We say NOT SUSTAINABLE because we have watched overseas these few decades and seen the problems making this industry unsustainable. As with all living things----species live in an ECOSYSTEM and do not thrive in artificial captivity. The solution is genetically modifying until something survives. We look at this article of JAPAN installing these same platforms ----they are massive and push all local clam farming vendors out of business because they do not get $0.49 cent a clam -----they cheapen the price with low-quality food.
Look how far offshore this JAPANESE farm platform was built-----1.8 miles--------while the CA articles from yesterday gave the impression these massive seafood platforms were 30 miles offshore.
WE KNOW THAT IS NOT TRUE-----OUR US MEDIA PRINTING THESE STORIES KNOW THAT IS NOT TRUE----AND OUR FAR-RIGHT WING GLOBAL BANKING 1% POLS PRETENDING ALL THIS IS 'GREEN' KNOWS THIS.
The Best Farmed Shellfish Options
by Berkeley Wellness
3 km, 1.86 mi.
'The facility features an 18-meter-tall steel tower standing 3km off the coast, with fish pens extending 150 meters from the tower'.
One would be concerned in eating seafood off the coast of JAPAN still dealing with radiation contamination-----just as in Gulf of Mexico selling seafood contaminated from oil spill. US citizens with soaring neurological disease vectors----THIS IS THE REASON. So, this is what is MOVING FORWARD off East and West Coast of US.
November 24, 2016 12:00 pm JST
Automated offshore farming opens up new frontiers in aquaculture
YOSHIFUMI UESAKA, Nikkei staff writer
Nippon Steel & Sumikin farming's offshore fish farming system
TOKYO Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering has developed a massive offshore fish farming system whose automated feeding technology promises to drastically reduce manpower requirements.
The engineering company plans to pitch the system -- which it claims is the first of its kind in the world -- to fishery companies grappling with labor shortages and rising costs. It also hopes to eventually export the system to other Asian countries in the form of engineering, procurement and construction, or EPC, projects.
TRIAL RUN Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering is putting the new system through its paces off the coast of Tottori Prefecture, in western Japan, at a coho salmon cultivation facility run by Yumigahama Suisan Kaisha, a group company of marine products giant Nippon Suisan Kaisha.
The facility features an 18-meter-tall steel tower standing 3km off the coast, with fish pens extending 150 meters from the tower.
A senior manager in charge of promoting Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering's aquaculture business pointed to two tanks attached to the tower. "Food stored in those tanks will automatically be transported to pens through pipes at the bottom of the ocean," he said.
The tower is equipped with blowers, which use air pressure to deliver food to the pens, and power generators. These devices can be operated from land via PCs and tablets, meaning farmers do not have to go to the pens for feeding. The tanks store enough food to last three to seven days, depending on the size of the fish.
This automated system is estimated to require only one-third the manpower needed for conventional feeding methods.
Of the tens of billions of dollars in Federal funding to build GREEN seafood farming----as we said a few million of all that funding helped our San Jose and Willis Wharf small clam farming-----but almost all went overseas to build in Foreign Economic Zones where the most problems in contamination and disease in products is occurring----and look, our local US lobster workers are being pushed out of business.
'Darden Restaurants, the company that owns Red Lobster and Olive Garden, among other chains, recently announced plans for the world’s largest lobster aquafarm in Malaysia'.
Red Lobster Builds World’s Biggest Lobster Farm to Raise Things That Aren’t Really Lobsters
By Jay Barmann
The less attractive spiny or rock lobster. Photo: Ed Bierman/Flickr
Darden Restaurants, the company that owns Red Lobster and Olive Garden, among other chains, recently announced plans for the world’s largest lobster aquafarm in Malaysia. But here’s the thing: They can’t raise Maine lobsters down there, only those spiny, clawless “rock lobsters” that most chefs would tell you aren’t really lobsters at all, and only have tail meat anyway. So maybe Red Lobster might want to take that big-clawed Maine lobster out of their logo and replace it with one of these ugly things sometime soon?
