We see here it was REAGAN era that tied our native reservations to GAMBLING ECONOMY. The right wing loves building temporary economies geared to fleecing everything citizens earn. As with our US cities when US corporations went overseas ---economies based too heavily on those large corporations---so to will gambling disappear at a moments notice and there has been almost no other economies built on our native reservations. Billions of dollars over a few decades----no real economies built. There are several very, very, very rich native citizens----that 1% and their 2%----
Native American voters had a majority for Bernie Sanders--they are trying to go left social Democratic----the urgency for our native citizens is protesting Foreign Economic Zone and MOVING FORWARD must be happening NOW.
'the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) to regulate federally recognized tribes’ gaming operations'.
'Traditionally, most tribes had some sort of gaming—shell games, archery, etc. Contemporary Indian gaming ranges from ceremonial games to Vegas-like operations. Congress established control of Indian gaming with the 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA). IGRA categorized gaming into Class I, Class II, and Class III (25 US 2703). IGRA also established the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) to regulate federally recognized tribes’ gaming operations'.
The Myth of Indian Casino Riches
Dwanna L. Robertson • June 23, 2012
If I had a nickel for every time someone asked me about receiving money from Indian casinos, I might be relatively rich. No such luck. Non-Native people generally assume Indians are getting rich from tribal casinos, and often engage in intensive question-and-answer sessions when challenged. People have difficulty reconciling public myth with factual information, especially about a subject so politicized. In my opinion, lack of knowledge combined with the complexity of federal-state-tribe relations contribute to common misconceptions about Indian gaming.
First things first: What exactly is Indian Gaming?
Traditionally, most tribes had some sort of gaming—shell games, archery, etc. Contemporary Indian gaming ranges from ceremonial games to Vegas-like operations. Congress established control of Indian gaming with the 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA). IGRA categorized gaming into Class I, Class II, and Class III (25 US 2703). IGRA also established the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) to regulate federally recognized tribes’ gaming operations.
Consisting only of ceremonial and social gaming for nominal prizes, Class I is subject to tribal regulation only—not state or federal. Class II and III gaming are subject to regulation under IGRA. Class II gaming generally means bingo, lotto, pull tabs, poker, etc.—only games played against other players with winnings based on how many people play and “pay” into the pot. Class III operations are what most people think of as Indian casinos, including games of chance not included in Class I or II gaming operations; e.g., slot machines, craps, blackjack. IGRA stipulates a tribe opening a Class III gaming enterprise must have (1) a tribal-state compact or agreement, (2) approval by tribal ordinance, and (3) approval by the NIGC. Lastly, Indian gaming activities may only occur in states where gaming is legal. Tribes in Utah may not open Class II or III operations.
A 2008 government report emphasizes, “One final characteristic of gaming under IGRA should be noted because it is so often overlooked in the public conceptions of Indian gaming: Indians do not have the right to offer gaming. Tribes do. Indian gaming is not ‘privilege for one group of citizens.’ It is a power of government.”
The common myth about Indian Casino Riches goes a little something like this:
Every tribe has a casino in which every Indian has a job—if the Indian wants one. But why would the Indian want to work when every Indian gets lots and lots of money from the profits of the casino?
Here are the facts:
Not every tribe has a casino. In 2011, NIGC reported out of 566 federally recognized tribes, only 246 tribes operate 460 gaming facilities in 28 states. Thus, 324 tribes (57 percent) have no gaming operations. Indeed, the rural and unpopulated geographic locations of many Native nations discourage gaming.
Not every Indian has a job. As of 2009, Natives experienced unemployment at 13.1 percent—greater than the nation average of 9.2 percent. Many tribes operate gaming facilities primarily to generate employment. The total number of jobs by Indian gambling created nationwide is impressive: 628,000. But up to 75 percent of those jobs go to non-Indian employees. Areas of extremely high unemployment with a high density of Native folk are the exception—80% of gaming employees in North and South Dakota are Indian. But jobs at Indian Casinos are low-paying and lag behind national wages for the same group of workers.
Not every Indian gets money from casino profits. Whereas other gambling institutions may do as their stakeholders please with their net profits, tribal nations must follow strict rules. Per IGRA (25 USC 2710), gaming net profits may be used only to:
1) Fund tribal government operations or programs;
2) Provide for the general welfare of their members;
3) Promote tribal economic development;
4) Donate to charitable organizations; and
5) Help fund operations of local government agencies
This means the tribe must use gaming revenue to improve its infrastructure, develop education opportunities, and provide social programs for the people. Even if tribes want to distribute gaming revenue in per capita payments to their tribal members, they must first develop a “revenue allocation plan” and gain approval of the plan from the DOI Secretary.
The idea that money just flows freely into Indian people’s hands is pure fantasy. Approximately 72 tribes give per capita payments from gaming revenue, ranging from hundreds of dollars annually to many thousands. Very few distribute large sums—Foxwoods stopped. Actually, a 2008 report finds that tribal leaders don’t like to disburse cash, contending “large per capita payments lead to citizen dependence on tribal governments, undermine the work ethic, and discourage young citizens from finishing their educations.”
So where do the profits go?
