Below we see this week's global banking 1% freemason STAR creating FADS for societal change making US 99% OF WE THE PEOPLE familiar with being DARK AGES MOVING AWAY from all that US HOLLYWOOD promoting all that citizen freedom, liberty, and opportunity.
What these book review articles written by 5% global banking players don't tell us----is to look at the OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS freemasonry that is central in this book ----that was indeed a very good fictional story.
PHYSICIAN AS GOD----PHYSICIAN HEAL THYSELF.
'What is the meaning of “Physician, heal thyself” in Luke 4:23?
physician heal thyself
Question: "What is the meaning of ‘Physician, heal thyself’ in Luke 4:23?"
Answer: Early in His ministry, Jesus was in Nazareth speaking in the synagogue. Nazareth was His hometown, and the people there were familiar with His family and had watched Him grow up (Luke 4:16). When Jesus read a messianic prophecy from Isaiah and claimed to be the fulfillment of it, the crowd in the synagogue immediately balked (verses 17–22). It was then that Jesus made reference to a proverb of the day: “Physician, heal thyself” (verse 23, KJV)'.
by Paul Metcalf • October 6, 2015
History in films can be treated in a number of ways. The most popular is to manipulate the facts to make for a more entertaining movie, which is the case of The Physician.
When nine-year-old Rob Cole (Tom Payne) feels the life force slipping from his mother’s hand upon her death he is unaware that his gift of sensing impending death would lead him from 11th-century England to a medical school at Ispahan. At a time when Christians are banned from becoming a student at the school, Cole disguises himself as a Jew to become famed physician Avicenna’s (Ben Kingsley) student.
The Physician uses the history of medicine as the foundations of a story that focuses on the power of superstition and religion to hold back progress. In it we see how the Barber (Stellan Skarsgard) is held back from saving lives as to stand in the way of God’s judgement on sick people would be witchcraft. Through experiencing the work of Jewish doctors Cole realises that he must travel to Ispahan to learn true medicine, instead of the basic practices used in England. In the Muslim world we also see the power of religion as it not only views medicine with suspicions but the religious tensions and territorial battles cause a hostile environment just waiting to explode.
While Rob Cole’s search for enlightenment and knowledge is admirable his character is a very selfish one. Part of his fatal flaw which leads to danger not only for him but people around him is his acts of stupidity all in the aim of learning more. While it can be argued that this is how progress is made, the act of one individual to push knowledge to new extremes, to risk the lives of others and to disrespect the wishes of patients is not a good trait for the character to have.
Another issue with The Physician is the historical accuracy of the source material it uses. Ben Kingsley’s character for example has his story altered to fit a better narrative for the film. For the historically minded watching the film, this has a certain disrespect for an important person in medical history. Which is why what we see on the screen should be taken with a pinch of salt.
While historically inaccurate this doesn’t mean that the Physician is a bad film, in fact it is quite the opposite. Put aside the inaccuracies and take it as it is, a work of fiction and the film becomes an interesting and very well shot movie. Thankfully the religious tensions don’t overtake the medical side of the story and our focus is pushed towards important events such as fighting off the Plague, which I was thankful for. While religion does play a part, some films allow it to dominate the story and follow well tread paths. The Physician thankfully decides not to fall into this trap.
If you want a film that is purely entertainment, then The Physician is well worth a watch. At two and a half hours it does drag on a little bit too long, but at the end doesn’t feel like it wasted the time it was given. With commanding performances from the likes of Ben Kingsley, Stellan Skarsgard, and Tom Payne, The Physician is a very interesting tale, just don’t look for historical accuracy.
AND we shared this post last week how the global 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS 5% fake religious leaders are on board with MOVING FORWARD GMO HUMANS -----KINGS AS GODS creating their own brand of HUMANS. Here we see the CATHOLIC CHURCH actively promoting population control killing GOD'S seed------as too GMO HUMANS-----do you hear your religious leaders shouting against all these policies? Not the US RELIGIOUS RIGHT---they are ALT RIGHT ALT LEFT 5% freemason/Greek FAKE religious leaders.
THE PHYSICIAN has as a central theme the weaving of ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE blending of all world's religions into what looks to be the SECOND COMING OF CHRIST.
