We want now to leave GOVERNMENT DUTY TO ACT and discuss more ordinary public policy----INFRASTRUCTURE development this time looking INSIDE BUILDINGS-----
Reading ARCHITECTURAL RECORD---a US journal on civic infrastructure building-----we read what has concerned us for decades ---this FAKE GREEN use of terminology to make what is HARMFUL/DEADLY sound as if it is GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE.
Remember, CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY means maintaining CORPORATE WEALTH AND PROFITS---at the expense of NATURAL SUSTAINABILITY.
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD describing various infrastructure building globally and in US---telling us that SYNTHETIC GYPSUM and PORTLAND CONCRETE is sustainable and LEED designated GREEN
Sheila and Eric Samson Pavilion at Case Western Reserve University and Cleveland Clinic by Foster + Partners
July 2, 2019
The Cleveland Clinic, consistently ranked one of the best hospitals in the United States, was established in 1921 as a center for interdisciplinary patient care, research, and education. But, over the last century, that goal has been undermined by the clinic’s expansion into a sprawling 165-acre campus-located five miles east of downtown Cleveland near Case Western Reserve University (CWRU)–whose dental, nursing, and medical schools have operated as distinct institutions in separate quarters. Cleveland Clinic and Case Western Reserve University decided to improve coordination among students who should be learning to work together.
To further the medical education mission, the Clinic and CWRU are creating a new 11-acre Health Education Campus, to be completed at an estimated cost of $515 million. Its first building is the 478,000-square-foot Sheila and Eric Samson Pavilion, designed by Foster + Partners of London in association with DLR Group | Westlake Reed Leskosky (DLR Group) of Cleveland. This new facility, completed in April, will serve 2,200 students from Case Western’s three medical programs and from the Cleveland Clinic’s Lerner College of Medicine. Here, under one roof, future doctors, physician assistants, nurses, and dentists will learn to collaborate and communicate as a team.
Students gather at custom white-oak tables, while a winter garden provides a break space for an adjacent auditorium, photo © Nigel YoungLocated between two major arteries—Chester and Euclid avenues—on a site that had been mostly surface parking, Samson is a first step in implementing Foster’s 2012 master plan to integrate old and new buildings in a coherent campus of green courtyards and squares. The new four-story pavilion fits comfortably into its low-rise context and creates strong edges for adjacent outdoor spaces. Its western flank borders the landscaped spine of the city’s East 93rd Street, opposite a three-story, 132,000-square-foot dental clinic designed by DLR Group. To the east, the pavilion overlooks a five-acre lawn bordered by trees, which is used for recreation and will accommodate graduation ceremonies.
The simple rectangular volume has a classical rigor, symmetrically massed with clearly articulated structural steel bays, clad in glass and modulated horizontally by white aluminum spandrels. Entrances are recessed into the east and west facades, while winter gardens punctuate the north and south facades. A stainless- steel canopy appears to float above the fourth story.
The original client brief had specified a quadrangle surrounded by four individual buildings. But the architects identified redundant program elements that could be shared among the schools, increasing utilization from 30 percent to more than 50 percent and reducing net area by 20 percent. This opportunity to reduce size and cost led to a single structure in which an atrium is surrounded by shared facilities. These include an auditorium, classrooms, labs, and food service on level one; a library, meeting rooms, and more labs on level two; and offices with faculty and student areas on level four. Level three is currently open to accommodate future expansion. To help maintain their individual identities, each school has its own ground-floor reception.
The luminous 27,000-square-foot, 80-foot-high central atrium is called the Cosgrove Courtyard in honor of Dr. Toby Cosgrove, former president and CEO of the clinic, who spearheaded the project. (A renowned cardiac surgeon, he performed successful heart surgery on South African steel mogul and philanthropist Eric Samson, whose subsequent generosity helped fund the pavilion that now bears his name.) Asked why he chose Foster for this project, Cosgrove replied, “I love what they did at the British Museum.” Like that institution’s skylit Great Court, which opened in December 2000 (RECORD, March 2001), the atrium here is an architectural tour de force, celebrating the virtues of symmetry, transparency, and spatial layering. “It’s quite formal,” says Spencer de Grey, Foster’s head of design. “But people respond positively to that, especially in public spaces. Its calm, classical quality provides an ordered backdrop for the individuality and randomness of student life.”
Monumental stairs at the courtyard’s corners and wide cantilevered walkways at its perimeter are intended to encourage interaction among students of all four schools by providing ample venues for impromptu meetings and chance encounters. An allée of ficus trees defines an indoor avenue and introduces both scale and greenery to a space that might otherwise seem overwhelming. “It’s already known as ‘the Grove,’ ” notes Cosgrove, with a laugh. Lounge seating mixes with library-style tables and chairs to facilitate both socializing and study. Furniture and trees—in custom planters that incorporate benches—can be easily reconfigured for concerts, conferences, and exhibitions. Gray granite floors, white plasterboard walls, and white oak millwork, all detailed with the architect’s usual precision, are softly illuminated by a roof in which steel trusses, fitted with acoustic panels, alternate with glass. “Natural light,” says Chris Connell, the clinic’s chief design officer (as well as former Foster partner), “is part of the palette.”
