The City of Baltimore has an estimate of a few billion dollars to rebuild all of the city's water and sewage infrastructure which is readily available as a Johns Hopkins' 'DONATION'. The citizens of Baltimore need to put their
HANDS UP BECAUSE OF CORPORATE FRAUD IN THE CITY------and tell Johns Hopkins' executives TO PUT THEIR HANDS UP AND FORK OVER THE FUNDS NEEDED TO REBUILD OUR WATER AND SEWER----WITH NO PRIVATIZATION!
Simply reinstating Rule of Law fully pays for all of Baltimore City's water and sewage infrastructure.
I am day 4 in walking past a broken water pipeline in Charles Village Baltimore where the City employee tells me repair crews will come only if water to houses is deterred. The solution----HIRE MORE PUBLIC WORKS EMPLOYEES TO MEET THE DEMAND. The excuse---Baltimore City has all of its revenue redirected into the hands of Baltimore Development and Johns Hopkins -----it has all of its revenue lost to fraud and corruption----so city coffers cannot hire public employees. Johns Hopkins says----
JUST WATCH THE FRESH WATER GO DOWN THE DRAIN----WE HAVE A GLOBAL CORPORATE EXPANSION TO FUND.
Below you see the Baltimore City Water Master Plan over a few decades with 480 million gallons of water as a projected need. Below you see what is reported across the nation----LA reports on average 550 million gallons a day so Baltimore's Master Plan is aiming pretty close to LA in population size. 150 gallons of water projected at a $1---we know Baltimore's widespread water pipeline breakage over a decade involved hundreds of millions of gallons of water ----lost to the city. They say----it's just coming from the river which would flow into the bay anyway! Well, we have known for a few decades the US is coming to a crisis in fresh water. We had the funds to rebuild water infrastructure decades ago----Johns Hopkins deliberately delayed it----as did a Clinton neo-liberal/Bush neo-con Congress and Maryland Assembly because they have wanted a Robber Baron railroad construction model of US infrastructure being built by global corporations bringing large numbers of immigrants to do it as slave labor.
THAT IS WHAT TRANS PACIFIC TRADE PACT IS ABOUT---IT IS WHY NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE HAS BEEN LEFT TO CRUMBLE---AND IT IS WHAT THE COLLAPSING BOND MARKET SEEKS TO USE AS AN EXCUSE TO PRIVATIZE ALL OF THIS.
Current Capacity Projected Capacity *Water System: 360 MGD 480 MGD
City Loses 20M Gallons of Water After Massive ... www.nbcphiladelphia.com/news/breaking/Water-Main-Break... Dec 23, 2013 · Water gushed from a massive water main break that left thousands of Philadelphia ... officials say the city lost 20 to 23 million gallons of water.
As Infrastructure Crumbles, Trillions Of Gallons ...
UCLA flood: DWP now says 20M gallons of water lost, leak still gushing
KPCC staff July 30 2014
Blowers were brought in to dry out buildings at UCLA on Wednesday while city utility crews attempted to plug leaks that were preventing them from fixing a ruptured water main, which a day before dumped millions of gallons of water onto the streets and flooded portions of the campus. Meanwhile, the City Council introduced a motion that would seek funding to speed up the utility's replacement of aging water pipes. LADWP has estimated it would take more than 300 years to replace all the pipes at the current rate of spending.
. Why pipes can't be closed too quickly Closing a pipe too quickly can cause problems, according to Lucio Soibelman, chair of USC's civil and environmental engineering department and an expert on pipeline integrity and pipeline ruptures.
“If you close the pipe too fast, you increase the pressure in the network in a way that you’d create several other breaks in other pipes in the network," Soibelman said.
"With the technology and the process that you have today, [three and a half hours is] not an unreasonable time" to shut off a main, Soibelman said.
What 20 million gallons means:
- It's the amount of water that would fill 1,290,322 kegs (1 keg holds 58.6738827 liters)
- By weight, it's equal to 34,750,000 copies of "Engineering Mechanics: Statistics & Dynamics 13th edition," which has a shipping weight of 4.8 pounds according to Amazon.com. It's the textbook for Civil and Environmental Engineering 101 at UCLA. (1 gallon of water weighs 8.34 pounds)
- LADWP spokeswoman Jane Galbraith says the rate of water for L.A. is 150 gallons for $1. That means the value of the lost water is $133,333.33 or just $561.33 more than the estimated cost for a California resident to go through four years at UCLA while living on campus ($132,772 according to UCLA's website)
- The average per capita water usage in Los Angeles is 129 gallons/day. On 20 million gallons of water, one person could survive for 424.76 years (not accounting for leap years).
