We want to start with a very basic DNA diagnostic product on market for a few years--that is ANCESTRY TESTS using DNA. BASIC SCIENCE has all last century told us that DNA from blood samples can provide useful information while DNA from SALIVA was USELESS because saliva is filled with DIGESTIVE ENZYMES which DENATURE cellular components such as DNA. We do not want to discuss complicated science but we will try to present information that people may want to consider.
Whether an industry like DNA ANCESTRY is bogus or not is not as critical as looking at what medical research in bio-genetics is pushing forward tied to selling the idea of TREATMENTS AND GENETIC IDENTIFICATION of disease vector chromosomes on a very lengthy, complicated DNA molecule. We are more concerned about the second MOVING FORWARD medical industry as it make physically HARM or KILL people---whereas ANCESTRY frauds will only steal our MONEY and create issues of DNA databasing on each citizens' DNA.
It has long been known that ancestry traces from DNA is of very little value. As we stated 98% of every human's DNA is the same. That 2% which is different is hard to find----it does not offer any definitive trace of ancestry. Too many gene sets go into determining who we are.
So, 23 and ME is the largest of these DNA industry products with many, many, many others. Basic scientists will be the first to say doing a literature ancestry research of family name history leads to more definitive results.
DNA Ancestry Tests Are 'Meaningless' for Your Historical Genealogy Search
Mar 7, 2013 06:00 PM By Ashik Siddique
All humans share large amounts of DNA, which means individual ancestry tests can't reliably trace your genealogy very far without other evidence. Creative Commons Genealogy tracking has become big business, with many companies charging up to $300 to trace your DNA to specific historical figures or ethnic groups in the distant past by analyzing ancestry tests.
A group of scientists now offers a public warning that these ancestry tests have little scientific backing, and are often so unreliable and inaccurate that they amount to "genetic astrology."
Though advertisements for some ancestry testing companies give the impression that your unique DNA genealogy can tell you a specific story about your ancestry, the scientists say that the same history you get could be given to thousands of other people with a similar ethnic background, and that any number of different possible interpretations could come from your DNA results.
Professors David Balding and Mark Thomas of the University College London warn in a public statement from the Sense About Science campaign group that "you cannot look at DNA and read it like a book or a map of a journey" without supporting historical evidence.
Your DNA contains an enormous amount of genetic information, but most of the information that can be gleaned from it is about the genetic history of whole population - not of individual family trees.
DNA is an assortment of genetic sequences that have been inherited from many different ancestors. You double your number of ancestors with every generation, because everyone has two parents. Going back only ten generations (between 200 and 300 years) in your genealogy, you have 1024 ancestors.
Going back far enough, each of us has more ancestors than we have sections of DNA - which means that there are many ancestors from whom we have inherited no DNA, and that ultimately there will be many sequences of DNA that most people share.
"On a long trudge through history - two parents, four great-grandparents, and so on - very soon everyone runs out of ancestors and has to share them," said Steve Jones, Emeritus Professor of Human Genetics at UCL.
If an ancestry test tells you that you are genetically related to someone who lived more than several hundred years ago, it may be true about your genealogy, but not in a meaningful way.
There are several types of ancestry test, all of which use DNA samples taken from easily accessible parts of the body, like a saliva or cheek swab sample.
The individual's genetic data is compared to the DNA of people for whom there is specific information about ethnicity and geographic location, and different ancestry tests look at different types of DNA:
- Y chromosome DNA, which is inherited along the male line and only found in men
- Mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited along the female line and found in both men and women
- Autosomal DNA, which can come from any ancestor and makes up 98% of your DNA
Each of us has just only one ancestral lineage for mtDNA, and each man has just one for Y chromosome DNA; each type of DNA is passed down through generations as an individual unit. Autosomal DNA, however, is made up of thousands of sections of DNA, each with its own history.
Since all humans share the large majority of our DNA through far removed common ancestors, each of us has very little DNA that is directly inherited from a specific ancestor - even one who lived only a few generations ago.
The more steps you take up a family tree, the more negligible the DNA connection gets compared to the enormous amount we all share, and the less an ancestry test can reliably reveal.
Even genetic connections to historical ethnic groups like "Viking" or "Zulu" are vague. People's genetics do not reflect specific groups, since the high degree of genetic mixing over centuries means that even cultures with strong cultural boundaries do not have noticeable genetic differences.
People descended from more isolated populations, like the Scottish Highlands in the United Kingdom, have minor genetic differences from the general surrounding population, but they are not significant enough to identify a "Scottish gene" in an individual's genealogy.
