior.
Gentle pulses of microwaves cause the qubits to vibrate. And when two neighboring qubits reach the same resonant frequency, they become entangled—another quantum-mechanical property meaning that measuring the state of one tells you the state of the other. Electromagnetic pulses at a different frequency cause the bit flips. The quantum computer is rather like a box containing a bunch of pendulums, says Craig Gidney, a quantum software engineer at Google. I and others outside the chamber sending the signals into it are pulling on the strings of the pendulums, changing their swings to perform different logical operations.
All this chilling and vibrating, Google’s quantum team says, has allowed it to achieve quantum supremacy, the point at which a quantum computer can do something that an ordinary classical computer cannot. In a paper published this week in Nature—but inadvertently leaked last month on a NASA Web site—Google engineers describe a benchmark experiment they used to demonstrate supremacy. Their program, run on more than 50 qubits, checks the output of a quantum random-number generator. Some critics have complained this is a contrived problem with a limited real-world application, says Hartmut Neven, manager of Google’s Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab. “Sputnik didn’t do much either,” Neven said during a press event at the Goleta facility. “It circled the Earth. Yet it was the start of the space age.”
David Awschalom, a condensed matter physicist specializing in quantum-information engineering at the University of Chicago, who was not part of the research, agrees that the program solved a very particular problem and adds that Google cannot claim it has a universal quantum computer. Such an achievement would require perhaps a million qubits, he says, and lies many years in the future. But he believes the company’s team has reached an important milestone that offers other scientists real results to build on. “I’m very excited about this,” Awschalom says. “This type of result offers a very meaningful data point.”
Google’s quantum computing chip, dubbed Sycamore, achieved its results using exactly 53 qubits. A 54th one on the chip failed. Sycamore’s aim was to randomly produce strings of 1’s and 0’s, one digit for each qubit, producing 253 bit strings (that is, some 9.700199254740992 quadrillion bit strings). Because of the way the qubits interact with one another, some strings are more likely to emerge than others. Sycamore ran the number generator a million times, then sampled the results to come up with the probability that any given string would appear. The Google team also ran a simpler version of the test on Summit, a supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, then extrapolated from those results to verify Sycamore’s output. The new chip performed the task in 200 seconds. The same chore, the researchers estimated, would have taken Summit 10,000 years.
Yet a group of researchers at IBM, which is also working to develop quantum computing, posted a preprint paper on arXiv.org earlier this week arguing that, under ideal conditions and using extra memory storage, Summit could accomplish the task in two and a half days. “Because the original meaning of the term ‘quantum supremacy,’ as proposed by [California Institute of Technology theoretical physicist] John Preskill in 2012, was to describe the point where quantum computers can do things that classical computers can’t, this threshold has not been met,” the scientists wrote in a post on the IBM Research Blog. Perhaps, then, Google’s achievement might be better labeled “quantum advantage.”
But Scott Aaronson, a theoretical computer scientist at the University of Texas at Austin, who sometimes collaborates with the Google researchers, says it is not really correct to say quantum supremacy has not been achieved—even if it is not an unambiguous “man on the moon” sort of result. After all, Sycamore was still far faster at the task than Summit. And as the number of qubits in Google’s setup grows, its computing power will expand exponentially. Moving from 53 to 60 qubits would give the company’s quantum computer the equivalent computational heft of 33 Summit supercomputers. At 70 qubits, a Summit-like classical supercomputer would have to be the size of a city to possess the same processing power.
Aaronson also suspects that what Google achieved might already have some unintended practical value. Its system could be used to produce numbers verifiably guaranteed by the laws of quantum physics to be random. That application might, for instance, produce far stronger passwords than humans or classical computers are able to come up with.
“I’m not sure the right thing is to argue whether it’s ‘supremacy’ or not,” Awschalom says. The quantum computing community has yet to agree on the best ways to compare different quantum computers, he says, especially those built on different technologies. Whereas both IBM and Google are using superconductors to create their qubits, another approach relies on trapped ions--charged atoms suspended in a vacuum and manipulated by laser beams. IBM has proposed a metric called “quantum volume,” which includes factors such as how fast qubits perform their calculations and how well they avoid or correct errors.
Error correction is, in fact, what quantum computer scientists must master to make truly useful devices—ones containing thousands of qubits. At that point, researchers say, the machines could run detailed simulations of chemical reactions that might lead to new drugs or better solar cells. And they could also quickly crack the cryptographic codes most commonly used to protect data on the Internet.
To reach that kind of performance, however, a quantum computer must self-correct, finding and fixing errors in its operations. Errors can arise when a qubit flips from 1 to 0 spontaneously or when its quantum superposition decays because of interference from the outside world. Google’s qubits currently last about 10 microseconds before decaying. “They have a finite lifetime,” says Marissa Giustina, one of the project’s researchers. “They’re very fragile. They interact with their surroundings, and we just lose the quantum information.”
Classical computers tackle error correction with redundancy, deciding whether a digital bit is on or off by measuring not a single electron in a capacitor but tens of thousands. Conversely, qubits are, by nature, probabilistic, so trying to clump them together to perform one bulk measurement will not work. Google is developing a statistical method to correct errors, and John Martinis, a physicist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, who teamed with the company to develop Sycamore, says the tentative results so far have revealed no fundamental aspect, no showstopper, that would prevent error correction from getting better and better. The show, it seems, will go on.
Meanwhile Google’s engineers will be working to improve their qubits to produce fewer errors—potentially allowing many more qubits to be interlinked. They also hope to shrink down their large, desktop-printer-sized control boxes—each can handle 20 qubits and associated circuitry, so three are needed to run Sycamore’s 53 qubits. And if their system grows to reach about 1,000 qubits, its cooling needs will exceed the capacity of those large silver cylinders.
Julian Kelly, who works on quantum hardware and architecture at Google, says the company’s announcement is an engineering achievement above all else, but it is one that could open up unexplored terrain. “We’ve demonstrated that the quantum hardware can do something that is extremely difficult,” he says. “We’re operating in a space where no one has been able to experiment before.” What the outcome of that progress will be, he says, is something “we don’t know yet, because we’ve just got here.”