Update 3:24 p.m. Estimate of lost water almost double that of initial estimates: 20 million gallons Estimates of how much water was lost in Tuesday's water main break had been revised from 8-10 million gallons to almost 20 million gallons, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power senior manager Jim McDaniel said in an afternoon press conference with members of the L.A. City Council.
Water was still spilling at about 1,000 gallons per minute this afternoon, down from 4,000 gallons per minute earlier in the day, McDaniel said.
"In order to do the repairs, we need to have water even more fully shut off," McDaniel said, adding that the valves are also over 90 years old, which means they don't always work as intended.
"They had a very efficient pipe for almost 95 years," City Councilman Tom LaBonge told reporters. He said that traffic officers will be in the area to help traffic move along more easily, despite closures.
"Let me say this: That's one hell of a pothole," City Councilman Joe Buscaino said to reporters. "This reminds us on the critical need to invest in our critical infrastructure."
Buscaino cited broken pipes, sidewalks and other infrastructure problems, adding that they affect jobs, private investment and quality of life. He said the goal was to reopen Sunset Boulevard by Friday.
While the City Council is looking at a way to improve replacement rates, to improve system repair rates from every 300 years to a 100-year replacement rate would cost $4 billion and mean a huge increase to ratepayers, City Councilman Paul Koretz said.
Two lines were involved in the break, McDaniel said, with it happening at a Y joining them. He said that they'd also had to keep putting additional water through the lines while they were being closed in order to avoid contamination of the water supply.
"This is one of our bigger ruptures. This is definitely in the range of the Coldwater break," McDaniel said. The Coldwater break was in 2009.
The pipes in this case were both steel pipes, McDaniel said, with one an older riveted steel-style, while the other was welded.
L.A. uses an average of 550 million gallons per day, McDaniel said.
There are an average of three to four breaks in the water system per day, McDaniel said. He noted that the average number of breaks per year was down from five years ago by about 25 percent, from 20 breaks per 100 miles of pipe to 15 breaks per 100 miles of pipe.
He said that this reduction in the number of breaks was due to investment in repairs. There are currently $150 million in the budget for mainline pipe repair, McDaniel said.
The LADWP systematically goes through pipes and categorizes them based on factors including the type of material, pressure, history, potential for damage and how critical the customers being affected are, McDaniel said, in order to prioritize repairs.
There is no normal inspection program for underground pipes like this, McDaniel said. He said that many L.A. pipes were put in due to expansion in the 1920s, with another large number of pipes put in in the 1950s due to expansion into the San Fernando Valley.
The cause of this break is still unknown, McDaniel said, but that a lot of breaks are due to corrosion.
'A broken water main spilled 20 million gallons of water onto the streets near the University of California, Los Angeles, Tuesday. To put that into perspective, here are some other things the water could have been used for: 20 million gallons of water would last for thousands of years if used for ordinary household tasks'.
An estimated 15,000 gallons of wastewater overflowed after a water main broke in Northeast Baltimore.
Everyone in Baltimore knows that as Enterprise Zone development is done----new water and sewage is installed. VEOLA ENVIRONMENT----VEOLA ENERGY is right there doing it as part of the Federal, state, and local funding given these Enterprise Zones building global corporate infrastructure. To pay for all of this development downtown-----the current homeowners all around the city who have already paid for an entire infrastructure upgrade over decades in their water bills ----now they are receiving a tripling of water costs to fund the rebuilding of these global corporate Enterprise Zone water and sewage only.
This is being done because Baltimore City Incorporation is going to be moved close to city center and the surrounding communities are going to be pushed out of city limits----
AND YET, THE LEVEL OF INJUSTICE IN MAKING HOMEOWNERS BEING PUSHED OUT PAY FOR ALL THE NEW DEVELOPMENT IN CITY CENTER IS DISGUSTING.