As this pro-Maine lobster website explains, the only true lobsters in the world are found in the Gulf of Maine and the New England coast, and a similar species is found off the European coast. And as the Orlando Sentinel admits, the flesh of these spiny lobsters, the kind Red Lobster will raise, tends to get rubbery if not perfectly cooked. Consequently, demand for the higher-quality Maine lobster will likely continue -- however, Maine lobster fishermen are freaking out a bit about the possibility that an enormous farm like this will ultimately drive down the price of their catch.
Red Lobster already uses spiny lobster tails in many of its dishes, but still stocks Maine lobsters for their tanks and for serving customers who order whole lobsters — kind of a bait-and-switch if you ask us, since there’s a Maine lobster fisherman displayed prominently on their homepage right now, holding a big-clawed beauty. Lobsters from the Malaysian farm aren’t likely to make it onto Red Lobster diners’ plates for at least five years, with the earliest produced crustaceans ending up in Asian markets and restaurants beginning around 2017. Ultimately, the company expects to be farming 40 million pounds of lobsters each year, which would be worth $1 billion or more.
But if you ever wondered why the entrées during Lobsterfest were so cheap, now you know.
Here we see 4 miles off San Diego ---the idea all these industrial, dirty, tons of toxic waste washing on shore pens for millions and billions of fish/clams will not destroy the environment is RIDICULOUS. As US citizens see digestive ailments tied to food contamination soar---we are told THERE IS A PILL FOR THAT.
'To show that 4 miles is closer than it sounds, O'Malley takes me on a small boat to the spot where Rose Canyon Fisheries would be located. From there, I can clearly see houses on the shore'.
This is what will come to East Coast as well as they say the reverse. Where are the offshore oil and fracking happening? In this same continental shelf location and yes, these seafood are washed in oil and gas spillage.
The attitude of global 1% is this: these are US FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES----these global platforms are going to be worked by global 99% labor pool who will be the largest consumers of what would not pass as US QUALITY AND SAFE food----so these CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA now Trump do not care these platforms are UNSUSTAINABLE----they are spending trillions of dollars in Federal subsidy as GREEN to build them.
The goal of feeding people from these offshore platforms as sea temperature is about to rise beyond what our ocean wildlife will endure is FALSE. Having no control of these offshore global corporations ----once built----earning some billions of dollars over a few decades ---they will just disappear--
THIS IS NOT SUSTAINABLE FARMING-----IT IS NOT HELPING LOCAL ECONOMIES.
Our local small business clam farms could be that source of local food---but again, they will be pushed out of business unable to access clean water for onshore warehouse farming.
NPR as MARKETPLACE MONEY sells this idea knowing it is temporary waste of time leaving NO SUSTAINABILITY and killing the environment.
Food For Thought
Huge Fish Farm Planned Near San Diego Aims To Fix Seafood Imbalance
September 1, 20155:50 PM ET
Heard on All Things Considered Claire Trageser
A school of wild yellowtail jack (Seriola lalandi). Rose Canyon Fisheries near San Diego would aim to raise 11 million pounds of yellowtail and seabass each year.
Courtesy of HSWRI The largest fish farm in America could be built 4 miles off San Diego's coast.
Rose Canyon Fisheries could have a footprint on the ocean floor of 1.3 square miles, about the same size as New York's Central Park. The goal is to produce 11 million pounds of yellowtail and sea bass each year.
The Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute, the nonprofit research arm of SeaWorld, is partnering with a private investment firm to create the aquaculture project. Don Kent, the president and CEO of Hubbs-SeaWorld, says he wants to help correct what he calls a "seafood imbalance."
He's referring to the fact that 91 percent of America's seafood is imported, and countries like China that export a lot of fish are now keeping more for themselves.
"The price of seafood is going up higher and higher for people like us who have to import it," he says. "So the big advantage we have over those other supplies is from the fact that we can grow it locally."
Rose Canyon Fisheries is still applying for permits, so no farming has started yet. But Kent is already breeding yellowtail in his lab.
But the project's size and location are problems for Matt O'Malley, with the environmental group San Diego Coastkeeper.
"We're talking about putting a floating factory farm right off the coast of San Diego," he says.