"As a result, almost every Briton is a descendant of Viking hordes, Roman legions, African migrants, Indian Brahmins, or anyone else they fancy," said Jones.
If an ancestry test finds a connection between a particular sequence of your DNA and a specific, isolated tribal group, the only thing that can be concluded is a mere possibility that some of your ancestors were in that group.
Human history involves an incredible amount of migration, and because each of your genes has its own ancestral history, there are thousands of possible versions of your genealogy.
So is there any reliable information about your genealogy in the distant past that can come from DNA ancestry companies?
To answer a specific question about individual ancestry, you need to supplement your mtDNA or Y chromosome genetic information with reliable historical records.
It's possible, for example, for two men who find historical records indicating a common male-line ancestor 400 years ago to have their Y chromosome DNA analyzed to test their genealogy.
Some ancestry testing companies can do this reliably.
"With advanced testing you can provide a general ancestry indication i.e. Northern European, Western Africa or Middle Eastern and in some cases even more specific," said David Nicholson, director of the DNA Worldwide group to BBC News.
"DNA cannot tell you that your ancestors were Viking, simply that your ancestry came from a part of the world common to the Vikings based on historic facts. It's important to talk to the company who provide the testing to make sure your expectations are realistic".
In general, however, DNA genealogy is far more useful for population geneticists who are trying to learn about past human migrations than it is for individuals trying to learn their specific relation to Genghis Khan.
By analyzing the DNA variation among many individuals from different regions, scientists can test possible population history models and calculate how likely they are to explain specific DNA patterns. This can tell us about populations of people, but not much about individual genealogy.
"Genetics researchers are telling us that you are better off digging around in your loft than doing a DNA ancestry test if you want to find out about your family tree," said Tracey Brown, Director of Sense About Science to the Telegraph.
[EDIT] The original version of this article was entitled "DNA Ancestry Tests Are Meaningless for Your Genealogy Search,"which was inaccurate. The source material does not question the usefulness of DNA testing for questions about immediate biological relations, like paternity tests or adoptees looking for their biological families; its criticism was limited to DNA ancestry tests that claim to answer specific questions about ancestors in the distant past without supporting evidence from historical documents.
Doing those kinds of DNA ancestry tests as well as far more complicated bio-genetic disease applications is difficult if NOT IMPOSSIBLE using saliva. Saliva as we state above was never used as a diagnostic because of this enzyme chemistry and as well simply chemistry of our MOUTHS being filled with OPEN AIR------when any part of our internal bodies sealed from OPEN AIR become exposed those body chemicals as CELLS/DNA become corrupted.
Doing complicated genetic analysis even for a simple DNA ancestry test would show next to nothing from saliva-----basic science does not even support these analyses from BLOOD.
Our body cell membranes are composed of two main components-----phospholipids PRIMARILY-----proteins dispersed throughout. Phospholipids are fatty molecules. Our cell membranes whether the outer cell membrane, cellular membranes of components like mitochondria, ribosome, endoplasmetic reticulum ER -----these are all simply components that make our cell work---just as our automobile engine has the engine block, carburetor , spark plugs.
'For example, amylase breaks down carbohydrates. Protease breaks down proteins and lipase, fats.These digestive enzymes work in the mouth, stomach, pancreas, and intestines'.
All these details are BORING to people not involved in STEM jobs-----for example I can remember endoplasmic reticulum and forget how to spell carburetor. The details are less important than simply understanding why a body cell's exposure to environments different from our HERMETICALLY SEALED HUMAN BODY cause these cell components to be corrupted, breakdown, operate erratically.
ENZYMES ARE POWERFUL PROTEIN DIGESTIVE AGENTS---IT IS THEIR JOB TO DO JUST THAT---BREAKDOWN THOSE CELLS SPECIFICALLY FOOD/DRINK.
'Proteins and phospholipids make up most of the membrane structure. The phospholipids make the basic bag'.
From Mouth to Colon: The Journey of Your Digestive Enzymes
Our body requires 45 essential nutrients in order to function properly. The word essential means that we are not able to synthesize this material internally. All essential nutrients must come from outside sources. Food is our external source and needs to be digested in order to access these nutrients.
Each nutrient interacts with other nutrients and chemicals to create compounds that can then be used to build and repair cells, bones, tissue and organs. This process is known as metabolism and the reactions needed are caused by enzymes.
Enzymes are catalysts that kick start reactive processes in our body. As soon as an enzyme attaches to a molecule, a chemical process is triggered to break down the molecule.
Three Types Of Enzymes
Metabolic enzymes, produced by our bodies, repair and maintain the body’s organs and tissues. They also enable the growth of new cells.