Targeting a LEED Gold rating, the Samson Pavilion’s green technology includes an energy system using VRV fan coils, air handlers with heat recovery, and sensors that adjust electric lighting according to the amount of available daylight. The most environmentally significant move, however, may be sound site planning. The project is located in a densely developed area well served by public transportation and surrounded by thoughtfully landscaped open space with a stormwater-retention system.
No matter how sustainable or visually stunning, the success of the Samson Pavilion will ultimately be measured by how well it advances interdisciplinary health-care education. Because students have only just begun to use it, it’s too soon to say. But reaction so far has been positive, especially to the social possibilities of the courtyard. “I feel constantly rejuvenated here,” says one student. “I see everyone I know and everyone I don’t know.”
Below we see yet another use of GYPSUM called a NEW AND INNOVATIVE USE of gypsum-------this time not only in our BUILDINGS and concrete ----but in our FARMLAND/SOILS.
Natural gypsum is a chalky material which indeed natural and can be applied sparingly just as LIME for example. Small farmers have been using NATURAL GYPSUM for thousands of years.
The problem is this: THIS IS NOT NATURAL GYPSUM----this is a BYPRODUCT of COAL FIRE POWER PLANTS-----you know, the ones REAL ENVIRONMENTALISTS have been trying to CLOSE because they are TOXIC to our environment and create tons of CLIMATE CHANGE CO2.
BUSH ERA EPA and FDA passed all kinds of policies to PROTECT all oil-energy industries from any regulations and we are getting RESEARCH DATA telling us these products we KNOW are toxic and harmful are no longer considered such.
Remember, government now has NO DUTY TO ACT TO PROTECT AND SERVE THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENS.
Gypsum: an old product with a new use
Gypsum is calcium sulfate (CaSO4).
Refined gypsum in the anhydrite form (no water) is 29.4 percent calcium (Ca) and 23.5 percent sulfur (S). Usually, gypsum has water associated in the molecular structure (CaSO4·2H2O) and is approximately 23.3 percent Ca and 18.5 percent S (plaster of paris). Gypsum fertilizer usually has other impurities so grades are approximately 22 percent Ca and 17 percent S. Gypsum is sparingly soluble (the reason wallboard gets soft but does not immediately dissolve when it gets wet, at least if only damp occasionally). Gypsum is the neutral salt of a strong acid and strong base and does not increase or decrease acidity. Dissolving gypsum in water or soil results in the following reaction: CaSO4·2H2O = Ca2+ + SO42- + 2H2O. It adds calcium ions (Ca2+) and sulfate ions (SO42-), but does not add or take away hydrogen ions (H+). Therefore, it does not act as a liming or acidifying material. The Ca2+ ions simply interact with exchange sites in soil and sulfate remains dissolved in soil water.
Gypsum as a fertilizer?
Gypsum is a fertilizer product and supplies the crop-available form of calcium (Ca2+) and sulfur (SO42-). If these forms are deficient in soil, then crop productivity will benefit if gypsum is applied. This is a big "if" for Iowa soils. Research has not shown deficiency of Ca and normally any potential problem with low Ca levels is taken care of with application of limestone (CaCO3). Acidity problems will occur before a deficiency of Ca, so liming effectively takes care of Ca also. Table 1 lists typical exchangeable Ca levels of several Iowa soils, and they are very high. For calcareous soils (containing free lime) the soil system is saturated with Ca, and Ca supply and soil pH is controlled by the free lime.
For S, it's basically the same. Research conducted for more than 35 years in numerous field trials across Iowa has shown only isolated and very small corn or soybean yield response to S fertilization (two positive and one negative). Table 2 gives results for recent S trials on corn and soybean conducted in 2000 and 2001 at six sites across Iowa. These results are typical of research conducted for many years in that there was no yield increase to applied S, gypsum, or Ca. So, if there is no need for fertilizer application of Ca or S, then gypsum application is simply not needed for fertilization reasons.
Gypsum as a soil amendment
Soil structure is impacted by exchangeable cations (positively charged ions). Multivalent cations (more than one positive charge) help hold soil particles together because they can have electrostatic (magnetic) attraction between two or more negative charge sites (soil clay and organic matter have a net negative charge). Multivalent cations include Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, and Al3+. Monovalent cations (only one positive charge) cannot help with soil structure because of only one positive charge, and with sodium (Na+), for example, can degrade soil structure when large amounts occupy the soil exchange sites (also impacted by large ionic size of Na); thus, soils with low salt but high levels of exchangeable sodium (Na+) have poor soil structure. Except for a very small acreage of Napa soil in the Missouri River valley, excess Na is not a problem on Iowa soils, including those with high pH. In arid regions where salt and Na accumulates (saline-sodic soils), reclamation can include use of gypsum. Gypsum is used to add large amounts Ca2+ ions that displace the Na+ ions from the exchange sites, and when flushed with clean water both salts and Na are removed from the soil (gypsum is used instead of limestone because of higher solubility and no increase in soil pH). However, even in these sites this practice is not effective when subsoils have low permeability to water. If a soil only has high soluble salt, then gypsum is not used because it would add to the salt problem.