The scope of Indian gaming is exaggerated. There are resort-type casinos, but many “tribal facilities” are just trailers with bingo. NIGC Chairwoman, Tracie Stevens testified before the Senate Committee on Indian affairs that in 2009 tribal facilities generated gross gaming revenue of $26.5 billion—merely 21% of gaming nationwide. But Indian gaming also generated $6.2 billion in federal taxes, $2.4 billion in state income, and $100 million in local income through payroll, sales taxes, and direct revenue sharing through government agreements.
And I’m genuinely surprised that people seldom question how ANY tribe pulled millions out of its back pocket one day to start a casino. IGRA stipulates that no entity other than a tribe may possess an ownership interest, but there are layers of lenders. For example, the Mohegan Sun recently refinanced $1 billion in debt. Foxwoods is working to refinance its $2.3 billion.
But before lenders get paid, think about those “tribal-state” compacts again. Connecticut receives 25 percent of the “hold” of slot machines, i.e. the money left after winnings are paid out. In January, Connecticut’s share came to $24.8 million, and in the last two decades, over $6 billion from Indian Casinos. Pennsylvania requires 55 percent of the hold. Former NIGC Chairman, Harold Monteau states that only about 10% of tribes receive the majority of the revenue. Just how many hands are in the money jar?
Gaming is an indigenous legacy, but Indian gaming is a very political issue that is terribly misunderstood outside of Indian Country, and I dare say, not well understood within it. If I’ve done my job, you have questions or criticisms, or maybe, this piece resonates with you. Please take the time to educate yourself or someone else about Indian gaming. Together, we can dispel the myth of “Indian casino riches.”
It is indigenous citizens feeling these enslaving neo-liberal Foreign Economic Zone policies first. We have in US already watched child labor in our agriculture industry-----but WORLD BANK/IMF Foreign Economic Zones and their global human capital distribution system grabs children ----poor and indigenous first as they have least rights and voice---then come back for that 99% of citizens in each nation.
Many of the Latino immigrants in US are indigenous citizens from each Latin American nation. The Phillipines hardly has ANY indigenous citizens----as does Bahrain----Qatar-----and Myanmar is fast moving in that direction.
Who do global Wall Street consider INDIGENOUS? Well, the Americas were colonized by a genocide of native citizens----guess who are now considered native? That's right---we white citizens----it's time to rotate the population balance. White Australians have been shouting for a few decades that they are an endangered species as global labor pool fills their Foreign Economic Zones---Australia has had a raging global Wall Street neo-liberal leadership as the US has Clinton and UK had Blair.
ALL US CITIZENS---BLACK, WHITE, BROWN WILL BE HEADING INTO THIS GLOBAL LABOR POOL---WE ARE THE NATIVE PEOPLE HAVING SOVEREIGN RIGHTS---please stop thinking these global labor pool policies are coming to take the other person!
'Dialogue between governments and Indigenous Peoples that acknowledges work traditionally valued in different communities is also key, so that children can participate in healthy and culturally important work while avoiding dangerous and exploitative labor'.
Remember, the International Labor Organization is a branch of the United Nations so it will never produce research or articles educating against what policies tied to global 1% really need to be addressed.....we cannot solve this by passing single sets of laws----
Exploited Labor: Indigenous Children’s Need to Work Despite Risks
Sara Shahriari • November 20, 2013
In Bolivia, 12-year old boys toil deep underground in the suffocating heat of dangerous silver mines. In the Philippines, children as young as nine are separated from their families to work as servants. In North America, girls are forced into prostitution. All these young people, and millions more around the world, are involved in what the International Labor Organization defines as the 'worst forms' of child labor–extremely dangerous exploitation that often disproportionately involves indigenous youth.
A global reality
On November 20 each year the United Nations marks Universal Children's Day to promote the welfare of children worldwide, including the 168 million people under the age of 18 who are involved in child labor. The United Nations' International Labor Organization (ILO) defines child labor as "work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development." According to this definition, Sub-Saharan Africa sees the world's highest percentage of child labor, followed by Pacific Asia and Latin America. Most countries have national laws and accept international treaties governing the work young people can perform, but despite those regulations, law enforcement is often weak, and family incomes remain so low that children's contributions play a role in family survival.
People in North America or Europe may think of child labor as something that happens in sweatshops or other large scale, urban industries. But today it exists mainly in the informal economy, a world that encompasses everyone from kids selling candy alone on busy city streets to children laboring long hours on family farms. This diffuse, ever-changing work force means that ending child labor is not as simple as shutting down factories that exploit hundreds of young people. And since poverty is one of the key problems driving them to work, forcing children out of jobs without providing an alternative income or support may drive them to even more dangerous, less visible work.
Beyond child labor is another category, the 'worst forms of child labor,' which includes slavery, sexual exploitation and extremely dangerous work. These worst forms can be difficult to address because they often take place out of sight, with children working in mines or on commercial farms, or exploited for prostitution or drug trafficking.
Why indigenous youth
"In indigenous populations you generally have a higher risk of child labor, especially the worst forms, and an equally high risk of not being in school," says Lars Johansen, a senior program officer for the ILO's International Program on the Elimination of Child Labour. "Very often the cause is higher levels of poverty and lack of access to basic services."