Digestive enzymes chemically break down foods we eat to allow for nutrient absorption and energy. These digestive enzymes specifically target different particles. For example, amylase breaks down carbohydrates. Protease breaks down proteins and lipase, fats.These digestive enzymes work in the mouth, stomach, pancreas, and intestines.
Food enzymes are not found in the body; they are found primarily in plants, the fruits and vegetables we consume. However, cooking destroys many of these enzymes. They are not heat stable.
The Digestive Enzyme Journey
Our digestive process begins in the mouth as soon as food is introduced. Chewing doesn’t only mechanically break down food but it also begins the enzyme process. Saliva contains several types of enzymes that start acting on the food immediately.
Amalyse in saliva breaks down carbohydrates and complex sugars. Lipase begins to break down lipids or fats in the mouth but becomes much more active later on in the digestive process in the stomach.
Once food travels to your stomach, more thorough digestion occurs. Pepsin’s ability to withstand acidic conditions makes it the primary enzyme secreted in the stomach where it is responsible for breaking down proteins into amino acids and peptides.
The amylase from the saliva enters the stomach but is quickly killed off by the acid. Lipase, secreted from the pancreas, continues to work on the fats in the stomach, breaking them down into fatty acid particles. Digestion can continue in the stomach for at least an hour before the food moves along. Semi-digested food combined with digestive enzymes in the stomach and intestines is called chyme.
Carbohydrate digestion continues once chyme moves to the small intestine where the enzymes maltase, lactase and sucrase take over. Fat digestion continues with lipase from the pancreas. Protein digestion is performed by trypsin in the small intestine.
By the time the semi-digested carbohydrates, fats and proteins reach the small intestine, it’s mostly digested and nutrients are absorbed by the lower part of the small intestine. Anything that is left is considered to be waste and is moved along for expulsion.
The pancreas plays an indirect but important role in digestion. It is responsible for producing the enzymes in an inactive form, stored until they are needed and secreted them into the small intestine for digestion.
The organ stores and secretes a mixture of proteins, inactive enzymes and bicarbonate. It also helps to support enzyme function by reducing the acidity of the food moving from the stomach to the gut.
Any disruption to the small intestine can interfere with the production and release of enzymes. The presence of yeast, inflammation or a leaky gut can hinder the digestion process. This will lead to difficulty digesting certain foods, depending on which enzymes have become impaired. Sometimes a reaction occurs because of a damaged gut wall rather than a specific food.
People mistakenly think they have to avoid foods when in reality, they just need to give their gut some time to heal. The best way to heal a damaged or impaired gut is by taking supplemental enzymes. Once your intestinal wall is healed, your digestive enzymes will naturally be produced again. Foods that once caused a problem no longer will.
Without enzymes, no metabolic activity will occur. This means no energy and no nutrients for the systems in your body. Essentially we cannot survive without enzymes. If you suspect that your enzyme levels are low, speak with a physician and look into getting supplements.
The digestive journey is a long one and without the work of enzymes, it would indeed be perilous. So respect the power of digestive enzymes and you will get the most out of your food and your digestive system.
Why We Need Enzymes
Many foods when uncooked contain enough digestive enzymes for the process. However, when we cook or process the food, we destroy a large number of these enzymes. Therefore, we need to provide supplemental enzyme supplies to keep our digestive process running efficiently.
Even if you eat raw vegetables such as a salad along with steak and potato, you may have enough enzymes from the salad to break down the salad but not enough left to break down the meat or the potato. Undigested food means we miss out on.
Enzyme Supplements and Diet
Sometimes, enzyme deficiency can manifest in severe symptoms. For the most part, any deficiency can be managed with supplemental enzymes. These are able to provide the right dosage that your body needs to correct any imbalance.
You can still take these supplements even if you do not have signs of any symptoms. Any additional enzymes in the system will provide a temporary boost to your metabolism, which makes you feel better and keep your body functioning at optimal levels.
If you are concerned about enzyme levels, you need to manage your diet because the two are closely linked. A number of foods out there contain high numbers of digestive enzymes such as raw foods like sprouts, green and leafy vegetables, grains and legumes. Most people prefer to have these items cooked but there is no harm in eating them raw and your metabolism will thank you.
The Bottom Line
Without enzymes, the process of digestion could not progress which means we miss out on essential nutrients and our bodies cannot function. Even though these compounds are complex in nature, they do their job with efficiency and precision to keep things running smoothly. Keeping your enzyme levels balanced is fairly easy so long as you pay attention. Understanding their role and the journey they take through the body helps us to support and work with them.