Below we see global banking 1% media outlets telling us US fertility rates are plummeting -----we discussed why this is NOT TRUE----but we do know this-----these several decades of OBAMA and Clinton neo-liberal AFFORDABLE CARE ACT funded and set the ball rolling for telemedicine to install those remote-controlled microchip implants for contraception that will be used as FORCED STERILITY.
'US Fertility Rates Have Plummeted Into Uncharted Territory, And Nobody Knows Why
We're not saying Gilead, but...
21 MAY 2018'
So, whereas we may not really be seeing falling fertility rates in US ---we WILL BE SEEING falling fertility rates of our 99% black, white, and brown citizens---but not the global banking 1% SOCIOPATHS NEEDING to be held accountable to civil societies.
For those not knowing------WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION UNITED NATIONS as part of single payer universal care preventive care for all in FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES----you know, here in US that is the AFFORDABLE CARE ACT----has made implantation of these remote microchip implants for contraception into girls as young as 10 a priority---calling it part of its HUMAN RIGHTS SUSTAINABILITY policy. So, we all understand that implanted contraceptive microchips act to kill sperm just as a woman talking an oral pill. We spent several decades fighting religious institutions over these rights-----and NOW the CATHOLIC CHURCH and pope support BIRTH CONTROL COMPUTER CHIPS.
THIS IS THE REASON THE REFERENDUM IN IRELAND FOR ABORTION WAS PASSED.
'Birth control computer chip implanted under the skin 'could be on sale by 2018'
Catholic Online News Health & Wellness
By Catholic Online (NEWS CONSORTIUM)
7/8/2014 (3 years ago)
Catholic Online (https://www.catholic.org)
If woman wishes to conceive, she simply turns off the device with a remote
Long in gestation, the idea of a computer chip implanted under the skin to regulate fertility is now within throwing distance of becoming an actuality. The idea has been with us since the Nineties, and thanks to a nudge from Microsoft's Bill Gates, such as device could be available by 2018.
An international coalition of governments, companies, philanthropies and nonprofit organizations committed to providing family planning to 120 million more women in the world by 2020.
An international coalition of governments, companies, philanthropies and nonprofit organizations committed to providing family planning to 120 million more women in the world by 2020'.
THE PHYSICIAN as a book has a protagonist hero who is born to a mother who circumcize 'ROB' while living as Christians in medieval LONDON. The plot pulls together the goals of MOVING FORWARD flipping ECONOMIC axis from WESTERN HEMISPHERE to EASTERN HEMISPHERE and the blending of world religions into ONE WORLD ONE RELIGION with the same global 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS being that 'ROB' representing SECOND COMING OF CHRIST as a FREEMASON-----this story making THE PHYSICIAN as that JESUS/GOD.
ROB's mother happens to marry a CARPENTER----as was JESUS' father-----and ROB is sent wandering the EASTERN TRADE ROUTES seeking his HOLY GRAIL-----to be educated in what was then the best medical schools -----being in PERSIA and EGYPT. This represents as well the movement of our EUROPEAN/US Western 99% of citizens as EX-PATS to Eastern Europe ------and it represents a movement of our 99% of JEWISH citizens back to the HOLY LAND as part of what is called the return of LOST TRIBES.
So, ROB is made that poor 99% of people having exceptionalism driving him to achieve and as FICTION this story has every door that could be closing him down ----amazingly open and advancing him.
Physician, Heal Thyself
by Jim · April 19, 2011
This was a well known proverb. It may be found in the Talmud, “Physician, heal thine own lameness.”
Doubtless (παντως [pantōs]). Adverb. Literally, at any rate, certainly, assuredly. Cf. Acts 21:22; 28:4. This parable (την παραβολην ταυτην [tēn parabolēn tautēn])…. Here the word has a special application to a crisp proverb which involves a comparison. This use [of the word “parable” ] for a proverb occurs also in Luke 5:36; 6:39.
The word physician is the point of comparison. Luke the physician alone gives this saying of Jesus. The proverb means that the physician was expected to take his own medicine and to heal himself.
This proverb in various forms appears not only among the Jews, but in Euripides and Aeschylus among the Greeks, and in Cicero’s Letters. Hobart quotes the same idea from Galen, and the Chinese used to demand it of their physicians.