There is no reliable global data on how many of the world's 168 million child laborers are indigenous, though local and national studies confirm they are particularly vulnerable. And of course, indigenous groups around the world have unique experiences, though often the loss of tribal lands, historic forced servitude and concerted attempts to eliminate or assimilate Indigenous Peoples have led to desperate economic and social situations.
Without concrete information on indigenous children involved in labor, it's difficult for anyone to address it. The ILO's 2006 report, Guidelines for Combating Child Labour Among Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, acknowledges the problem. "Child labor among Indigenous Peoples has until recently received little attention from governments and international institutions as well as from Indigenous Peoples themselves," the report notes. "It therefore largely remains an invisible issue and there exist no comprehensive data on the magnitude of the problem or on the conditions and types of work in which indigenous children are engaged."
Case study: Bolivia
Bolivia is proportionally one of South America's most indigenous countries, and also the country with the highest rates of child labor. Here, indigenous people make up 40 percent of the population, the majority of people living in poverty, and indigenous children are much more likely to be involved in child labor and the worst forms of child labor than non-indigenous children.
Though Bolivia has made progress in reducing child labor and poverty in recent years, mirroring an international trend, the variety of work that children do is visible everywhere. They are selling food with their parents in market stalls, herding sheep and llamas on the plains and shining shoes on the street. There are thousands of children in the worst forms of child labor, but they are often less visible because they are trapped in domestic servitude, trafficked for sex, or work in isolated mines and fields doing heavy agricultural work.
Deyna Mamani is 13 years old, part of an Aymara Indian family, and works with her grandmother selling hot drinks in a busy market in the city of La Paz on weekends and holidays. They wake up before sunrise to prepare their cart and spend the morning on the side of a road. "It was out of need," Mamani says of why she started working as a child. "The need to study, to buy clothes, and to build a house where I can live with my family… I mostly bought school supplies, because my dad didn't give me money to buy anything."
Mamani's work is illegal because of her age, though she firmly believes that it is not harmful and should be recognized and protected by the government. Eight hours south of La Paz, outside the city of Potosi, Quechua Indian boys as young as 12 are working hundreds of feet underground, where silver and tin are blasted from mountains with dynamite. This is a worst form of child labor, but these very young miners say they work for much the same reason Mamani does: the family income is so low that everyone must to contribute.
Often working children operate in hazardous conditions without safety precautions. This Bolivian boy in La Paz is preparing to saw a heavy iron bar.
Urgent need for research and action
Local and national studies highlight indigenous children's vulnerability to child labor, especially the worst forms, but there are very few in-depth investigations of the problem, especially in Africa and Asia. What information exists, however, points to an urgent need for poverty reduction, which includes decent work for adults, and access to quality schools that respect indigenous traditions and languages. Dialogue between governments and Indigenous Peoples that acknowledges work traditionally valued in different communities is also key, so that children can participate in healthy and culturally important work while avoiding dangerous and exploitative labor.
As the ILO's 2006 study notes, "Unless the specific conditions of indigenous child labor and education are addressed pro-actively, overall child labor elimination efforts are likely to fail."
For those citizens not following global geo-politics these several decades----we would see articles like this all over the world as civil unrest and war created refugees and extreme poverty. Jordon pushed many of its Palestinian refugees into that global labor pool and here we see them about to do the same for Syrian refugees. Today's US cities having economic policies designed to leave great percentages of US citizens unemployed will be those same 'refugees' that will be deemed BETTER OFF in the global labor pool. I call Baltimore's Wall Street Development 'labor and justice' organization network ONE BIG REFUGEE SYSTEM.....it is designed just as if Baltimore citizens were these same refugees and YES----THESE ARE THE US CITIZENS WHO WILL BE FIRST to be pushed into global labor pool-----black, white, or brown citizens----long-term unemployed meets disappearing middle-class this coming decade to be that POOR UNEMPLOYED CLASS to hit the EX-PAT AS GLOBAL LABOR POOL WORKER.
'Containing the refugee crisis in Jordan
More tangibly, the trade deal’s implementation offers a way to improve the livelihoods of Jordan’s Syrian refugees. Many disempowered Syrians have found employment in illegal markets or are easily recruited by criminal organizations, militias fighting in Syria, or terrorist groups. This creates high rates of violence and sexual abuse in refugee camps and threatens Jordan’s security. Access to legitimate employment and education would provide Syrians a safer and viable alternative, containing the security risks associated with a swelling refugee population'.
For those global citizens shouting out for justice for our Palestinian citizens and sovereignty rights----the Syrian War was started not only to prepare to bring WORLD BANK/IMF FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES----it served to capture all of what in that region was support for the Palestinian cause----things have been silent as West Bank moves to being totally OCCUPIED.
Jordan-EU trade deal may benefit economy and refugee crisis
by Azhar Unwala , August 19, 2016
The recent trade deal between Jordan and the EU is a bold proposal to attract foreign capital and employ Syrian refugees.
The European Union (EU) recently finalized a trade deal with Jordan, granting the Hashemite Kingdom relaxed rules of origin for 52 product groups manufactured in special economic zones. These zones—which are subject to less government regulation and taxes compared to the rest of Jordan’s economy--will be able to export made-in-Jordan products that include over 70 percent of non-local production inputs to European markets tariff-free.