Soil structure also is greatly improved by soil organic material, which help "glue" soil particles together. Iowa soils have high organic matter content, which is just as important for good soil structure as exchangeable multivalent cations. The most detrimental effect on surface soil structure comes from the physical impact of raindrops. Surface residue is the best defense against this impact, and it comes at no cost from crop residue. Thus, improving water infiltration can be best achieved by limiting tillage to leave the most crop residue as possible rather than applying gypsum. Table 2 shows the lack of corn and soybean yield response to applied gypsum.
In summary, gypsum is an excellent fertilizer source of Ca and S. If application of these plant-essential nutrients is needed, then it works well. However, for Iowa soils both Ca or S are in good supply. Iowa soils inherently have a capacity for providing adequate levels of exchangeable Ca and S for crop production. Thus, more is not necessarily better.
CaSO4, calcium sulfate (gypsum); S, elemental sulfur (90% S); applied before planting in the spring of 2000.
J.E. Sawyer and D.W. Barker, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University.
This article originally appeared on pages 46-47 of the IC-490 (5) -- April 21, 2003 issue.
PORTLAND CEMENT is filled FLY ASH and SLUDGE from metal trailing byproduct of mining. We have discussed in detail how our CEMENT/CONCRETE is now being INNOVATIVE with NEW PATENTS taking SAND and inert materials out ---and replacing them with these BYPRODUCTS of MINING AND COAL FIRE POWER PLANT waste products. This is more of same but it shows global 1% CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA are super-sizing the use of these TOXIC MATERIALS in our infrastructure building ----we are discussing this week how these building materials are moving INSIDE our working and living environment.
'Cleaned-Up Coal and Clean Air: Facts About Air Quality and ...www.instituteforenergyresearch.org/uncategorized/...
In order to comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, electric utilities could either switch to low sulfur coal, add equipment (e.g., scrubbers) to existing coal-fired power plants that removes SO 2 emissions, purchase permits from other utilities that exceeded the reductions needed to comply with the cap or use other means of reducing ...'
THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS 'CLEAN COAL'.
The sequestration of CO2 from coal fire power plants leaves tons of CO2 to be contained just as NUCLEAR WASTE. What global banking 1% are trying to sell is that this sequestered CO2 is now being used to create NEW INNOVATIVE SYNTHETIC GYPSUM and these corporate R AND D are giving data saying SYNTHETIC GYPSUM is not TOXIC----when it is.
'Does it work?
So far, not well. Clean coal technology has not been widely deployed at a large scale in the U.S., and many clean coal projects have ended in failure. There are also ongoing debates about whether several common deployments of the technology actually reduce overall emissions'.
SYNTHETIC GYPSUM is said to be 'LIKE' natural gypsum ----but all studies by REAL PUBLIC INTEREST groups understand this is not NATURAL GYPSUM. The byproducts of coal fire power plants are STEEPED in harmful/deadly chemicals. That is the nature of smoke stacks acting as CHIMNEYS for some of the worst of industrial activities.
We are told------DON'T WORRY------they have removed all of what might be toxic with INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES ----that are PATENTED.
We don't go into the SCIENCE of CO2 being eliminated by these SCRUBBERS sold as CLIMATE CHANGE GREEN because these technology take CO2 from the coal fire power plant process and inject it into these GYPSUM and dry ash product formation.
THAT SCIENCE OF CO2 REMOVAL IS ALSO SUSPECT.
Synthetic Gypsum from Coal Power Plant Flue Gas
December 12, 2011
We've documented many, many times that our varied and productive uses of Coal lead to the co-production of compounds and materials that we could, and should, begin to view and treat as valuable by-products, rather than as pollutants we must somehow, at great unproductive expense, find some way to just, in some way satisfactory to the seeming legions opposed to Coal, dispose of.
For just two examples, without referencing any of our past reports, it now seems incontrovertible that Coal fly ash can be utilized to good economic effect in the making of cement and concrete; and, that, Carbon Dioxide can be recycled in the synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels.
Another by-product of Coal use, which we've touched on only once or twice, is the "sludge" generated by at least some types of "Flue Gas Desulphurization", "FGD", devices, which, by regulation, are now being installed on all new Coal-fired electric power plants, and which have been retrofitted on most existing ones.
More, in general, can be learned about the various FGD technologies that are available, from the US EPA, via the link:
http://www.epa.gov/ttn/catc/dir1/ffdg.pdf: "EPA-452/F-03-034; Air Pollution Control Fact Sheet: Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) - Wet, Spray Dry and Dry Scrubbers";
wherein we're told that, for various reasons, "85%" of the FGD Scrubbers are of the "Wet" variety, and, because of its low expense, Limestone is used as the preferred absorbent material.
The EPA itself makes note of the fact that is the core of our report herein:
Such "wet" stack gas scrubbers, utilizing limestone as the reactive reagent for desulfurization, result in the production of "synthetic" Gypsum, which does have commercially-valuable industrial uses, as we will further illustrate.
That fact is so well-recognized, in fact, that processes have been developed for an initial processing of FGD sludge, to convert it into a form that's easier to handle and transport, as seen in excerpts from the initial link in this dispatch to:
"United States Patent 7,776,150 - Process and Apparatus for Handling Synthetic Gypsum
Date: August, 2010
Inventors: Eberhard Neumann, NC, and Claus Bech, SC
Assignees: Koppern Equipment Company, NC, and Giant Cement Company, SC
Abstract: Method and apparatus for converting wet synthetic gypsum from a flue desulphurization process (FGD) to easily handled and metered briquettes by mixing a hydraulic additive such as by-pass dust from a cement kiln with synthetic gypsum and allowing the heat from the resulting hydraulic reaction to reduce the water content of the mixture to a formable consistency without adding external heat to the mixture as it is formed into briquettes.