We simply want to educate about very basic science of cell structure to help show how what are GLOBAL CORPORATIONS selling FAKE medical and diagnostic products are creating a SHAM-----and how our US FDA charged with making sure none of this happens has been these few decades of CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA been approving these NOT READY FOR PRIME TIME or ANYTIME medical products when all last century our US FDA worked with a modicum of PUBLIC INTEREST.
The FDA can approve a DNA ancestry product saying it does no harm------saying there is science showing the DNA molecule has been decoded and these sequences studied-----they are not going to tell the public these medical procedure claims are BOGUS. That would be bad for BUSINESS. We have a far-right wing global banking 1% FDA------who would not tell our US 99% WE THE PEOPLE these medical procedures negatives.
Whether we are discussing DNA ancestry type products----or discussing complex bio-genetic procedures tied to any man made VEHICLE enering our human cell------the basic science tells us that if the internal cell components do not recognize what is coming into cell----the entire cell chemistry goes HAYWIRE. One of the earliest cell structures compromised are the CELL MEMBRANES ----
-------'Denaturation (biochemistry) - Wikipedia
Protein denaturation is also a consequence of cell death.   Denatured proteins can exhibit a wide range of characteristics, from conformational change and loss of solubility to aggregation due to the exposure of hydrophobic groups'.
According to cell theory, cells are the main unit of organization in biology. Whether you are a single cell or a blue whale with trillions of cells, you are still made of cells. All cells are contained by a cell membrane that keeps the pieces inside. When you think about a membrane, imagine it is like a big plastic bag with some tiny holes. That bag holds all of the cell pieces and fluids inside the cell and keeps any nasty things outside the cell. The holes are there to let some things move in and out of the cell.
The cell membrane is not a solid structure. It is made of millions of smaller molecules that create a flexible and porous container. Proteins and phospholipids make up most of the membrane structure. The phospholipids make the basic bag. The proteins are found around the holes and help move molecules in and out of the cell. There are also proteins attached to the inner and outer surfaces of the membrane.
Scientists use the fluid mosaic model to describe the organization of phospholipids and proteins. The model shows you that phospholipid molecules are shaped with a head and a tail region. The head section of the molecule likes water (hydrophilic) while the tail does not (hydrophobic). Because the tails want to avoid water, they tend to stick to each other and let the heads face the watery (aqueous) areas inside and outside of the cell. The two surfaces of molecules create the lipid bilayer.
Ingrained in the Membrane
What about the membrane proteins?
Scientists have shown that many proteins float in the lipid bilayer. Some are permanently attached while others are only attached temporarily. Some are only attached to the inner or outer layer of the membrane while the transmembrane proteins pass through the entire structure. The transmembrane proteins that cross the bilayer are very important in the active transport of ions and small molecules.
Different Membranes of the Cell
As you learn more about cell organelles, you will find that they all have a membrane. Organelle membranes do not have the same chemical makeup as the cell membrane. They have different lipids and proteins that make them unique. The membrane that surrounds a lysosome is different from the membrane around the endoplasmic reticulum.
Some organelles have two membranes. A mitochondrion has an outer and inner membrane. The outer membrane contains the mitochondrion parts. The inner membrane holds digestive enzymes that break down food. While we talk about membranes all the time, you should remember they all use a basic phospholipid bilayer structure, but you will find many variations throughout the cell.
This action INSIDE A CELL is much the same as our human body IMMUNE SYSTEM. If a virus, bacteria, caustic chemical enters our body the immune system immediately releases these IMMUNO-ENZYMES do do just what is described below as the cellular LYSOSOME.
There are other reactions to cell membrane corruption but all this assures those cellular components like ribosome, ER, mitochondria et al are immediately attacked by these strong enzymes trying to fight that INVADER. The result-----cellular death.
'When the signal is sent out, lysosomes will actually digest the cell organelles for nutrients'.
The reason this is important beyond superficial DNA ancestry products is this------bio-genetic engineering is dealing with interception of DNA/RNA inside these human cells, agents designed to make these DNA interceptions----agents designed to attach/delete inside a cell will set off these kinds of chain reactions.
To be sure, genetic engineering is BROAD and there are plenty of diagnostics which can be done------much of the basic science tied to these bio-genetic engineering processes have been done OUTSIDE the body in technology labs which are is not hard----the hard part is bringing that back into our human body.
Lysosomes - Little Enzyme Packages
You will find organelles called lysosomes in nearly every animal-like eukaryotic cell. Lysosomes hold enzymes that were created by the cell. The purpose of the lysosome is to digest things. They might be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies. What creates a lysosome? You'll have to visit the Golgi complex for that answer.