If you are going to gentrify----if you are going to push communities out-----THEN PAY FOR THESE UPGRADES YOURSELVES AND ALLOW THOSE RESIDENTS TO UPGRADE THEIR OWN COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE! These are really, really, really bad people at the top in Baltimore Development and Johns Hopkins. Water line upgrades according to where water bills and fees are paid would have had the entire Baltimore City with upgrades in their infrastructure regardless of a Master Plan that pushes surrounding communities out.
I know Baltimore City is being deliberately set up for bankruptcy and so do Baltimore City Hall pols and Johns Hopkins----so do you think subsidies for low-income citizens against this rising water bill will remain after bankruptcy? OF COURSE NOT-----BALTIMORE CITIZENS WILL NOT BE ABLE TO AFFORD WATER.
Inside City Hall: Totally confused about why your water bill keeps rising?
A Q&A about city water bills, set for a vote on Wednesday
Mark Reutter July 1, 2013 at 7:00 am
Savor each drop, Baltimore – it’s going to cost you more.
The city’s plan to sharply hike water and sewage rates over the next three fiscal years has been subject to widespread confusion and misinterpretation, right down to how much the increase will actually amount to.
To clear the air, here are some of the whys and wherefores of the rate increases, which are scheduled for a vote this Wednesday at the Board of Estimates and whose expected rise will be reflected in your water bill come October.
What actually is the latest rate increase?
For the first time in memory, the city wants to increase rates over a three-year period rather than for a single year. The proposed increases: 15% for fiscal 2014 (starting today, July 1), 11% for fiscal 2015 (starting July 1, 2014), and 11% for fiscal 2016 (starting July 1, 2015).
The proposed 15% hike would be the highest single-year increase ever, with the exception of fiscal 2003, when it went up 16%.
Under this arrangement, rates will jump 41.7% over the two years between June 30, 2013 and July 1, 2015. (Flubbing the math, some city officials and media have simply added up the 15-11-11% increases and come up with a 37% rise, which understates the actual rate hike.)
How does this translate to my quarterly water bill?
The water bureau has put out an example of a so-called “typical city consumer” using 170 gallons of water per day. That usage amounts to the needs of two adults. Their quarterly water and sewer bill would rise from $157 currently to $181 later this year, $201 next year and $223 in 2015.
For a family of four, these figures need to be doubled, which would make water costs about $2,000 a year by 2015. [Department of Public Works spokesman Jeffrey Raymond objected to this calculation and said it is not correct.]
Are the new rates justified?
Legally, yes. The city has the right to increase water rates as much as it likes under a 1978 charter amendment requiring water and wastewater utilities to be maintained as self-sustaining operations.
This means that the city cannot legally defer payments to some future date or allocate funds from other sources to pay for the cost of utilities. Revenues must be sufficient to retire the water bonds offered to investors, with the directors of finance and public works responsible for recommending to the Board of Estimates the rates and charges to do so.
What are the drivers of water and sewer costs?
Water bills have been increasing every year since 2008. These increases were justified as the price of meeting a 2002 consent decree between the city and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Maryland Department of Environment to stop sewage overflows into the harbor in violation of the Clean Water Act.
While the consent decree costs are still enormous (now estimated at $1 billion over the next six years) – there are even larger costs independent of the decree. These include the city’s plans to build a new water treatment plant (the Fullerton plant), replace open-air city reservoirs with underground storage tanks, install high-tech water meters and rebuild 40 miles of pipeline per year.
The city says increased rates will allow for preventative maintenance to avoid such events as last November’s water main break that send a river of water down Charles Street at North Avenue. (Photo by Mark Reutter)
These upgrades will cost more than $2 billion over the next six years, says water bureau chief Rudolph Chow. “The 15% [rate increase] will not get me there,” Chow said in a recent interview.
But the 42% increase set over the next three years will help get the city’s financial house in order to pay for what Chow characterizes as “stabilizing the city’s infrastructure.”
According to Chow, “We have been deferring, not reinvesting, for years. The question is, do we pay now when we have control over [the system] or do we wait until the whole thing collapses.”
Not so fast, says the city auditor.
Last week, the Board of Estimates gave city auditors seven extra days to review the underlying projections of revenues, expenditures and cash balances that support the proposed rate increases.