In exchange for these relaxed rules, factories exporting products to the EU under the deal must derive 15 percent of the labor from Syrian refugees. This rate will increase to 25 percent in the deal’s third year. Once 200,000 Syrian refugees are employed, the deal’s relaxed rules will further extend to other product groups across Jordan.
According to the Jordanian Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs and Minister for Industry, Trade and Supply Jawad Anani, the deal aims to attract foreign capital, boost employment, and strengthen competitiveness in Jordan. This could occur particularly by turning Jordan’s 650,000 Syrian refugees from a resource burden to an economic asset.
Benefiting Jordan’s economy
Jordan’s economy is currently struggling. The Kingdom’s debt-to-GDP ratio is 90 percent and unemployment is around 15 percent with youth unemployment nearly double that. The influx of Syrian refugees has further strained the economy, increasing youth unemployment by 30 percent and growing demand for basic commodities by 40 percent.
This deal could accordingly prove equally beneficial to Jordan’s society and economy. Special economic zones have often drawn significant foreign investment and infrastructure development, and easier access to European markets make those investments especially attractive. This has already led to companies like Asda, a British Walmart subsidiary, and IKEA, a Swedish home-furnishing store, signaling their interest in this opportunity. Should this deal succeed in attracting capital, Jordan could further become a leading destination for Gulf states seeking to invest their oil wealth abroad. All this could compensate the Hashemite Kingdom for economic losses resulting from instability in Syria and Iraq.
New manufacturing prospects in Jordan could also improve job growth. Jordanians would have access to greater employment opportunities, especially in managerial roles. Syrians could formalize their businesses from the informal economy and replace much of the foreign labor that sends most of their remittances abroad. With steady and secure wages, a larger permanent workforce would boost consumer spending in the Jordanian economy and drive wages upward. Syrian workers and their employers would also pay work permit fees and taxes, generating needed government revenue.
Yet even the deal’s successful implementation will not be a magic bullet for Jordan’s economic woes, and there are risks. It is unclear whether the strong incentives for foreign investment will be sufficient to overcome the dangers of investing and operating nearly adjacent to the turbulence in Iraq and Syria.
Like many Jordanian economic projects this one also relies on foreign investment and international aid, forcing the Kingdom to focus on short-term outcomes instead of long-term, sustainable economic reform. Sustainable reform must include trimming deficit-enabling redundancies in government, gradually waning unsustainable commodity subsidies, and improving ease-of-business for small-to-medium sized Jordanian enterprises—which make up 95 percent of Jordan’s private sector yet are largely exempt from the benefits that large and multinational enterprises receive from special economic zones.
Containing the refugee crisis in Jordan
More tangibly, the trade deal’s implementation offers a way to improve the livelihoods of Jordan’s Syrian refugees. Many disempowered Syrians have found employment in illegal markets or are easily recruited by criminal organizations, militias fighting in Syria, or terrorist groups. This creates high rates of violence and sexual abuse in refugee camps and threatens Jordan’s security. Access to legitimate employment and education would provide Syrians a safer and viable alternative, containing the security risks associated with a swelling refugee population.
Upcoming special economic zones like the King Hussein Bin Talal Development Area (KHBTDA) are important in this regard. KHBTDA is about ten miles from the Za’atari refugee camp, the largest in Jordan which hosts nearly 80,000 Syrian refugees. The Jordanian government has already invested $140 million in developing KHBTDA’s infrastructure, and projects that the zone could employ every worker in Za’atari and be only half full.
Developing KHBTDA—as with other special zones—with Syrian workers could accordingly generate an incubated Syrian economy in preparation for the Syrian conflict’s eventual end. Jordan could qualify for needed international aid designated for peacemaking and post-conflict reconstruction to further assist Syrian refugees. The existence of economic safe havens for Syrian workers in Jordan could also encourage additional Syrian businesses to leave Syria, undermining Damascus’s tax base and generating international leverage for a peaceful end to Syria’s civil war.
These benefits rest on the assumption that Syrians will gravitate to special economic zones for work, which is still uncertain. A recent pilot project for the trade deal’s implementation had limited participation. This was because many jobs were far from home and did not pay that generously compared to the informal or illegal economy. Many Syrians are educated and highly skilled, yet would only receive minimum wage for menial labor in the formal economy. They may consequently wish to stay with current occupations since they get to keep more of their pay and are not subject to costly work permits or taxes.
Political risks remain
Implementing this deal is still politically risky. With Jordan’s record high unemployment rate, granting work permits for Syrian refugees could generate wide-ranging public anger. The deal could be viewed as unjustly privileging Syrians over Jordanians, fostering political volatility in the short to medium term. Building public support for this deal and developing further opportunities for Jordanian employment will be critical for the Kingdom in this regard.
Another concern is human rights. Special economic zones in Jordan have been accused for exploiting and unfairly treating low-wage workers in the past, and similar concerns are arising here. Rights violations in this instance could be especially politically detrimental to all parties involved in this deal given the international concern toward Syrian refugees. Adherence to ethical labor practices is accordingly vital.
The Jordan-EU trade deal has the potential to be net positive for Jordan’s economy and its refugee crisis, yet key obstacles and risks must be effectively navigated.