(Don't be discouraged by the apparent need for "by-pass dust from a cement kiln" if you're thinking in terms of utilizing FGD Gypsum at a Coal-fired power plant in order to make the "briquettes". As can be learned via:
http://www.concretethinker.com/Content/Upload%5C437.pdf; such "by-pass dust" consists primarily of limestone dust, calcium carbonate, that escaped being calcined, and very fine sand, or quartz dust, silicon oxide, which is a major constituent of Coal-fired power plant fly ash.
There would be no trouble, or great expense, entailed by getting either for use in this process.)
Claims: A process for preparing and handling synthetic gypsum for cement production and like uses comprising the steps of: a) providing synthetic gypsum in a form consisting essentially of gypsum having a paste-like consistency; b) adding sufficient hydraulic active additive to said gypsum to initiate a hydraulic exothermic reaction to evaporate water in said gypsum; c) allowing said reaction to continue until the surface water on the mixture has been reduced to a level at which the mixture is formable; d) compacting said gypsum when the water content has been sufficiently reduced to allow stable compaction of said gypsum; and e) storing said compacted gypsum for future use or using it in a cement making process immediately.
Summary: This invention relates to a process and apparatus for handling synthetic gypsum so that it may be more effectively handled, stored, and metered in cement production and similar processes."
Note that the primary use for FGD Gypsum specified by "United States Patent 7,776,150" is in "cement production", and, keep in mind that would be in addition to the use of other Coal residuals, i.e., Fly Ash, in the making of cement and concrete, both as one of the primary reactants in the chemical synthesis of Portland cement and as an aggregate for cement, once it is made, to form concrete. Two examples of our earlier reportage on such potentials are accessible via:
Coal Ash Can Reduce Construction Costs | Research & Development; and:
Consol Converts Coal Ash to Concrete Aggregate | Research & Development.
And, more are to follow.
However, more about the use of FGD synthetic gypsum in the making of cement can be learned via:
Lehigh Cement Company- About Lehigh and Lehigh Cement Company-Education; wherein we're told:
"Lehigh Cement Company was founded in 1897 in Allentown, Pennsylvania. Over the years, through a visionary policy of acquisitions, equipment modernization and productivity improvements, Lehigh Cement Company and its related companies have become leading suppliers of cements and construction materials in the United States and Canada."
"Gypsum is a mineral (specifically, CaSO4…2H2O - hydrated calcium sulfate). Many Lehigh plants use gypsum that is quarried from a major reserve in Nova Scotia ... . Gypsum is a critical ingredient that helps to control the setting time of the cement when it is mixed into concrete."
And, thus, we can make a "critical ingredient" for cement making from Coal-fired power plant FGD devices, a "critical ingredient" that otherwise, for the most part, would have to be imported.
But, in addition to it's "critical" importance in cement-making, Gypsum, including FGD Gypsum, does have other important commercial applications, as explained by the United States Gypsum Company, via:
"From the United States Gypsum Company; Industrial Plasters and Gypsum Cements: Versatile Products for Countless Industrial Applications"; and:
"FGD Gypsum in Wallboard and Other Products; United States Gypsum Company; 2007.
Gypsum Key Commercial Properties: Safe and non-toxic mineral; Common by-product from sulfur processing (i.e.,) FGD Gypsum.
Can be calcined at low temperatures (and) Provides fire resistance (and) Produces a low cost inorganic binder.
FGD Gypsum in Wallboard: 63% of all FGD Gypsum produced is recovered into wallboard (and over) 27% of wallboard (is) produced from FGD Gypsum
12 new wallboard lines (have been) built to handle FGD Gypsum (and) 4 new lines (have been) announced.
Wallboard plants (are now) located near major markets or near low cost mines (and, the) East Coast (is)supplied from Nova Scotia (and, the) West Coast supplied from Mexico.
(In other words, again, we have the opportunity to replace imported natural Gypsum with domestic synthetic Flue Gas Desulfurization, FGD, Gypsum; and, there is a large, established market for it. According to graphics supplied by US Gypsum in the full presentation, there are already a dozen wallboard plants that do, or can, utilize synthetic FGD Gypsum; but, the potential exists for consumption of FGD Gypsum to quadruple, and to do so rapidly, since there are no technical barriers to its use.)
Other Industrial Products (for) FGD Gypsum: Plasters; Fillers (and) Gypsum Fiber Board (which consumes) over 200,000 tons per year of FGD Gypsum".
And, again, US Gypsum goes on to identify the definite potential for large future growth in the use of FGD Gypsum in the markets specified immediately above, all of which are in addition to the use of FGD Gypsum in the making of Portland-type cement, i,e, "cement production", as specified in our primary subject, "United States Patent 7,776,150 - Process and Apparatus for Handling Synthetic Gypsum".