The point of the parable seems to be that the people were expecting him to make good his claim to the Messiahship by doing here in Nazareth what they had heard of his doing in Capernaum and elsewhere. “Establish your claims by direct evidence” (Easton). This same appeal (Vincent) was addressed to Christ on the Cross (Matt. 27:40, 42). There is a tone of sarcasm towards Jesus in both cases.
The tradition that Israel rejected its own prophets was strong in Judaism; for instance, Jeremiah was persecuted by his own priestly town, Anathoth (Jer 1:1; 11:18-23). The proverb in 4:23 is attested in some form in Greek classical and medical literature, and some rabbis cited a similar Aramaic proverb.
Initial amazement turned to hostility, as the audience took exception to one of their own number (known locally as Joseph’s son; but see Mk. 6:3) making such impressive claims for himself. They wanted some visible proof of the validity of his claims before their own eyes, like the mighty works which he was rumoured to have done at Capernaum. In any event, they failed to recognize Jesus as a prophet, and he could only tell them that when the prophets of Israel had been faced with similar disbelief they had performed their mighty works outside Israel (1 Ki. 17:8–16; 2 Ki. 5:1–14). So it was a word of judgment that Jesus in effect spoke against them. There was also the suggestion that the gospel would ultimately go to the Gentiles (although Jesus himself continued to work among the Jews). In their anger the people tried to lynch him.
In these verses, Luke gives us the story of the beginning of our Lord’s ministry. He tells us that Jesus returned to His hometown of Nazareth and went to the synagogue, so we conclude Jesus was a churchgoer. That’s something to keep in mind when we are tempted to rationalize. “I can worship just as well at the eighteenth hole; I can worship on the lake in a sailboat; I can worship under the morning sun on the tennis courts.” On the Sabbath day, Jesus went to church, however dull or interesting it was. On the Sabbath our Lord sought out the faithful people of God. The synagogue was without clergy and, as was the custom, someone was selected each Sabbath to be the particular preacher or teacher. Often a visiting rabbi would be chosen. On this Sabbath, Jesus was the choice—local boy makes good. They had heard about this young man who was teaching in the synagogues and was “glorified by all” (v. 15). Now He was back home and the ruling elders had invited Him to speak. The synagogue was undoubtedly filled with friends, neighbors, and relatives. The custom then was to read the Word of God standing and to preach sitting down (not a bad idea from a preacher’s point of view). Jesus stood and read the words of Isaiah and then sat down to make the astonishing claim we read in verse 21. “Today this scripture is fulfilled in your hearing.” In this scene between Jesus and His fellow church members, it seems to me we find at least three pivotal new concepts. NEW CREDENTIALS The first is in the area of credentials. The elders who had heard great things about their hometown boy were undoubtedly asking, however subtly, “Now, who do you think you are? Give us your credentials.” Jesus gave them the credentials of Isaiah and claimed them as His own, and they were all in the area of social concern. They were the same kinds of credentials He gave to the disciples of John the Baptist toward the end of John’s life. These are still the authentic credentials of the people of God. God’s Spirit is at work where personal and social concern are demonstrated. If we are God’s people, we care about the physical, social, temporal needs of the world. Our authentic credentials are not primarily in the area of self-improvement, our spiritual maturity, or our knowledge of Scripture and theology. These are the kinds of credentials the elders were expecting. Jesus anticipated that and said, “You will surely say this proverb to Me, ‘Physician, heal yourself’” (v. 23). We still get hooked on the wrong kinds of credentials. Let’s suppose for a minute that Mother Teresa was being examined by her spiritual superiors. They found that her nun’s training did not include Greek and Hebrew, that she failed her Scripture-memorization course. They’re concerned that she didn’t speak in tongues and never attended a successful churchmanship seminar. Such a scene is ludicrous. Her credentials were that God was using her to care for the poor and the outcast. She needed no other credentials, nor do you and I. When the Spirit of God is upon us, these are our credentials.