To show that 4 miles is closer than it sounds, O'Malley takes me on a small boat to the spot where Rose Canyon Fisheries would be located. From there, I can clearly see houses on the shore.
"I mean, you just know that some of these people are going to be out here looking at this," O'Malley says.
But O'Malley says the problems don't end with beach homes' views. Marine mammals could get caught in the farm's nets and ropes and caged fish could become inbred and spread disease to the wild population, he says. Plus, he worries seals and sea lions would be attracted to all of those caged fish and get entangled in the nets and ropes.
Other critics say building the project is an awful lot of work when the U.S. already does produce some seafood, and doesn't eat it. Americans don't always like the fish native to our coasts, so we import from other countries, according to food journalist Paul Greenberg, author of American Catch.
"We tend to export stronger tasting things like mackerel, black cod, a lot of squid, and then we import things like shrimp, tilapia, neutral-tasting things that you can kind of deep fry and use in the American-palate-friendly sandwich," he says.
Aquaculture can help correct this imbalance. But "rather than trying to start up new and complicated ventures, first off let's try to eat the fish we've already got," Greenberg says.
As Kent with Hubbs-SeaWorld sees it, though, aquaculture solves more global problems than Americans not liking fishy fish.
"There's 7 billion people on Earth now and there's going to be 9 billion people in your lifetime, very soon," he says. "How are we going to feed those extra 2 billion people?"
One way to do that is through aquaculture, he says.
The article written on crazy-as-a-rabid bat raging global banking 1% neo-liberal CA GOV BROWN-told us two things.
First, it told us STATES are MOVING FORWARD in global market economies with Brown making his own partnerships with China-----our US Constitution does not allow STATES to initiate these global markets.
But CA is trying to EXIT THE US as that independent US Foreign Economic Zone and Gov Brown is acting as independent of our US 300 year old Federal control of global markets. He is doing this by pretending it is all about being GREEN.
So, this statement has nothing to do with being GREEN---it shows a breakdown in US sovereignty as CA EXIT MOVES FORWARD.
'California Governor Jerry Brown said on Thursday he will discuss merging carbon trading markets in his state and China when he travels to Asia later this week, a sign of the governor's ambition to influence global climate change policy'.
As well, the article on offshore massive seafood platforms made to look as if ACTIVISM was happening to stop the movement of massive seafood and energy platforms offshore from bringing them on shore. Again, no matter how a local court rules TODAY saying citizens control development and can stop this------CA is #2 to TEXAS #1 in Trans Pacific Trade Pact----TPP is CLINTON/OBAMA global banking 1% along with Bush neo-cons. TPP is written to make sure local citizens have no such power---those offshore industries will build any global factories anywhere they want.
Then we see this ridiculous FAKE policy saying PIERS CANNOT BE BUILT IN STATE-CONTROLLED waters. We spent this week discussing how CARBON TRADING has handed continental shelf real estate to global corporations ending STATE SOVEREIGNTY. There will be not state controlled waters.
'The idea has reemerged, now that the Trump administration is proposing a dramatic expansion of oil leasing. California legislators are considering a bill that would ban new oil pipelines and piers in state-controlled waters, which extend up to three miles offshore'.
Will off-shore fish farms harm the Gulf of Mexico?
Battle now is on over approval of fish farmingBy Bill Lambrecht, Washington Bureau
April 9, 2016 Updated: April 9, 2016 8:04pm
GALVESTON — On the National Geographic Channel, Buddy Guindon and his family navigate high-seas dramas and the cutthroat business of commercial fishing.
CA has been fracking offshore throughout OBAMA terms----fracking contamination has killed local coastal regions just as off TEXAS. These environments now filling with MASSIVE SEAFOOD PLATFORMS are already toxic and due to be made more so----same with EAST COAST now MOVING FORWARD these same West Coast policies all while pretending this is GREEN.
'Center for Biological Diversity attorney Kristen Monsell calls the lack of federal programs to study the risks of offshore fracking “doubly disturbing.” According to her, every offshore frack “increases the risk of poisoning our ocean, and that danger could now spread along our coast if the Trump administration opens up waters off California to new oil and gas leasing.”'
Who's Cashing in on California Oil Drilling?