All, of which suggests to us that we have yet another opportunity in United States Coal Country, in addition to the potentials for converting some of our abundant Coal into liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels; for recycling our effluent Carbon Dioxide into hydrocarbons; and, for utilizing our Coal Fly Ash in the making of cement and concrete; to more fully employ yet another largely unappreciated, though inherently valuable, byproduct arising from one of our traditional uses of Coal, and, thus, in the course of improving our environment, provide even more productive employment for the current citizens of United States Coal Country
and secure a more prosperous future for the children and grandchildren of those citizens.
Is there some reason we don't want to know about any of those potentials, or, to start exploiting them?
COAL FIRE POWER PLANTS sequestering CO2 with SCRUBBER TECHNOLOGY have environmentalists for decades saying----WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO WITH ALL THAT CO2 as was done with nuclear waste----called GREEN.
CLEAN COAL is only called CLEAN because they remove some of that CO2 emission. Global banking 1% says----we are now using that sequestered CO2 to create SYNTHETIC GYPSUM------and that will be poured onto FARMLAND as fertilizer----that's GREEN right?
We want to look at that other source of GREENNESS--------synthetic gypsum as DRY WALL and other inside building structures. Remember, synthetic gypsum is known to be TOXIC. What global banking 1% says is this: we are using these PANELS/DRYWALL et al in public buildings which are open and large----like a MEDICAL CLINIC IN CLEVELAND'S CASE WESTERN.
Those hearing of FEMA TRAILER disasters from HURRICANE KATRINA remember how people living in those trailers were given RESPIRATORY DISEASE VECTORS because those FEMA TRAILERS used SYNTHETIC GYPSUM as dry wall
Things are better now says global banking 1% ----we are using these panels in big, open spaces like AIRPORTS, HOSPITALS, PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES.
Clean Coal: Fact Or Fiction?
By Stephanie Joyce, Wyoming Public Radio and Leigh Paterson | October 11, 2016
The second presidential debate was almost entirely devoid of energy discussion, until now internet-famous Ken Bone asked the candidates how they would meet the nation’s energy needs while minimizing layoffs and addressing environmental issues.
Hillary Clinton referred to natural gas a “bridge fuel” and called climate change a “serious problem.” Donald Trump blamed the EPA and Clinton for the troubles of the oil and coal industries, but he also said this:
“There is a thing called clean coal. Coal will last for a thousand years in this country.”
An Inside Energy follower named David asked us:
If only we could give a simple answer! Alas, as with most things energy, it’s complicated.
What is clean coal?
There is no precise definition of clean coal. The coal industry’s main lobbying group claims the term was coined by Congress in the 1980s. It has since been popularized by the energy industry to describe a whole range of technologies, including carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS). For the purposes of this post, we are going to talk about clean coal as CCUS.
Put simply, CCUS technology captures carbon emissions from sources like power plants. That CO2 is then stored or used so it doesn’t enter the atmosphere.
Projects in various stages of development all over the world use CCUS.
Does it work?
So far, not well. Clean coal technology has not been widely deployed at a large scale in the U.S., and many clean coal projects have ended in failure. There are also ongoing debates about whether several common deployments of the technology actually reduce overall emissions.
That said, there are a handful of projects coming online that look like they might be not only technologically successful but also financially viable, and many experts continue to say that ‘clean coal’ is a critical part of fighting climate change.
How much money have we spent on clean coal?
The Department of Energy’s proposed budget for next year (FY2017) sets aside over $1 billion for coal technology research and development. Since 2009, the agency has committed over $4 billion dollars, including funds from the Recovery Act, to commercial-scale advanced coal projects. But out of the six facilities on the funding list, five have had financial problems.
Will clean coal ever work?
Experts from places like the International Energy Agency, Oxford University and the Clean Air Task Force say it must. Globally, coal is typically the cheapest, most readily available fuel—especially in developing countries—and coal consumption is expected to rise 18 percent by 2040. Without carbon capture, burning all that coal will likely blow through the 2 degree warming threshold agreed in the the Paris Climate Agreement.
Renewable energy costs are dropping, and at least one recent study suggests the U.S. could reach 80 percent renewable energy by 2030 without substantial cost increases. But accomplishing that in the U.S. would require a Herculean political effort, and would face huge challenges in other countries as well.
So, in summary, clean coal does not have a great track record of success. Getting to a place where it is cost-effective and deployable on a large-scale appears to be a ways off. But it’s probably too early to label it a false prophecy. There are some promising projects out there and money is continuing to pour into clean coal research, especially in China.
We are not picking on this ONE public project as outed in using PORTLAND CEMENT and SYNTHETIC GYPSUM. We understand there are hundreds of public projects across the nation using COAL FIRE PLANT patented products to super-size the PROFITS of coal fire power plant owners. Not only are these coal fire power plants now staying open as GREEN ---they are expanding profits by selling what everyone knows is TOXIC WASTE as PATENTED PRODUCT.
This DOCTOR---MD-------at CLEVELAND CLINIC saying he is committed to providing a safe, clean, healthy environment on this global corporate campus -------
'“Cleveland Clinic is firmly committed to supporting our community. We are proud that the addition of the dental clinic became part of the Health Education Campus design and will provide greater access for patients where they live and to nearby schools and community centers,” said Tom Mihaljevic, MD, Cleveland Clinic chief executive officer and president'.