A lysosome is basically a specialized vesicle that holds a variety of enzymes. The enzyme proteins are first created in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Those proteins are packaged in a vesicle and sent to the Golgi apparatus. The Golgi then does its final work to create the digestive enzymes and pinches off a small, very specific vesicle. That vesicle is a lysosome. From there the lysosomes float in the cytoplasm until they are needed. Lysosomes are single-membrane organelles.
Since lysosomes are little digestion machines, they go to work when the cell absorbs or eats some food. Once the material is inside the cell, the lysosomes attach and release their enzymes. The enzymes break down complex molecules that can include complex sugars and proteins. But what if food is scarce and the cell is starving? The lysosomes go to work even if there is no food for the cell. When the signal is sent out, lysosomes will actually digest the cell organelles for nutrients.
So, today's BASIC SCIENCE in much of genetic engineering is based upon technology OUTSIDE the body-----OUTSIDE our human cell. The GORILLA-IN-ROOM public health policy issue and research is THIS.
We KNOW our human cells can be DAMAGED by these kinds of AGENT ACTIONS-------the damage done would be much as described above.
Genetic manipulation of a DNA molecule outside of the body in labs is not very hard. Whether that manipulated DNA once reinserted back into the body will PERFORM the desired goals---whether the reinsertion ends having ADVERSE cellular effects is the GORILLA-IN-ROOM.
What is genetic engineering and how does it work?
What is genetic engineering?
Genetic engineering is the process of manually adding new DNA to an organism. The goal is to add one or more new traits that are not already found in that organism. Examples of genetically engineered (transgenic) organisms currently on the market include plants with resistance to some insects, plants that can tolerate herbicides, and crops with modified oil content.
Understanding Genetic Engineering: Basic Biology
To understand how genetic engineering works, there are a few key biology concepts that must be understood.
CONCEPT #1: What is DNA?
DNA is the recipe for life. DNA is a molecule found in the nucleus of every cell and is made up of 4 subunits represented by the letters A, T, G, and C. The order of these subunits in the DNA strand holds a code of information for the cell. Just like the English alphabet makes up words using 26 letters, the genetic language uses 4 letters to spell out the instructions for how to make the proteins an organism will need to grow and live.
Small segments of DNA are called genes. Each gene holds the instructions for how to produce a single protein. This can be compared to a recipe for making a food dish. A recipe is a set of instructions for making a single dish.
An organism may have thousands of genes. The set of all genes in an organism is called a genome. A genome can be compared to a cookbook of recipes that makes that organism what it is. Every cell of every living organism has a cookbook.
CONCEPT #2: Why are proteins important?
Proteins do the work in cells. They can be part of structures (such as cell walls, organelles, etc). They can regulate reactions that take place in the cell. Or they can serve as enzymes, which speed-up reactions. Everything you see in an organism is either made of proteins or the result of a protein action.
CONCEPT #3: How is DNA important in genetic engineering?
DNA is a ‘universal language’, meaning the genetic code means the same thing in all organisms. It would be like if all cookbooks around the world were written in a single language that everyone knew. This characteristic is critical to the success of genetic engineering. When a gene for a desirable trait is taken from one organism and inserted into another, it gives the ‘recipient’ organism the ability to express that same trait.
How is genetic engineering done?
Genetic engineering, also called transformation, works by physically removing a gene from one organism and inserting it into another, giving it the ability to express the trait encoded by that gene. It is like taking a single recipe out of a cookbook and placing it into another cookbook.
The process: Once a goal is in mind…1) First, find an organism that naturally contains the desired trait.
2) The DNA is extracted from that organism. This is like taking out the entire cookbook.
3) The one desired gene (recipe) must be located and copied from thousands of genes that were extracted. This is called gene cloning.
4) The gene may be modified slightly to work in a more desirable way once inside the recipient organism.
5) The new gene(s), called a transgene is delivered into cells of the recipient organism. This is called transformation. The most common transformation technique uses a bacteria that naturally genetically engineer plants with its own DNA. The transgene is inserted into the bacteria, which then delivers it into cells of the organism being engineered. Another technique, called the gene gun method, shoots microscopic gold particles coated with copies of the transgene into cells of the recipient organism. With either technique, genetic engineers have no control over where or if the transgene inserts into the genome. As a result, it takes hundreds of attempts to achieve just a few transgenic organisms.
6) Once a transgenic organism has been created, traditional breeding is used to improve the characteristics of the final product. So genetic engineering does not eliminate the need for traditional breeding. It is simply a way to add new traits to the pool.
How does genetic engineering compare to traditional breeding?