It is no accident that foreign high-skilled immigrants coming to the US are leaving our US college grads unemployed or working temporary non-profit jobs-----making EX-PATS of the most educated is a tool for global corporate fascism forever-----Stalin simply sent them to Siberia----global Wall Street is sending them to UPPER MONGOLIA FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONE -----it will be made to seem hip====ONE WORLD RULES----but 99% of global citizens will be that BASIC INCOME ENSLAVED WAGE---no matter what GREEK or IVY LEAGUE connections one has. The global 1% and the 2% are a set bunch----SMART CITIES has a goal of a global 1% not even needing that 2%----EX-PAT will come with civil unrest WORLD BANK/IMF saying its best for these citizens to be employed!
The percentages for unemployment in our young adult/college grad categories are deliberately kept lower than they are-----many college grads are being pushed into these internships/non-profit job formats that will disappear with this coming economic crash---it is NON-EMPLOYMENT.
Future 'immigrants' in some Foreign Economic Zone around the world!
Millennial College Graduates: Young, Educated, Jobless
By Leah McGrath Goodman On 5/27/15 at 6:22 AM
In the Magazine
Camille Perry, 26, bartends in Portland, Ore., March 20, 2014, one of two jobs she has as she tries to pursue a career as an actress and poet. The millennial generation is still lagging in the workplace, making up about 40 percent of the unemployed in the U.S., says Anthony Carnevale, a director and research professor for Georgetown University’s Center on Education and the Workforce. Leah Nash/The New York Times/Redux
U.S. Millennials Unemployment jobs
This spring, an estimated 2.8 million university graduates will enter the U.S. workforce with bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees just as America’s unemployment rate hits its lowest level in nearly seven years. Cause for celebration, right? Not so fast.
The millennial generation is still lagging in the workplace, just as it did last year. It makes up about 40 percent of the unemployed in the U.S., says Anthony Carnevale, a director and research professor for Georgetown University’s Center on Education and the Workforce.
Generation Opportunity, a conservative nonprofit that advocates for millennials, releases a monthly “Millennial Jobs Report” that slices official labor data and tracks unemployment rates for younger workers. As of May, the data show 13.8 percent of 18- to 29-year-olds are out of work, an improvement over 14.2 percent in January and over the same time last year, when it was 15.4 percent. The trend is encouraging, but the number is still way above the national jobless rate of 5.4 percent.
“If you look at the numbers starting in 2009, we’ve been in the longest sustained period of unemployment since the Bureau of Labor Statistics began collecting their data following World War II,” says David Pasch, a spokesman for Generation Opportunity and a 26-year-old millennial. “This misconception that we don’t want jobs or that we’re lazy and entitled is nonsense.”
By 2020, millennials will be an estimated 46 percent of all U.S. workers. “Millennials are going to dominate all the numbers, employment and unemployment, from here on out,” says Carnevale. According to the Pew Research Center, the millennial generation, defined as ages 18 to 34, is projected to overtake the baby boomer generation in 2015 as the nation’s largest living generation. The millennial population is expected to reach 75.3 million people, surpassing the projected 74.9 million boomers (aged 51 to 69) this year. The Generation X population, defined as ages 35 to 50, this year hovers at around 66 million, according to Pew.
Millennials face higher university tuitions and student loan debt than ever before, as well as stiffer competition when they enter the workforce. A 25-year-old who recently earned a master’s and is living with a friend in Washington, D.C., tells Newsweek she is waitressing while looking for a job better suited to her qualifications. “It’s hard,” she says. “They don’t want to pay you extra for your master’s. There are enough people with master’s degrees that they can require them.”
Jacqui Martinez, a 31-year-old principal at consultancy Oliver Wyman in Dallas—a millennial who is her company’s millennial recruiter—says that, in her experience, those in her age group don’t expect fat salaries or the perfect job. Still, she adds, “they want to be paid enough that they know they’re going to be able to pay their bills.” Contrary to their reputation for hopping from one position to another, millennials are capable of staying in a job—it’s just that most of them have not had that luxury due to repeated layoffs in recent years, says Martinez, who has been in her job for nine years.
Perhaps most infuriating, millennials are getting lower earnings compared with the nation’s median income, versus people of that age a decade ago. “We find that because of the difficulties facing millennials, they are delaying these important life decisions, like getting married, buying a home, starting a family,” Pasch says.
In a study by Carnevale’s center at Georgetown, the age at which young adults on average reach the median wage, across education levels, increased from 26 to 30 between 1980 and 2012. Those hardest hit were high school graduates and young men. Full-time employment for high school graduates declined 13 percentage points for the period, while the rate for university graduates declined by 8 points. As of 2012, young men earned only 58 percent of the mean wage, down from 85 percent in 1980.
Carnevale’s center found that the employment rate for young graduates was the worst around the ages of 21 to 25, with the employment rate for that segment falling from 84 percent in 2000 to 72 percent in 2012. During this time, the gap in full-time employment for whites versus African-Americans also widened, from 6 percentage points in 2000 to 14 points in 2012, with African-Americans on average not making the median wage until age 33.