By Gogo Lidz On 5/9/17 at 11:15 AM
Santa Barbara is dripping with oil. Walk along the beaches of this Southern California city and chances are, tar will stick to your feet from the natural seeps. In 1896, due west of the waterfront, the world’s first experiment in offshore drilling unfolded in the Summerland oil field. A half-century later, Congress passed the Submerged Land Act, which established that states regulate everything within 3 nautical miles of the shoreline. Beyond that, it’s federal territory. The first federal lease, about 8 miles off Carpinteria, was sold to Phillips Petroleum, Continental and Cities Service Oil Co. in 1966; two years later, 2,000 gallons of crude leaked from the platform that Phillips Oil built on the lot. Phillips and then-Secretary of Interior Stewart Udall assured angry residents that a spill of that magnitude would never happen again.
It turned out to be an empty promise. In 1969, about 3 million gallons of oil oozed from the nearby field of another consortium, spreading across 35 miles of the beach and 800 square miles of the Pacific Ocean. At a time when there was very little federal environmental regulation for offshore drilling, it took months to cap the blowout. The drilling explosion was so powerful that it cracked the seafloor in five places. Thousands of birds, seals and dolphins were poisoned and died, and the tourism-dependent coastal region was devastated economically. In 2015, Santa Barbarans relived their worst nightmare when an All-Plains American pipeline broke and slathered Refugio State Beach. More than 20,000 gallons of crude fouled the ocean.
President Donald Trump has been clear about his desire to increase offshore drilling, and on April 25 Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke announced that “nothing is off the table”—even the Pacific. He told guests at a private event for the Young America’s Foundation at the Reagan Ranch Center in Santa Barbara that offshore drilling in the federal waters off California would soon increase. On April 28, Trump signed an executive order that revokes limits on offshore drilling in the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific oceans. He has instructed Zinke to review the five-year plan imposed by President Barack Obama that blocked the sale of new federal leases in California waters until 2022.
Most of the oil reserves off the West Coast are in the Santa Barbara Channel. The Trump administration is fast-tracking the application process for new lease sales off the coast of Santa Barbara, the very place where oil spills first led to the expansion of federal protections for the environment. Perhaps most galling to Santa Barbara environmentalists: Trump and some members of his Cabinet have deep financial ties to the area's energy industry, which has invested huge sums to consolidate its influence in the state.
This is shaping up as a pivotal moment for oil companies that do offshore business in Santa Barbara. Though oil has fueled U.S. politics for more than 100 years, climate change and safety legislation have limited production. After 1969’s massive oil spill off Santa Barbara, President Richard Nixon established the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. In 1971, the Senate introduced what would eventually become the Clean Water Act. The Southern California coast has been under federal and state protection ever since, and during Obama’s last term further limits were imposed. But in the Trump era, old rules often no longer apply. The oil industry, which last year spent about $40 million lobbying California politicians, this year bankrolled much of Trump’s $107 million inauguration. Now Big Oil is looking to strike it rich out West like it’s 1876—the year the California oil boom began.
Offshore drilling boom?
It’s been 30 years since the last lease was officially approved. Today, there are 43 active leases in federal waters off California. A month after Trump was elected, Exxon Mobil applied for a new one in the channel. Zinke’s Interior Department continually updates the list of lease candidates, and many of those candidates can also be found on Trump’s 2016 stock portfolio disclosure. One of them is Exxon Mobil, which until this past January was run by Rex Tillerson, Trump’s secretary of state. Others include Freeport-McMoRan, a mining company in which Trump adviser Carl Icahn holds 91.2 million class B shares, and Noble Energy, where Trump energy appointee Michael Catanzaro was a lobbyist.
LOOKS LIKE ALL THAT CARBON TRADING HANDED THESE SAME GLOBAL 1% CONTROL OF THESE SITES.