City Comptroller Joan Pratt said auditors did not receive all of the necessary financial material from finance and public works to review the materials until a few days earlier. Pratt asked the board to delay voting on the proposed rate package until audits completes a thorough investigation of the material. The board, controlled by Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake, voted down Pratt’s motion.
As it now stands, the audit department is expected to deliver its report to the panel on July 3, followed by the board’s vote on the rate increase.
Do city residents pay more than county residents?
Yes. Even though county residents receive city water and flush through city sewer mains, Baltimore County can set its own utility rates. Instead of charging all residents for increased costs, the county has a fund that accumulates fees from other sources, such as water and sewer hookups from new development. As a result, rates for existing customers are kept down. The county last raised its residential water rates in 2010 – and has no intention of raising them this year.
Otherwise, water rates in Anne Arundel County are virtually identical to the current city rates, while the rates for “wholesale water” in Howard County and “raw water” in Carroll County are much lower than city rates.
Can I get a discount on my water bills?
The city has two programs to assist low-income residents. Residents facing a turn-off notice owing to an outstanding water bill balance can receive a credit of $125 as long as they pledge to make consistent payments on their unpaid and current bills. Senior citizens are eligible for a 30% discount if their annual income is below $25,000 and they are property owners responsible for paying the water bill.
Problem is, very few customers know about, or use, the assistance programs.
According to water bureau spokesman Jeffrey Raymond, 2,000 out of 411,000 customers participate in the low-income assistance program and another 2,000 are enrolled in the senior discount plan. That makes a participation rate of less than 1% of users.
Who will be effected by water bills costing as much as $2,000 a year by 2015 as the article above states? Think of how water has always been the cheapest utility and then think how BGE rates are tripling to rebuild that infrastructure already paid for by rate payers over decades----and not reinvested----and think about health care costs is this predatory private health system that will have simple premiums taking thousands of dollars a year and VOILA----Baltimore City is staged to be afforded only by the world's rich----and not its middle/working class and forget the majority of poor still being deliberately kept unemployed.
Will seniors be able to pay those bills? Will the disabled? NO.
THIS IS WATER FOLKS------
'For a family of four, these figures need to be doubled, which would make water costs about $2,000 a year by 2015'.
Below you see in Australia they are complaining because their electricity bills are reaching $2,000 a year and we are going to have Baltimore families pay that for water?
In the UK------The average cost of a water and sewerage bill will rise to £388 from April 1 2013 and apply until March 31 2014. This is $600 a year for water in the UK while in Baltimore City it is rising to $2,000
Electricity bills to increase to $2000 a year by 2016
- Joe Spagnolo and Kara Vickery
- August 10, 2013 6:49PM
Electricity prices are set to hit record highs. Picture: Thinkstock
FAMILIES will be slugged an average of $2000 a year for electricity by 2016.
Budget papers reveal yearly "approved increases" of 7 per cent for electricity prices from 2014 through to at least 2016-17. They have already gone up 4 per cent this year.
This will take the average annual family power bill from $963 to $1998 under Mr Barnett's reign, despite his promise during the March state election campaign to keep electricity prices "at or around the rate of inflation" which is now 2.5 per cent.
Meanwhile, according to the Clean Energy Council, more than 75,000 households targeted by the Barnett Government's solar-panel backtrack will lose up to $800 a year. The average loss would be $240.
Treasurer Troy Buswell announced in the Budget on Thursday that the solar feed-in payment would be cut from 40c to 30c a kilowatt from October 1 and to 20c in 2014.
Opposition Leader Mark McGowan said the 7 per cent electricity rises were a clear breach of Mr Barnett's election promise.
"This is a doubling of the average household's power bill at a time when Mr Barnett is increasing costs across the board and increasing taxes," Mr McGowan said.
Mr Buswell said on Thursday that state debt $3.6 billion in 2008 was heading towards the $30 billion mark.
Mr Barnett has argued previously he had to raise electricity prices because a 10-year freeze on tariffs during the former Labor government's reign had meant revenues were well below the cost of electricity production and supply.
"Despite these increases, the majority of non-contestable electricity tariffs are still below the cost of production and supply," the Budget papers say.
Lesmurdie couple Jason Laffrey and Sarah Dalby installed a 2kW system in 2011 to take advantage of the 40c/kWh feed-in payment. Ms Dalby said the decision to slash the rate by half was "nothing short of outrageous".