When we think of LEADED WATER PIPES installed in Baltimore, Detroit et al 40 years ago----we can imagine a PUBLIC OFFICIAL saying the same thing about those public projects------knowing LEADED WATER PIPES would cause a public health crises.
Fly Ash + Synthetic GypsumBoral Construction Materials is the nation’s largest manager and marketer of CCPs – providing services to power plant owners in handling the materials and facilitating environmentally sound higher value uses of the materials wherever possible.
Scroll to Explore Brands
Marketer for high value applications, particularly fly ash in concrete, and developer of technologies for improving ash quality, deploying a range of strategies to maximize current production, as well as, harvest previously disposed CCPs for beneficial use.
Explore ProductsService provider to power plant owners, Boral Plant Services, designs, builds, and operates landfills, as well as performs pond closure and site redevelopment activities.
Explore ProductsPRODUCT. SERVICE. EXPERTISE. Offering clients an alternative to disposal of coal combustion products generated from pet coke and other CFB boilers via the conversion of ash into usable products, LA Ash understands CFB products.
Explore ProductsA history of successful implementations of over 10 Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems coupled with market leadership in FGD byproducts, has built Synthetic Materials a well earned, solid reputation within the synthetic gypsum industry.
We pick upon PORTLAND CONCRETE for one reason---PORTLAND CONCRETE has always used NATURAL materials in these concrete mixes----natural gypsum vs synthetic for example-----PORTLAND CONCRETE is said to not use FLY ASH-------so we would look to PORTLAND CONCRETE as a healthier source of building material.
The fact is PORTLAND CONCRETE is corrupting its own product because these SYNTHETIC GYPSUM AND FLY ASH are cheaper----sand as a natural source is becoming depleted and more expensive---------boost profits.
- Wikipediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fly_ash Fly ash can replace either the Portland cement or fine aggregate (in most cases, river sand) as a filler material. High fly ash content mixes contain nearly all fly ash, with a small percentage of Portland cement and enough water to make the mix flowable'.
Low CO2 concrete must be good---it's helping CLIMATE CHANGE after all--------let's buy that. Except it does not help climate change and is filled with TOXIC WASTE from COAL FIRE POWER PLANTS.
'Low CO2 Concrete
| U.S. Concrete
www.us-concrete.com/ef-technology Fly ash can replace up to 50% of the Portland cement required to manufacture concrete. Fly ash can be used to improve workability and pumpability of concrete. Due to its generally slower rate of hydration, fly ash also lowers the heat of hydration and is important in mass concrete structures, such as large foundations, bridges, dams and piers. High fly ash concrete exhibits less bleeding and shrinkage than straight cement mixes'.
What Is Fly Ash Cement?
Fly ash cement is a primary ingredient in certain concretes that is often used as an alternative to Portland cement, which is a more traditional concrete base. The ash itself is a byproduct of coal combustion, but once formed into a cement the ash usually binds in such a way as to neutralize many of the chemicals and toxins that have made coal burning so controversial in recent years. As such, the cement is often thought of as a way to not only clean up the coal industry but also leave less of a footprint and reduce the energy required to form all sorts of concrete projects and structures. It’s often advanced as a "green" concreting solution, though it's not without its critics. Fly ash is normally considered suitable for all sorts of concrete projects, but many places have set limits on how much of it can be used at once pending more environmental impact reports. Though many of the harmful chemicals associated with coal burning do get bound in the cement, it’s unclear if or under what conditions they may begin to leach out once more.
Coal Burning Basics
When coal and waste are burned in power plants, they create a non-combustible byproduct called coal ash. Two distinct types of ash particles make up coal ash: bottom ash, which collects on the bottom of coal furnaces, and fly ash, which is caught in the smokestacks as it "flies" up and away. The vast majority of the non-combustible material is fly ash, which travels up in the flue gas and gets caught in the smokestacks and chimney. This residual needs to be cleaned out and disposed of on a regular basis. One way that this material can be reused is by combining it with other materials to create a cement.
Uses in Concrete
One of the most common uses for fly ash cement is as an additive to form concrete. Concrete is traditionally made with Portland cement, a powdery substance made of ground clinker, calcium sulfate, and other minor additives. Clinker is a material usually made of limestone and minerals, which are crushed and ground together, then heated. Calcium sulfate is added, and the clinker is ground into cement powder. The process requires a large amount of energy; it has a huge carbon footprint, and accounts for approximately 7% to 8% of carbon dioxide emitted every year.
Fly ash, which is largely made up of silicon dioxide and calcium oxide, can be used as a substitute for Portland cement, or as a supplement to it. The materials which make up fly ash are pozzolanic, meaning that they can be used to bind — or cement — materials together. Pozzolanic materials generally add durability and strength to concrete.
Potential to Reduce Contamination
Concrete made with fly ash is often thought to be environmentally green. It binds the toxic chemicals that are present in the fly ash in a way that should prevent them from contaminating natural resources. Using green concrete in place of or in addition to Portland cement uses less energy, requires less invasive mining, and reduces both resource consumption and CO2 emissions.