William Koch’s Harvest Energy and his brothers’ Koch Industries have all shown interest in building or leasing pipelines in the Santa Barbara Channel. William Koch is a paying member of the Florida White House resort Mar-a-Lago and threw Trump fundraisers last year, though Charles and David Koch publicly campaigned against Trump during the election. This year, they’ve warmed up to him. The Koch brothers lobbied feverishly in a successful effort to have Oklahoma anti-EPA crusader Scott Pruitt appointed head of the EPA and have already spent more than $3 million this year lobbying against environmental policies like the Clean Air Act. Before the last election in California, the Koch-funded organization Americans for Prosperity ran a 15-city " Already Taxed to the Max" campaign against new taxes in the state budget. It worked. The Koch brothers co-own active oil rigs north of Santa Barbara in an area that Obama designated a national marine sanctuary for the native Chumash tribe. (Devon Energy, Exxon Mobil, Freeport-McMoRan and others also own active wells in the area.) Trump’s latest offshore drilling order also prohibits the designation or expansion of a national marine sanctuary, unless it "includes a timely, full accounting from the Department of the Interior of any energy or mineral resource potential in the designated area."
Environmentalists are fighting back.
When Exxon Mobil applied for a new lease last year, the Environmental Defense Center and the Center for Biological Diversity filed a lawsuit challenging the federal government, which failed to meet the legal requirements for environmental analysis. Recently, the American Petroleum Institute and DCOR LLC have officially signed on with Exxon Mobil as defendants. Center for Biological Diversity attorney Kristen Monsell calls the lack of federal programs to study the risks of offshore fracking “doubly disturbing.” According to her, every offshore frack “increases the risk of poisoning our ocean, and that danger could now spread along our coast if the Trump administration opens up waters off California to new oil and gas leasing.”
More troubling: To increase drilling, oil companies aren’t always required to apply for new leases. Recent technology allows operators with existing leases to slant-drill from platforms already in place to create more wells. Even under the Obama administration, the feds didn’t have a great record. Documents obtained by the Environmental Defense Center from a Freedom of Information Act request reveal that federal regulators were clueless about where offshore drilling happened or how the process worked. The EDC accused two federal agencies under the Department of the Interior of issuing 53 permits for offshore fracking without conducting an environmental analysis or giving any public notice after the 2015 pipeline spill.
Republican administrations have a history of cozying up to big oil. In 2008, The New York Times reported that under President George W. Bush, Department of Interior employees were “caught up in a wide-ranging ethics scandal—including allegations of financial self-dealing, accepting gifts from energy companies, cocaine use and sexual misconduct.” The chief attorney for the scandalous department was David Bernhardt, who later became a California water lobbyist during the drought. Trump tapped Bernhardt to lead the hiring of Interior staff during his transition. Bernhardt is now the Interior deputy secretary.
Of all the petroleum and energy companies that helped fund Zinke’s congressional campaigns, his biggest donor has been Fidelity National Financial, which has a subsidiary that underwrites the title insurance policies for offshore oil leases. Bill Foley, the company’s billionaire chairman, is a Santa Barbara local. Foley also owns Fidelity Environmental Solutions, which has patented fracking technology. Trump’s new tax assistant Shahira Knight was the vice president of Fidelity National Financial, which The New York Times dubbed a “foreclosure machine” in 2008.
Offshore oil in Santa Barbara is also personal to Zinke. His wife, Lolita, a Breitbart op-ed writer and fellow Trump administration staff member, grew up in Santa Barbara’s mission area after the big spill. During the 1960s, her late half-brother, Fred Hand Jr., worked at Phillips Petroleum—the first oil company to spill offshore, in 1968, before the Union Oil disaster in 1969. Last year, Zinke helped fundraise for Justin Fareed, a Santa Barbara Republican congressional candidate who had one of the most expensive House election races in the country. In a political gaffe, Zinke sent out invitations to a Fareed fundraiser with Paul Ryan that asked guests to “the home of Ryan and Lolita Zinke” in Santa Barbara. It became a scandal in Zinke’s home state of Montana because it implied that the congressman was living in California, an impression strengthened when Democrats revealed that one of his two Montana addresses was a bed-and-breakfast. Fareed ended up losing Santa Barbara to Democrat Salud Carbajal, who introduced two House bills this year to protect waters from offshore fracking.