"I really want people to fight this," the mother-of-one said.
A spokesman from the Treasurer's office said the forecast electricity tariff increases "are assumptions (forecasts) that assist in framing the Budget".
"As per every upcoming Budget process the Government will make decisions regarding electricity/water tariffs and therefore these assumptions are subject to change," the spokesperson said.
"For example, last year in the same document a 5 per cent increase in electricity tariffs was forecast, whereas it only went up 4 per cent."
Keep in mind----so far water is obtained by the city for free----it is the movement of the water for which the city pays----think what will happen in just a decade if the water contamination and shortfall has Baltimore City paying for the water itself.
Below you see how Baltimore City created a charter amendment in 1978 -----water and waste must be a self-sustaining operation. Well, I would say that the city operated illegally in not reinvesting the money collected since then in keeping the water and sewage infrastructure strong. So, if the city can ignore laws for decades-----we can assume these bond deals are VOIDED------bond investors have known the city was acting illegally towards the citizens of Baltimore and they knew this malfeasance would VOID those bonds.
So, who are the stakeholders in Baltimore City water bonds which by the way will feel the bond market crash? Well, we can bet the state and city public employee's unions are invested and we know they are not insured against the economic crash and default of these water bonds-----but the rich investment firms are ready with their credit default swap insurance to have Baltimore City water and sewage bonds default RIGHT INTO THEIR HANDS-----public sector union funds lost-----privatization to Wall Street investment firms win.
'The city has the right to increase water rates as much as it likes under a 1978 charter amendment requiring water and wastewater utilities to be maintained as self-sustaining operations.
This means that the city cannot legally defer payments to some future date or allocate funds from other sources to pay for the cost of utilities. Revenues must be sufficient to retire the water bonds offered to investors'
Now, I don't have time to research the who, how much, and what kind of Baltimore City water and sewer bond deals but I do see this below----a little over ten years ago----we see a $70 million water and waste bond given by Fitch a A+ rating and then in 2014-----Baltimore City Council approves $4.5 billion in water and sewer bonds JUST AS THE BOND MARKET IS GETTING READY TO CRASH! SEE HOW YOU PUT OFF ALL OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE BUILDING UNTIL THE BOND MARKET CRASHES AND ALL OF THESE MUNICIPAL BONDS DEFAULT?
Now, a bankrupt City of Baltimore will have to hand over all of these bond deals to the private investors and VOILA------PRIVATIZED BALTIMORE WATER AND SEWER.
All of Baltimore City Hall is on board----all of them know this will privatize all water and sewer into the hands of Wall Street investment firms with Johns Hopkins' VEOLA ENVIRONMENT attached-----
THESE DEALS ARE PASSED THROUGH THE FINANCE COMMITTEE CHAIRED BY CARL STOKES-----CLOSE FRIEND OF JACK YOUNG WHO PRETENDS TO PROTEST FOR THE CITY'S POOR AS HE IS THE FACE OF ALL THAT IS BALTIMORE DEVELOPMENT AND CREDIT BOND LEVERAGE.
In 2014 anyone could read a national financial journal and know the bond market crash was main stream knowledge----so this is openly public malfeasance and fraud. How do you finance the $2 billion needed for infrastructure upgrades?
YOU AUDIT ALL OF THE ENTERPRISE ZONE CONTRACTS----ALL OF THE CITY BOARD OF ESTIMATE AWARDS----ALL OF THE CORPORATE TAX REVENUE OWED FOR A DECADE----AND VOILA----ALL PAID FOR IN CASH.
Fitch Update: City of Baltimore, MD Water & Wastewater Revenue Bonds
May 29, 2003 09:27 AM Eastern Daylight Time WASHINGTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--May 29, 2003--In a press release dated May 21, 2003, Fitch Ratings assigned an 'A+' underlying rating to the City of Baltimore, MD's $49,100,000 project revenue bonds (water projects) auction rate notes, series 2003A, and $20,200,000 project revenue bonds (wastewater projects) auction rate notes, series 2003A. The auction rate note offerings, which were scheduled to price this week, were to be swapped to a synthetic fixed rate. Instead, the city now plans to terminate the swaps in favor of issuing fixed rate revenue bonds. Prior to the pricing of the fixed rate bonds, tentatively scheduled for next week, Fitch will issue a revised press release and report reflecting the new structure.