While having a high school degree used to be enough to make it into the middle class, Carnevale says, the bar is higher today. “They’re the first generation that needs to have a college degree and experience to compete, before they even enter the workforce.”
Carnevale says the worth of a high school education began to decline during the 1970s recession and “started to drop aggressively by 1983.” On the one hand, the trend toward a greater level of education for most Americans is promising. The concern, however, is that the rewards are not keeping up with the costs. According to Generation Opportunity, university graduates are entering the job market saddled with an average $33,000 in student loan debt.
According to a study from the Brookings Institution, a nonprofit Washington think tank, the “volume and frequency of student loans increased significantly” from 2002 to 2012, with loans spiking 77 percent. The price tag for attending even an in-state, public four-year college leapt by nearly 32 percent in the same period. (Public colleges say that after factoring in financial aid packages, the rise is closer to 13 percent.) Higher college enrollment explains some of the increase in student loan debt, up 7 percent for the period, but it doesn’t account for the full spike.
At the same time, tuitions are unlikely to fall, even though universities are having trouble reaching enrollment goals, and lower birth rates are expected to make that worse.
“We’re hearing about this all over the country,” says Sarah Coen, a senior vice president at Ruffalo Noel Levitz, an educational consultancy based in Iowa City. “The biggest shake-up that’s going to have to happen on the college side is a lower enrollment rate. Colleges will have to diversify their revenue streams to keep up, such as bring in more adult students, online students and international students, and aggressively manage their finances.”
On top of that, students who might otherwise be headed to college aren’t sure if they want to anymore. While May 1 is the national enrollment deadline for new students, many prospective students this year have not sent in their deposits, a professor in upstate New York tells Newsweek. (To protect his school, he did not want to be identified.) “Since the financial crisis, the market is not recovering,” he says. “People registered to go to college are not sending deposits. It’s a population of students either not going to college or delaying going to college. We’re hearing university enrollment is 10 percent down around the nation.”
Carnevale says graduates are feeling let down by their universities, even as the institutions jack up the cost of tuition. “I don’t know if you noticed,” he says, “but we have a debate raging in this country right now over whether universities are supposed to teach for enlightenment or to prepare students for the job market. You still see presidents at some very prestigious universities arguing for the former, not the latter.”
The Georgetown study suggests colleges need to do a better job of preparing graduates for the workforce, and recruiters need to be more transparent in hiring. Once they hit the job market, young people say they are often frustrated by technology walls. Just applying for a job often requires graduates to fly blind: They apply online and never hear back, leaving them to wonder if anyone ever looked at their application, or worse, if the job was even real in the first place. The process also does not offer much feedback that would allow them to learn from their failures.
“It is nearly impossible to find a job that you can apply for directly,” says one 28-year-old job hunter who spoke to Newsweek via Twitter.
The process, many millennials say, is very discouraging. “You’re like, ‘I’ll do anything and apply for everything, but usually it’s an electronic filing and you’re spending all your time on it and never hear back,” says the Washington, D.C., graduate. She estimates that, on average, friends who graduated along with her applied for 60 jobs before landing one.
“So far, I have applied for around 30 jobs, if not more, and have heard back on two of them,” she says. “I didn’t get either job because I don’t have enough experience. These are entry-level jobs, but experienced people are taking them.”
We don't know how black leaders in Baltimore stay in office as they are that critical force behind a global Wall Street Baltimore Development MASTER PLAN of making 600,000 citizens who earn $40,000 and less----this is right at poverty and most are deeply impoverished---the goal will be to send these citizens to EX-PAT CATEGORY just as Syrian or Palestinian refugees---and it is these same global Wall Street players bringing on these instabilities and city bankruptcy needed to MOVE FORWARD with global human capital distribution of US citizens ------it is that MASTER PLAN from REAGAN era----CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA----working hard to make this all a reality!
KNOW WHAT? IT WOULD BE FAR MORE EASY PEASY TO JUST GET RID OF GLOBAL WALL STREET POLS AND THEIR PLAYERS!
Future 'immigrants' in some Foreign Economic Zone around the world!
Apr 28, 2015 at 2:34 PM
How Baltimore’s Young Black Men Are Boxed In
By Ben Casselman
Filed under Inequality
A protester and riot police on Monday in Baltimore.Brendan Smialowski / AFP / Getty Images
At Freddie Gray’s funeral on Monday, before the riots that made headlines across the country, Pastor Jamal Bryant spoke of the limited opportunities for young black men in Baltimore and across the United States. Men like Gray feel like they are living “confined to a box,” Bryant said, according to The New York Times.
“He had to have been asking himself, ‘What am I going to do with my life?’ ” Bryant said of Gray, who died April 19 of injuries sustained while in police custody. “He had to feel at age 25 like the walls were closing in on him.”
The economic realities facing men like Gray — and many of the young people who took to the streets after his funeral — are indeed harsh. The unemployment rate for black men in Baltimore between the ages of 20 and 24 was 37 percent in 2013,1 the latest data available; for white men of the same age range, the rate was 10 percent.2 Nor do the prospects for black men improve much as they grow older: Just 59 percent of black men between the ages of 25 and 54 are working, compared with 79 percent of white men. Just 1 in 10 black men in Baltimore has a college degree, compared with half of whites (for ages 25 and up). And the median income for black households, at about $33,000, is little more than half that of whites. Moreover, none of those figures takes into account the high incarceration rate for African-Americans, which makes the disparities even starker.