Although the goal of both genetic engineering and traditional plant breeding is to improve an organism’s traits, there are some key differences between them.
While genetic engineering manually moves genes from one organism to another, traditional breeding moves genes through mating, or crossing, the organisms in hopes of obtaining offspring with the desired combination of traits.
Using the recipe analogy, traditional breeding is like taking two cookbooks and combining every other recipe from each into one cookbook. The product is a new cookbook with half of the recipes from each original book. Therefore, half of the genes in the offspring of a cross come from each parent.
Traditional breeding is effective in improving traits, however, when compared with genetic engineering, it does have disadvantages. Since breeding relies on the ability to mate two organisms to move genes, trait improvement is basically limited to those traits that already exist within that species. Genetic engineering, on the other hand, physically removes the genes from one organism and places them into the other. This eliminates the need for mating and allows the movement of genes between organisms of any species. Therefore, the potential traits that can be used are virtually unlimited.
Breeding is also less precise than genetic engineering. In breeding, half of the genes from each parent are passed on to the offspring. This may include many undesirable genes for traits that are not wanted in the new organism. Genetic engineering, however, allows for the movement of a single, or a few, genes.
Last week we discussed DAN BROWN'S INFERNO-----we discussed how a PLAGUE may be caused with viral vectors-----with medical insertions ending with DNA DELETIONS/MUTAGENESIS responses by our ordinary human cells which CONTAIN the DNA/RNA which bio-genetics are trying to manipulate. US national media and academics tell us all that SOCIAL BENEFIT in MOVING FORWARD these procedures ------they are SILENT as to what is a great preponderance of evidence saying this will DO HARM.
'While immune responses and insertional mutagenesis pose obstacles for this novel form of molecular medicine, continuous progress suggests that a wider range of diseases can be treated with gene therapy in the future'.
Mutagenesis is the process of inducing mutations. Mutations may occur due to exposure to natural mutagens such as ultraviolet (UV) light, to industrial or environmental mutagens such as benzene or asbestos, or by deliberate mutagenesis for purposes of genetic research.
The problem for our US 99% WE THE PEOPLE and global citizens is this: we have in office today people who DON'T CARE what harm is brought. Global banking 5% freemason/Greek players/pols will advance these medical policies no matter the HARM.
Disease vector treatments as cancer treatments have always targeted ABNORMAL CELLS-------cells already COMPROMISED leaving behind lots of destruction of normal cells in the process. What is MOVING FORWARD today is the interruption of NORMAL CELLS with procedures so UNKNOWN to make changes in a DNA/RNA molecule that is more likely to REJECT these insertions/deletions than accepting them. Meanwhile, these INSERTIONS/DELETIONS can have enormous ADVERSE EFFECTS on body functions compromised by these processes.
This is a part of a research article very complicated but it begins to inform as to how these these procedures are MOVING FORWARD with very little if ANY success in ANIMAL research models. The complexity of the HUMAN BODY------in these kinds of research DOUBLES the expectation of negative responses.
'Controlled insertional mutagenesis using a LINE-1 (ORFeus) gene...
www.pnas.org/content/110/29/E2706Jul 16, 2013 ...
Controlled insertional mutagenesis using a LINE-1 (ORFeus) ... Edited* by Fred H. Gage, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, .... However, double-transgenic animals did not survive to birth when ... As such, this system complements a recently developed L1 reporter cell line and may be exploited for a ...'
Cancer Gene Discovery: Exploiting Insertional Mutagenesis
Marco Ranzani, Stefano Annunziato, David J. Adams and Eugenio Montini
DOI: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-13-0244 Published October 2013
Insertional mutagenesis has been used as a functional forward genetics screen for the identification of novel genes involved in the pathogenesis of human cancers. Different insertional mutagens have been successfully used to reveal new cancer genes. For example, retroviruses are integrating viruses with the capacity to induce the deregulation of genes in the neighborhood of the insertion site. Retroviruses have been used for more than 30 years to identify cancer genes in the hematopoietic system and mammary gland. Similarly, another tool that has revolutionized cancer gene discovery is the cut-and-paste transposons. These DNA elements have been engineered to contain strong promoters and stop cassettes that may function to perturb gene expression upon integration proximal to genes. In addition, complex mouse models characterized by tissue-restricted activity of transposons have been developed to identify oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that control the development of a wide range of solid tumor types, extending beyond those tissues accessible using retrovirus-based approaches. Most recently, lentiviral vectors have appeared on the scene for use in cancer gene screens. Lentiviral vectors are replication-defective integrating vectors that have the advantage of being able to infect nondividing cells, in a wide range of cell types and tissues. In this review, we describe the various insertional mutagens focusing on their advantages/limitations, and we discuss the new and promising tools that will improve the insertional mutagenesis screens of the future.