Investigations Into Overall Environmental Impact
While it is not considered a hazardous material by most of the world’s regulatory agencies including the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), fly ash may include considerable amounts of toxic materials. There have been incidents in which fly ash has leached into the groundwater causing cancer, birth defects, and other health problems. In many regions, there are no regulations or monitoring requirements for companies that create and dispose of fly ash. Ash that is not used to make products such as fly ash cement is often disposed of in landfills and abandoned mines.
It is currently unknown if cement made from coal burning byproducts will leach chemicals into the air or ground, and there is very little data about what may happen in the future when concrete made with it weathers and erodes. Several environmental agencies, such as the EPA, the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), and California’s Collaborative for High-Performance Schools (CHPS), have set limits on acceptable mercury levels in the fly ash used in fly ash cement. It is hoped that, by limiting some of the most dangerous chemicals found in fly ash, potential future problems can be minimized.
We have listened over these few decades to global banking 1% telling us that placing toxic materials like coal fire power plant FLY ASH AND SYNTHETIC GYPSUM into OUTSIDE INFRASTRUCTURE using concrete like BRIDGES and ROADWAY construction was GREEN ------as if these structures do not DEGRADE and turn to DUST releasing all that TOXICITY. What is happening today? Bridges over INTERSTATES are seeing that concrete degrade with dust falling all over surrounding areas.
'The use of fly ash in portland cement concrete (PCC)'
Below we see not only CASE WESTERN PUBLIC MEDICAL CAMPUS using TOXIC WASTE materials inside these buildings---but we see as well MARYLAND having health facilities doing the same including global hedge fund JOHNS HOPKINS which then sell the idea that COAL FIRE POWER PLANT TOXIC WASTE ----is not harmful. Global hedge fund JOHNS HOPKINS says metallic mining waste SLUDGE is GREEN.
'While the proper use of blended cements and supplementary cementitious materials can be more complex, the results achieved can provide higher-performance and more environmentally-friendly concrete mixtures'.
We discuss often that this LEED------CERTIFICATION is corrupted. It is not GREEN----it is not SUSTAINABLE environmentally. LEED simply identifies buildings that are CORPORATE SUSTAINABLE---meaning expanding CORPORATE PROFITS. One can say---if TOXIC WASTE is used in building projects then several decades down the road citizens will indeed BE MADE SICK and they will try to go to JOHNS HOPKINS.
REMEMBER, just because a religious groups founds a hospital et al does not mean after decades and centuries it is STILL RELIGIOUS-----below we see a hospital that is NOT RELIGIOUS---it is FREEMASONRY.
TRINITY HEALTH SYSTEM FOR GOODNESS SAKE.
'Holy Cross Hospitalwww.holycrosshealth.com Holy Cross Hospital, an affiliate of Trinity Health located in Silver Spring Maryland, euthanized my father against his wishes. This hospital can be toxic to the elderly'.
Specifying blended cements for sustainable healthcare designApril 1, 2013
Certified LEED Silver, the Cleveland Clinic’s East 89th Street Garage and Service Center (also pictured on page 40) used more than 76,450 m3 (almost 100,000 cy) of concrete with a mix containing 20 percent fly ash.
Photo courtesy Donley’s Inc.Almost half of the concrete placed contained at least 40 percent slag cement, qualifying it for an ID point under LEED-NC. The average slag content was 19 percent of all cementitious materials used in the concrete, but cement with as much as 93 percent slag cement content was used for some mixes. Another sustainable benefit of using slag cement in this project is the resulting lighter-colored, high-performance concrete mix absorbs less heat from solar radiation and helps to lower the heat island effect. The pervious concrete used also stores less heat due to its relatively open pore structure.
Recognizing the unparalleled growth driven by construction of its Heart and Vascular Institute, the Cleveland Clinic built the largest and most sophisticated healthcare material-handling and order fulfillment system in the United States. With a concrete superstructure of more than 139,355 m2 (1.5 million sf), the East 89th Street Garage and Service Center stands as one of the largest concrete structures in Cleveland. Its construction used almost 76,455 m3 (100,000 cy) of concrete with a mix containing 20 percent fly ash.
To create the slab for the structure’s 96 by 168-m (315 by 550-ft) footprint, the first stage involved 415 truckloads of concrete and four pump trucks, with crews from Donley’s placing more than 3058 m3 (4000 cy) of concrete, covering 3066 m2 (33,000 sf). This was followed by three more large placements—totaling 8180 m3 (10,700 cy) of concrete—to complete the slab over the entire building area. Most of the building products used in the $192-million LEED Silver facility came from sources within 80 km (50 mi) of the site.
The concrete used for deep foundation and structural support elements, as well as the heavy concrete used for radiation bunkers and X-ray rooms, also typically include high levels of SCMs. A 34,474-kPa (5000-psi) self-consolidating concrete (SCC) containing slag cement and fly ash was used in the auger cast piles for the parking garage at the new Science + Technology Park at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore. At Holy Cross Hospital, one of the largest hospitals in Maryland, a proprietary flow mix containing about 75 percent fly ash is being used in sheeting and shoring applications to support a major campus expansion program.
The healthcare industry is making great strides in implementing sustainable design and construction practices for creating healing environments as healthy as possible, and green building certification has proven to be the best method possible to achieve this goal. Concrete and cementitious-based building materials offer extensive sustainable construction benefits and can help achieve LEED for Healthcare certification in many ways.