Oil surges to the surface of the water near a drilling rig off the coast of Santa Barbara, California, on February 4, 1969. Three million gallons of oil spilled in the 1969 offshore drilling explosion, which led President Nixon to establish the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. AP While working in the Montana’s Senate, Zinke consulted and invested in a Santa Barbara pipeline technology company called Save the World Air. According to its Securities and Exchange Commission filings in 2013, after Zinke helped with official introductions, Save the World Air entered into a lease agreement with energy company Kinder Morgan for the Dakota Access pipeline, which Zinke has long championed.
For some Trump supporters in Santa Barbara, the imperative is energy independence. “The Southern California oil reserves are worth a minimum of $750 billion,” says Jim Nelson. “Probably a lot more.” Nelson is a former Helix Energy exec who serves on the board of a Santa Barbara research company that pushes information on the dangers of natural seepage and the environmental benefits of increased offshore oil well production. ”The more drilling production increases,” says Nelson, “the more seepage decreases.” While Nelson agrees that spills can do damage, he insists that the technology has become so advanced and environmental regulations so strict that disaster couldn’t happen again. He says that more drilling will help California’s gas prices go down and school funding go up.
OH, REALLY??? WHY IS IT ALL BEING EXPORTED?
Nelson has numerous conflicts of interest with oil companies. He says he’s also served on the boards of Quintana and Genesis Energy. Both are fuel companies associated with billion-dollar Dallas petroleum heir Corbin Robertson Jr., who has invested $ 950 million in coal and oil reserves. According to an exposé by Wall Street Journal energy journalist Steven Mufson, Robertson once invested in Montana coal mines and then created a tax-exempt nonprofit called Plants Need CO2 to secretly fund TV commercials in the state that said “there is no scientific evidence that CO2 is a pollutant.” Five years after the commercials aired, Zinke said during the Montana congressional debate: “Evidence strongly suggests that humans have had an influence on higher CO2. However, the evidence is equally as strong that there are other factors, such as rising ocean temperatures, that have a greater influence.” Zinke earned a geology degree from the University of Oregon, at a time when the Western Fuels Association was filling University of Oregon libraries with anti-environmental, pro-carbon dioxide love letter documentaries (now on YouTube ). The overworked librarians filed them with the given description: “the most misunderstood environmental phenomenon of the 1980s.”
In April, Zinke spoke at the Reagan Ranch Center in downtown Santa Barbara. Activists gathered in the parking lot, chanting, “This is what democracy looks like!” and brandishing signs reading, “Keep Oil Out!,” among other things. Some signs—perhaps left over from the 1960s—bore images of a tar-soaked seal pup.
On the same day that Zinke appeared at the Reagan Ranch Center, an offshore rig in state waters named Holly shut down—maybe for good. Venoco, the drilling company that operated the platform, declared bankruptcy and abandoned the rig. Santa Barbara County Supervisor Das Williams blames the bankruptcy on the compliance failure of All Plains American, the subcontractor that was indicted on 46 criminal charges last year for causing the Refugio oil spill after failing to follow environmental guidelines. "Don’t these oil companies see the irony?” asks Williams. “Venoco actually went out of business due to the lack of environmental regulation.”
This article addresses what even our school children know about the effects of CLIMATE CHANGE on ocean environments----from salination to temperature increases killing plankton----the top of food chain for fish. The science says the oceans will not sustain seafood species especially closer to coast---as in continental shelf 10 miles where all these offshore massive seafood farming platforms are being built. The goal is spending the money ---the goals are UNSUSTAINABLE and devastating to coastal water and real estate----and it kills what would be a real sustainable approach to farming seafood----those onshore warehouse small clam farms et al.
IT IS DELIBERATELY SETTING THE STAGE FOR ECONOMIC FAILURE ----DEVASTATING POLLUTION-----COMPROMISED FOOD QUALITY ---ALL WHILE MEDIA AND RESEARCHERS ARE CALLING IT GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE.
All these trillions of Federal, state, and local revenue building these platforms will last a few decades of production.