Wonder what a Fitch rating on Baltimore City bonds would be after Mayor Rawlings-Blake stated in media last year Baltimore was heading towards bankruptcy?
City doubles its debt limit to $4.5 billion for water and sewer upgrades Increase in authorized debt guarantees that water bills for city residents will continue to rise
Mark Reutter September 23, 2014 at 1:02 pm Baltimore Brew
Mechanical racks separate debris from sewage flowing into the Back River Treatment Plant, which is set to undergo $375 million in nutrient-removal improvements.
Without discussion or opposition, the City Council increased the debt limit for Baltimore’s water and sewer utility funds to finance a plethora of projects over the next six years.
Last night’s action means that the utility funds – financed separately from the city’s general budget – can issue up to $4.52 billion in revenue bonds, or more than double its current limit of $2.12 billion.
The vote guarantees that water rates will continue to climb in the foreseeable future to finance the debt load. Last year, the Board of Estimates increased water and sewer rates by 15%, with 11% rate increases set for both fiscal 2015 and 2016.
More than $1 billion of the $2.4 billion debt increase will be used to satisfy a 2002 consent decree with federal and state regulators aimed at reducing the overflow of untreated sewage into the harbor during heavy storms, according to city officials.
The rest of the new revenue bonds would pay for such improvements as a new water filtration plant, installing “smart” water meters for over 200,000 homes and businesses, and rebuilding about 40 miles of water mains a year.
Earlier this month, the Board of Estimates awarded a $285 million contract to Archer Western Contractors to upgrade the nutrient removal system at the sewage treatment plant at Back River.
The project is part of a budgeted $375 million project that will be jointly paid by city wastewater revenue bonds ($111 million), state funds ($153 million) and mostly Baltimore County funds ($111 million).
Rubber-stamped by Council
“We have 1,400 projects on our capital program,” Rudy Chow, director of Public Works, announced at a Council hearing last month defending the new debt ceiling.
The proposal was met by grumbling by City Council President Bernard C. “Jack” Young, who said the city should balance its capital needs with the burden of rate increases on elderly and poor residents.
In the end, though, the debt reauthorization bills sailed through the Council to final passage last night.
The programs, developed when Chow was chief of the water bureau, “would change the culture, change the way we do business,” he told the Council.
A Civil War-era water main burst under Madison Street below the Jones Falls Expressway last December. (Photo by Mark Reutter)
Chow particularly touted the utility asset management unit he has created to audit the condition of the city’s water mains and to develop an “integrated planning framework” (IPF) to inform future capital spending decisions.
Earlier this year, the Board of Estimates awarded $3 million to consultant KCI Technologies to set up the new unit.
Reducing System Failures
In addition to complying with federal and state regulations, Chow said the agency is restructuring its operation to minimize “system failures” that have resulted in such major disruptions as the Monument Street sinkhole and Charles Street flood.
Of critical importance, he said, was the inspection of about 88 miles of relatively modern prestressed concrete cylinder pipes that are susceptible to sudden catastrophic failure. By using “the latest technology,” the city detected and corrected a potential failure in a 54-inch water main in southwest Baltimore in 2012.
He said DPW has developed a 10-year plan to inspect all PCCP pipe in the city and will prioritize its replacement “by criticality and condition.”
Funds set up in 1970s
In 1978, the city established water and wastewater utility funds separate and distinct from the city’s general fund. The funds were established to take advantage of federal money coming to municipalities to help them meet the 1972 Clean Water Act.
Federal funds dried up as Baltimore, among other cities, failed to meet the act’s compliance standards, which resulted in the 2002 consent decree negotiated by then-mayor Martin O’Malley to avoid heavy fines from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Maryland Department of the Environment.
During the hearing on the new bonding authorization, citizen activist Joan Floyd faulted the city for not developing water conservation plans. “We never hear of conservation because there’s no financial incentive for the city” because it can raise rates through the Board of Estimates without going before voters, Floyd said.
Kim Trueheart recommended that the City Council set up a water commission to independently review the capital program put forth by DPW and assess rate increases proposed for future years.
Her idea was set aside as the committee, chaired by Councilman Carl Stokes, unanimously approved the revenue bond increases recommended by Chow.