Visual Overview: http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/11/10/1141/F1.large.jpg.
Mol Cancer Res; 11(10); 1141–58. ©2013 AACR.
Insertional mutagenesis is the phenomenon by which an exogenous DNA sequence integrates within the genome of a host organism. This event can result in the deregulation of genes in the neighborhood of the insertion site and can potentially cause a perturbation of cellular phenotype. When insertional mutagenesis induces the deregulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes (TSG), it can cause cell transformation, and indeed insertional mutagenesis has been widely exploited for forward genetics screenings aimed at identifying novel cancer genes. In this setting, a mobile genetic element (usually a virus or transposon) is mobilized within an animal model system (usually the mouse) and, after a variable time depending on the agent and the animal model, cancer formation ensues. Retrieval of integration sites from tumors and mapping them to the genome allows the identification of cellular genes whose perturbation may have facilitated the promotion of tumor growth. Recurrently targeted sites in independent tumors [defined as Common Insertion Sites (CIS)] are identified as locations hosting candidate cancer genes. Therefore, in forward genetics screens for cancer gene discovery, the integrating mutagen represents both the culprit of cellular transformation and a traceable genetic tag.
Our US 99% WE THE PEOPLE underwent what was the greatest GATEWAY MEDICINE century when PROCESSED foods hit the market. Most disease vectors our 99% experience today occur because of chemicals our human body never had to process before----or not in such great quantity hit our human organs. When we think of cancers et al we think of genetic material damaged in some way having worked its way into our DNA gene structure and VOILA----we have cancer---we have diabetes----we have Parkinson's etc.
The damage done last century to our human body and health by THIS SIMPLY injection of what our human body thinks FOREIGN-----will PALE in what is basic science studies with the REAL possibility of NOT READY FOR PRIME TIME medical procedures hit our mainstream medical applications.
THIS IS SUPER-DUPER GORILLA-IN-ROOM 99% WE THE PEOPLE PUBLIC POLICY THAT THOSE GLOBAL BANKING 5% FREEMASON/GREEK PLAYERS/POLS KEEP ALLOWING TO MOVE FORWARD.
All of this is MOVING FORWARD as all US BIOETHICS is coming from a FAR-RIGHT WING -----who only considers whether the danger in these products is to LOST CORPORATE PROFITS------with total disregard to PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE.
5 Reasons to Avoid Them
Some processed foods aren’t bad for you at all, while others could be detrimental to your health.
By Chandra Johnson-Greene • Jun 4, 2018
Processed foods are often packed with refined carbs, which can cause your blood sugar to spike too quickly,
© Imagepixel | Dreamstime.com
As technology advances, the world continues to search for ways to make life just a little more convenient for the next generation. And over the past century, food has been at the center of this mission. From canned and frozen foods in the 1920s to frozen pizzas in the 1980s, processed foods have become a regular and all-too-convenient part of our diet.
While we’ve gained time and energy as a result of processed foods, we’ve also gained a host of health issues, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. But are all processed foods alike? Let’s take a closer look.
What Are Processed Foods?
Processed foods are altered in some way during preparation to make them more convenient, shelf-stable, and/or flavorful for consumers.
It’s important to remember that the processed foods discussed here are chemically processed in addition to being mechanically processed. For example, if apples are peeled, cored, and cooked to make apple sauce, it’s considered to be mechanically processed and would count as a healthy option. But if sugar and artificial flavors and/or colors are added to the apple sauce, it would be considered chemically processed.
Processed foods can also be broken into minimally processed and heavily processed. Minimally processed foods are often washed, peeled and/or cut for convenience, such as bagged salads and pre-cut vegetables. Canned vegetables and fruits, frozen vegetables and fruits, and canned fish and seafood fall somewhere in between, while foods containing multiple ingredients to enhance their flavor, texture and stability would be considered heavily processed.
According to a study of 9,000 participants published by BMC, more than one-half of the calories consumed by the participants came from heavily processed foods, while less than one-third were from unprocessed or minimally processed foods. Let’s take a look at this sobering statistic.
Looking to remove some processed foods from your diet? Try making these healthy swaps to get started:
- Bottled sauce and dressings = dry rub and homemade dressing
- Tortilla chips = high-fiber crispbread
- Canned fruit = fresh fruit
- Instant oatmeal = slow-cooked oats
5 Reasons to Quit Processed Foods
#1. Processed foods may raise your cancer risk.