WE WON'T SEE A GLOBAL GREEN CORPORATION PARTY JILL STEIN ---OR A BERNIE SANDERS' FAKE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES---WE WON'T SEE A GABBARD, WARREN, TURNER, ELLISON ALL RUNNING TO STOP THIS----THEY ARE GLOBAL BANKING 5% PLAYERS PRETENDING GLOBAL CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY IS 99% SUSTAINABILITY.
Fish by-products enter our US food chain in a million ways--even if we avoid eating these compromised offshore farming foods----especially in pet foods.
09/30/2012 01:00 pm ET Updated Dec 01, 2012
Climate Change To Shrink Fish By 2050 As Oceans Warm
* Human fish supplies from oceans at risk towards 2050-study
* Average maximum weights for fish to fall by 14-24 percent
By Alister Doyle
OSLO, Sept 30 (Reuters) - Fish are likely to get smaller on average by 2050 because global warming will cut the amount of oxygen in the oceans in a shift that may also mean dwindling catches, according to a study on Sunday.
Average maximum body weights for 600 types of marine fish, such as cod, plaice, halibut and flounder, would contract by 14-24 percent by 2050 from 2000 under a scenario of a quick rise in greenhouse gas emissions, it said.
“The reductions in body size will affect whole ecosystems,” lead author William Cheung of the University of British Columbia in Canada, told Reuters of the findings in the journal Nature Climate Change.
His team of scientists said a trend towards smaller sizes was “expected to have large implications” for ocean food webs and for human “fisheries and global protein supply.”
“The consequences of failing to curtail greenhouse gas emissions on marine ecosystems are likely to be larger than previously indicated,” the U.S. and Canada-based scientists wrote.
They said global warming, blamed on human burning of fossil fuels, will make life harder for fish in the oceans largely because warmer water can hold less dissolved oxygen, vital for respiration and growth.
“As the fish grow bigger and bigger it will be difficult to get enough oxygen for growth. There is more demand for oxygen as the body grows. At some point the fish will stop growing,” Cheung said of the study, based on computer models.
As water gets warmer, it also gets lighter, limiting the mixing of oxygen from the surface layers towards the colder, denser layers where many fish live. Rising water temperatures would also add stresses to the metabolic rates of fish.
The scientists said fish stocks were likely to shift from the tropics towards cooler seas to the north and south.
Average maximum sizes of fish in the Indian Ocean were likely to shrink most, by 24 percent, followed by a decline of 20 percent in the Atlantic and 14 percent in the Pacific. The Indian Ocean has most tropical waters of the three.
The study said a computer model projected that ranges for most fish populations would shift towards the poles at a median rate of 27.5 km to 36.4 km (17.1-22.6 miles) a decade from 2000 to 2050.
Adding to climate change, other human factors “such as over-fishing and pollution, are likely to further exacerbate such impacts,” they wrote.
Cheung said the shrinking of fish would have big but unknown effects on marine food chains. Predator fish like cod that swallow prey whole would become less fearsome, perhaps allowing smaller species to thrive.
“Cod ... can only eat fish that can fit into their mouth. They are not like lions or tigers” that can attack animals that are larger than they are, he said.
The climate scenario used in the study would mean an increase in world temperatures of between 2 and 5.4 degrees Celsius (3.6 to 9.7 Fahrenheit) by 2100, the second biggest gain of six scenarios used by the U.N. panel of climate experts.
“The results will be quite similar,” using other scenarios, Cheung said. (Reporting By Alister Doyle; Editing by Sophie Hares)
ROCK LOBSTER from MALAYSIA says our US RED LOBSTER-----the China South Sea is collapsing from extensive industrial pollutions, oil spills ----Japan is steeped in radiation having not degraded. The last thing we want to to develop manufactured farming in ocean waters steadily becoming unable to sustain wild seafood.
IT IS A LIE!
IT IS NOT SUSTAINABLE
IT WILL BE RIGHT OFF SHORE AND CREATE MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE WITH FARMING AND PROCESSING.
IT WILL KILL ALL FLEDGLING ONSHORE SMALL BUSINESS SEAFOOD FARMING ECONOMIES.
B-52's Rock Lobster
New B-52's album "Funplex" coming in for a landing March 2008! 1986 video (re-release) for Rock Lobster www.theB52s.com