Baltimore isn’t an outlier. There are other cities with more poverty, higher unemployment and greater inequality. The racial disparities evident in Baltimore are common across the country.
But Baltimore isn’t exactly typical, either. By a wide range of metrics — income, employment, education — the racial divide in Baltimore is wider than in the U.S. as a whole. And Baltimore residents as a whole, regardless of race, tend to be worse off:
- Nearly 1 in 4 Baltimore residents lives in poverty, versus 1 in 6 Americans
- 18 percent of Baltimore’s homes are vacant, compared with 13 percent in the U.S.
- The unemployment rate in Baltimore is nearly 3 percentage points higher than in the U.S. as a whole.3
In many ways, Baltimore looks a lot like Ferguson, Missouri, the St. Louis suburb where protests broke out last summer after a police officer killed another young black man, Michael Brown. Both are relatively poor African-American communities surrounded by wealthier, whiter suburbs. Both have a history of complicated relationships between residents and police. Both suffer from high rates of unemployment among their large populations of young black men.
But Ferguson wasn’t an outlier, either. There are dozens, if not hundreds, of American cities, large and small, with the same stew of poverty, inequality and discrimination. The box that confined Freddie Gray and Michael Brown is just as hard to escape in those cities.
WE THE PEOPLE have had to endure a national media playing both sides of these immigration issues regarding PATHWAY TO CITIZENSHIP. Obama made these policies central in his DREAM ACT-----NOT------all the time global Wall Street does not envision having CITIZENS IN AMERICA----they have dismantled every avenue to what being a citizen with rights are during CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA----all while using PATHWAY TO CITIZENSHIP in every discussion on immigrant policies.
ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE ONE WORLD CITIZEN----will not have any rights---only global corporations and the rich have access to Rule of Law and JUSTICE.
The format of Foreign Economic Zone and global labor pool is based upon wanting to remove that sovereign citizen status to allow global labor pool workers to be treated anyway that Foreign Economic Zone global corporation wants them treated.
As national media ramps up how HIP AND COOL it is to be EX-PAT-----pretending that US citizens will take those first world developed nation wages and workplace conditions with them---SAY BYE BYE TO ALL OF THAT!
So, here we are 2017 still listening to this debate with global Wall Street CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA pols playing this media game-----
THIS IS HOW YOU KNOW A GLOBAL WALL STREET PLAYER--IF THEY ARE PRETENDING THEIR IS ANY INTENT TO HAVE CITIZENS WITH RIGHTS IN US CITIES DEEMED FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES.
How Neo-Liberalism Has Created
The World's Immigration Crisis
By Jerry D. Rose
12 February, 2008
Nothing is more maddening in the arena of public opinion and policy today than our totally insane approach to the "crisis" of immigration in America; and it's not that much better in some European countries. In an election season, opinion and policy (at least promises of policy) get entertwined in the public discourse and it becomes hard to tell the difference between a blow-hard hot stove ranter and a vote-pandering politician. The "thought" level is equally mind-numbing in either case. Public speakers give us gum-ball demonstrations of how the country is about to get inundated by immigrants, recalling the late 19th century panic about an impending tide of eastern European Catholic immigration or the "yellow peril" of newcomers from Asia. Political candidates of all persuasions take it for granted that we have to "seal our borders" against illegal intruders; and Congress votes funding for a wall separating the U.S. and Mexico, re-inforced by high-tech surveillance equipment and the "assistance" of Minute Man-type vigilantes. Immigration agents invade meat-packing and other factories to haul off "illegals" for swift deportation. States and cities rush to fill in any federal gaps in immigrant-suppression, and Congress gets itself tied in knots about what some call a "path to citizenship" (however rocky) while others scream about amnesty for the "crime" of crossing the border without permission. Republican presidential candidates compete with one another over who would be "tougher" on immigration and Democrats, as usual, practice a "softer" form of suppression in which you're not exactly sure how in the hell they would handle this situation. What to do? What to do?
Well, how about we start with recognizing what may be the crux of the matter: that the U.S. and the rest of the world is caught in a trap of "neo-liberal" globalization which has made corporate profit the be and end-all of public policy. Under the inspiration of this philosophy, the world economy is re-made as a global playground of profit-seeking for its corporate entrepreneurs, with "privatized" societies which render each individual an atom of existence to be manipulated for corporate profit at the expense of the pleasures and supports of the social commons. These "atoms," cut loose from the bonds of family and community, are not only free but compelled for their own survival to move from their ancestral homelands to other places where they have a chance of survival. Given that the more "developed" countries offer employment opportunities that are marginally better than those available to people in the "under-developed" ones, the immigration flow is predominantly from under-developed to developed ones, as from Latin Americans to the U.S. and Canada, Africans and Asians to "old" countries of western Europe.