A recent study, which was published in the BMJ, found that foods that are ultra-processed—foods that contain artificial colors and flavors, additives, and emulsifiers--are linked to an increased risk of cancer.
WE OF COURSE HAVE KNOWN THIS FOR DECADES-------A RECENT STUDY?
The link was found when the 24-hour dietary records of over 100,000 French adults were analyzed. The researchers found that participants who ate 10 percent more processed food than their peers also had a 10 percent increase in cancer risk. The study also revealed that the elevated cancer risk was not erased for those that don’t smoke or who exercise less.
#2. They’re loaded with added sugar, sodium, and fat.
Too much sugar, sodium, and fat in your diet can lead to serious health issues, including obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cancer. Unfortunately, processed foods are often packed with these ingredients.
#3. Processed foods are designed to make you overeat and become addicted them.
Studies show that the “reward system” in our brain can sometimes allow us to consume more of our favorite foods than our bodies actually need. Processed food manufacturers, according to Medical News Today, know this lucrative fact, so they purposely include ingredients—most commonly sugar, salt, and fat—that make their products highly rewarding to us. These ingredients lead us to overeat—and then buy some more.
If you can’t pronounce most of the ingredients in a product, it probably means that it’s heavily processed. Photo courtesy of © Les Cunliffe | Dreamstime.com
#4. They contain lots of artificial ingredients.
If you’re looking at the label on a box of your favorite junk food, there’s probably a bunch of ingredients that you can barely pronounce. If that’s the case, your cookies are packed with artificial preservatives, colorants, and flavorings that could be negatively affecting your health, even if it’s been deemed as safe by the FDA.
Some of these ingredients have been linked to an increased risk of cancer, heart disease, blood clots, and obesity, while others may aggravate ADHD symptoms in children.
#5. Processed foods are high in carbs and low in nutrients and fiber.
Not all carbs are bad, but processed foods are often packed with refined carbs, which can cause your blood sugar to spike too quickly, thus leading to a drop a few hours later that will make you feel even hungrier.
And on top of that, processed foods often lose their nutrients during processing, so synthetic nutrients are added in, which aren’t as effective. The fiber is often stripped away as well, which your body needs to properly digest food.
4 Processed Food Groups to Avoid
While avoiding processed foods completely can be easier said than done, here are four food groups that you should avoid as much as possible:
- Deli meat, bacon, hot dogs, and sausages. Processed meats have been linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. They also contain high levels of saturated fat, sodium and preservatives. For more information, check out Processed Meat Risks Include Potentially Cancer-Causing Carcinogens.
- Sodas and sweetened beverages. Soda and other sugary drinks contain way more added sugar than one should consume in a day, plus soda (both regular and diet) are linked to an increased risk of heart, kidney and liver disease, stroke, diabetes, pancreatic cancer, and osteoporosis. For more information, check out What Does Soda Do to Your Body? 7 Reasons to Kick the Habit.
- Quick meals. Jarred, canned, frozen, and microwavable meals often contain too much sugar, sodium, and preservatives. Plus, they often lack enough vegetables and contain too many refined carbs.
- Commercially baked goods. Besides the sugar and fat content, packaged cookies, cakes, and doughnuts often contain trans fats, which are linked to cancer, infertility, and cognitive disorders. For more information, check out Junk Food Effects: Stay Away from These 6 Foods and Beverages.
The Good News About (Some) Processed Foods
As we mentioned earlier, not all processed foods are unhealthy. Foods that are minimally and/or mechanically processed can be a part of healthy balanced diet because they contain little to no added sugars and/or chemicals. It’s important to read the ingredient labels to check the sugar and sodium content.
The following processed foods can be healthy for you:
- Frozen veggies and fruits. Because they’re minimally processed, they retain most of their nutrients.
- Canned beans. They’re rich in fiber, protein, and iron. Plus, they’re low in fat and cost.
- Yogurt. It’s a great source of calcium, protein, vitamins, and probiotics. Steer clear of the flavored varieties, and add fresh fruit and a little honey for sweetness.
- Packaged nuts and nut butters. They’re a great source of fiber and protein, but watch out for added sugar, salt, and trans fats.
- Popcorn. Minus the melted butter and extra salt, popcorn is a healthy way to get some whole grains into your diet.
- Jarred and canned tomatoes. Minimally processed tomatoes actually contain more cancer-fighting lycopene than fresh ones. Just watch out for the added sugar and salt. For more information, check out 6 Health Benefits of Tomatoes.
- Whole-grain breads, crackers and pasta. Whole grains can improve your cholesterol levels, blood sugar regulation, digestion, immunity, and more.