While the proper use of blended cements and supplementary cementitious materials can be more complex, the results achieved can provide higher-performance and more environmentally-friendly concrete mixtures. Various organizations, including the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the Slag Cement Association (SCA), offer recommendations design professionals can consult on how to specify such substitutions. Additionally, manufacturers can provide technical assistance to help develop or modify specifications; most can provide detailed test results, and additional support.
Case Study: Slag Cement for Moses H. Cone
The new North Tower under construction at the Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital specifies 40 percent cementitious replacement with slag cement to earn points toward its Silver certification under the LEED-HC program.
Photo courtesy Triad Business JournalSlag cement is playing a key role in the construction of the new $200-million, six-story North Tower at the Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital (Greensboro, North Carolina). The largest construction project in the hospital’s 58-year history, the tower takes advantage of natural light and passive energy, features noise-reducing design, relies on locally sourced building materials, and uses less energy and natural resources in its construction and operation.
The approximately 6700-m2 (263,713-sf) expansion specified 40 percent cementitious replacement to target credits under the U.S. Green Building Council’s (USGBC’s) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Healthcare (LEED-HC) program. The project, targeting LEED Silver, uses a portland-slag cement blend to achieve greater strength potential and long-term durability. By successfully combining these cements, the hospital is aiming to reduce its building’s carbon footprint. Completion is expected for June.
'Holy Cross’s willingness to play God with life-sustaining treatment, its tolerance of falsified records and the institutional bias against aggressive treatment evidenced by my father’s care, stand in stark contrast to Judeo-Christian values and pose a clear risk to Montgomery County’s burgeoning population of seniors. An elderly person could easily find himself with an insurmountable strike against him at Holy Cross Hospital. Like my dear father'.
When our US medical institutions promote the idea that COAL FIRE POWER PLANT TOXIC WASTE is GREEN ----not harmful and use it in there own construction-----INSIDE AND OUTSIDE OF BUILDINGS said to be MEDICAL ---PUBLIC HEALTH----
then we have a corruption of our US PUBLIC AGENCIES tasked with A DUTY TO ACT TO PROTECT CITIZENS.
This article goes further in address OUR CONCERNS over AFFORDABLE CARE ACT ---EUTHANASIA as a way to boost GLOBAL MEDICAL SYSTEM PROFITS.
HolyCrossHealth.com℠ is presented in the hope that heightened awareness of ageism and record falsification at Holy Cross Hospital will serve to prevent needless deaths. Comments and assertions reflect my personal views. Hospital website: holycrosshealth.biz.
My Father was Killed at Holy Cross Hospital
It leaves me heartbroken to know that my father was treated as an end-of-life patient due solely to his age – before finally being euthanized against his wishes (killed) at Holy Cross Hospital in Silver Spring, Maryland. Israel Neustadter, peace be upon him, survived the horrors of Auschwitz only to succumb to the hubris of Holy Cross. My father carried no terminal condition, other than being 91 and about to turn 92. He lived at home and went to synagogue every day, relishing the brisk walk and the opportunity to worship. It was his first hospitalization, his first and only bout with pneumonia, he was full-code and he was recovering. My father surely deserved to have his wishes to fight for life – on his terms, and in accordance with his religious beliefs, honored.
According to the hospital lawyers, “Neither Dr. Kariya nor Dr. Weiner (pulmonologists under hospital contract) believed reintubation was in the patient’s best interests and accordingly never recommended this course of treatment for him.”
Absent catastrophic illness, end-stage cancer or pain, was it really in my father’s best interests to die? Wasn’t such misguided paternalism long ago replaced by patient autonomy and informed consent? What about adherence to state law & hospital policy? Perhaps for those reasons the medical record fails to mention that attending physician Shahid Shamim handed my father’s care off to Dr. Weiner and walked away. And that the undocumented Weiner categorically refused to treat, declaring my father “dead the day he got here.” And perhaps for those same reasons Holy Cross’s “Discharge Summary” falsely states that the doctors had a long conversation with me because my father needed intubation, and that I decided against it!
According to the hospital directors, “Nursing probably knew additional life support measures were not planned for your father and there was no action for them to take…”
In a setting that mandates detailed history taking, treatment plans laid out, progress notes meticulously written and DNR orders prominently displayed, do the words probably knew have any place?
Holy Cross recently opened a seniors emergency room replete with soothing colors, extra-thick mattresses and TVs tuned to the “relaxation channel” – but a senior about to be admitted would do well to be nervous and uncomfortable. Holy Cross Hospital was cited by the Office of Health Care Quality for failing to have the required certificate in my father’s chart before withholding treatment and allowing him to die. They’ve been cited for numerous other violations as well; mere paperwork deficiencies to a protective OHCQ.
Shame on the hospital, and shame on the State of Maryland for refusing to hold anyone accountable or to even talk to any of the doctors involved.
Holy Cross’s willingness to play God with life-sustaining treatment, its tolerance of falsified records and the institutional bias against aggressive treatment evidenced by my father’s care, stand in stark contrast to Judeo-Christian values and pose a clear risk to Montgomery County’s burgeoning population of seniors. An elderly person could easily find himself with an insurmountable strike against him at Holy Cross Hospital. Like my dear father.
Please be careful with your loved ones.____________________________________________