The clash we now seeing playing out in these "developed" countries is based on what has been happening to working people in those countries as well. "Neo-liberal" policies have certainly not spared them either. Under the influence of Ronald Reagan in the U.S., to mention one bellwether in this movement (like Margaret Thatcher in Britain) , the security of workers has been severely challenged by anti-labor policies that have reduced the organized labor movement to a shadow of its former self; while one after another political administration (especially Republican but also Clinton Democratic) has hammered away against the social compact of public concern for the welfare of individuals. It became relatively easy to "starve the beast" of educational, health and other services for citizens, since these years of retrenchment of government services corresponded with the growth of a (truly) voracious beast of expenditures for (often) needless military purposes that sapped budgets and created huge deficits that helped to undermine Social Security and any chance of a truly national health system.
So there you have it. Workers from under-developed countries deprived of opportunities to make a living at home "flood" into countries like the United States, The Netherlands or France and the socially insecure native workers of these countries see the immigrant workers as the source of their problems. As Jim Hightower says in an article just published in Alter Net, American workers look down on the immigrant as a competitor for work and for scarce public services, when they should be looking up to the people on Wall Street and in Washington who are the really responsible parties for their insecurities.http://www.alternet.org/workplace/76076/ In exactly the same way, it has been noted that the people who hunted and executed witches in Salem in 1692 were traditionally agrarian-oriented people made to feel insecure by the new class of capitalist merchants coming to prevail in that community. However they did not attack the power-wielders in the town and village precisely because they were powerful but instead looked (way) down to some of the outcastes who could serve as appropriate scapegoats on which to express their insecurity. Perhaps immigrants in industrialized countries today are the witches of the 21st century.
We like to think, of course, that we are more "enlightened" than the religious fanatics who carried out the Salem witch trials. That remains to be seen, as he have yet to see whether an "enlightened" path can be found from witch-persecution to the recognition of the common humanity of the earth's peoples. And that path remains to be explored in a later essay that I'm calling "Toward a Just-Plain-Liberal Approach to the Immigration Crisis."
Whether global Wall Street promps US citizens overseas with temporary high-paying jobs or a collapsed economy with absolutely no US SAFETY NET PROGRAMS-----dismantled during OBAMA BY CLINTON NEO-LIBERALS----we are seeing an industry around selling this idea of US citizen as EX-PAT. Know what? These same industries are selling global citizens in nations around the world this same message----BE GLOBAL LABOR POOL---IT'S ONE WORLD.
HSBC is that British bank most connected to global banking fraud these few decades so simply clawing back the fraud from this bank could build a few US city local economies with plenty of jobs and small businesses!
HSBC Expat | A Different Perspective: Expat Life
Published on Jan 25, 2015
As expats, we are all different.
We are young, or we are old. We're with family, or alone. We've come for love, or money, or career, or adventure, or for all of these things. Our paths may never cross, but we are on the same journey.
We have left everything we have ever known, for the unknown.
Here, where we have moved to, everything seems new. And yet, when we return home, everything will have changed.
Because we see things differently. We have a different perspective.
And in this, we are all the same.
Through this video, we explore the unique perspective that expats have as citizens of the world and how this shapes the perception of one's old and new home. Exploring life in a new country offers both opportunities and challenges, so we look at why people decided to move abroad, what expats have learned and what they’d say to others about to take the leap.
The video is created from still images, which are animated using 3D visual effects so that the viewer's perspective of the image changes - in the same way that expats' perspective on the world changes as they experience life from a different angle, in another country.
Thank you to all the expats who shared their experiences with us, including @Iced_Jem, @michaelvenske, @ed_romson, @shelleypascual, @paroshep, @dimebarcelona, @CathylPowell, @DrJParenteau, @AliceJungclaus, @carolamex, @PartridgeISM, @emmakaufmann, @CrowningGifts, @Caripampita and @Caro_Ganter.
Where will your journey take you?
This is the goal of MOVING FORWARD US CITIES DEEMED FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONE-----global Wall Street CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA working hard to allow US citizens to experience these human capital distribution systems----black, white, and brown citizens----99%
Wouldn't we expect any 'labor and justice' organization or any pol pretending to be left social Democratic to have shouted this over a decade ago?
FIRST THEY CAME FOR THE WRITERS----Oh, that must be all that FAKE NEWS------I am hearing all over-------the 5% to the 1% of white, black, brown citizens telling the 99% of each population group DON'T WORRY WE WILL PROTECT YOU! OH, REALLY????
Let's just reverse this march to ONE WORLD FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONE with rolling protests to bring economic disruption and demand ALL 5% TO THE 1% GLOBAL WALL STREET PLAYERS step aside.
Human Capital: The Philippines’ Labor Export Model
Dovelyn Rannveig Mendoza Tuesday, June 16, 2015
In the 1970s, in order to address an escalating unemployment rate and balance of payments crisis, the Philippine government adopted a comprehensive range of policies that, among other things, systematically encouraged the export of contract labor from throughout the country. The program, developed during the long military dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, was rationalized as a temporary measure to address the country’s immediate problems.
Four decades later, and after a series of democratically elected governments, the labor export program is still very much in place. In 2013 alone, 1.8 million temporary migrant workers fanned out to more than 190 countries, each one bearing an employment contract issued and certified by the Philippine government. From factory and domestic workers to engineers and nurses, Filipinos fill a wide range of jobs in foreign labor markets. ...