They had heard, and now they would fain have seen. But already the holy indignation of Him, Whom they only knew as Joseph’s son, was kindled. The turn of matters; their very admiration and expectation; their vulgar, unspiritual comments: it was all so entirely contrary to the Character, the Mission, and the Words of Jesus. No doubt they would next expect, that here in His own city, and all the more because it was such, He would do what they had heard had taken place in Capernaum. It was the world-old saying, as false, except to the ear, and as speciously popular as most such sayings: ‘Charity begins at home’—or, according to the Jewish proverb, and in application to the special circumstances: ‘Physician, heal thyself.’ Whereas, if there is any meaning in truth and principle; if there was any meaning and reality in Christ’s Mission, and in the discourse He had just spoken, Charity does not begin at home; and ‘Physician, heal thyself’ is not of the Gospel for the poor, nor yet the preaching of God’s Jubilee, but that of the Devil, whose works Jesus had come to destroy. How could He, in His holy abhorrence and indignation, say this better than by again repeating, though now with different application, that sad experience, ‘No prophet is accepted in his own country,’ which He could have hoped was for ever behind Him; and by pointing to those two Old Testament instances of it, whose names and authority were most frequently on Jewish lips? Not they who were ‘their own,’ but they who were most receptive in faith—not Israel, but Gentiles, were those most markedly favoured in the ministry of Elijah and of Elisha. As we read the report of Jesus’ words, we perceive only dimly that aspect of them which stirred the wrath of His hearers to the utmost, and yet we do understand it. That He should have turned so fully the light upon the Gentiles, and flung its large shadows upon them; that ‘Joseph’s Son’ should have taken up this position towards them; that He would make to them spiritual application unto death of His sermon, since they would not make it unto life: it stung them to the quick. Away He must out of His city; it could not bear His Presence any longer, not even on that holy Sabbath. Out they thrust Him from the Synagogue; forth they pressed Him out of the city; on they followed, and around they beset Him along the road by the brow of the hill on which the city is built—perhaps to that western angle, at present pointed out as the site. This, with the unspoken intention of crowding Him over the cliff, which there rises abruptly about forty feet out of the valley beneath.
Here in Baltimore, global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS had their 5% freemason/Greeks already implanting our poor 99% of citizens as experimental subjects MOVING FORWARD these goals of FORCED STERILITY.
This technology is so new and not widely tested in humans at least in US-----so we don't think these goals of STERILIZATION have advanced here in US as much as they have overseas in third world nations. As we stated----China global 1% are PRETENDING to end ONE CHILD policies while MOVING FORWARD forced remote-control microchip contraception under the guise of HEALTH CARE IS A HUMAN RIGHT----GLOBAL CORPORATE CAMPUS SUSTAINABILITY.
In THE PHYSICIAN-------ROB is that citizens having a real passion for healing all 99% of WE THE PEOPLE being persecuted by FAKE PHYSICIANS wanting only to make money---you know, that is today's global banking predatory and profiteering health systems killing our REAL US PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM AND OUR 99% OPPORTUNITY AND ACCESS to developed nation health care. ROB is simply that ordinary 99% citizen having that passion and genius for his trade----PHYSICIAN just as do our 99% citizens having passions to be teachers, engineers, cultural artists.
ROB IS NOT A GOD----HE IS NOT JESUS.
The AFFORDABLE CARE ACT is taking the US back to these DARK AGES conditions for medicine when the people with NO TALENT have captured the medical field killing anyone WITH talent wanting to actually serve all 99% of citizens needing health care.
US Fertility Rates Have Plummeted Into Uncharted Territory, And Nobody Knows Why
We're not saying Gilead, but...
21 MAY 2018
The US birth rate has hit a new record low, with women in nearly every age group giving birth to fewer babies than a year ago.
New figures show just 60.2 babies were born in 2017 for every 1,000 women of 'childbearing' age (15-44) – a low not seen in the US since officials began charting national birth rates decades ago.
The statistic – contained in new provisional birth data for 2017 released by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – is what's called the general fertility rate (GFR), which saw a 3 percent fall from the rate in 2016: the largest single-year GFR decline since 2010.
There are other key measures to track birth rates in addition to the GFR, but each of them suggest essentially the same thing: that fertility in the US is falling significantly, and for reasons that researchers don't entirely understand.
One such measure is the total fertility rate (TFR), an estimate of the number of births a hypothetical group of 1,000 women would have over their lifetimes, based on age-specific birth rates.
For 2017, it stands at 1,764.5 births (per 1,000 women), another 3 percent drop from 2016 levels, taking the TFR to its lowest point since 1978.
What's more, the TFR is now clearly hundreds of births short of what is called 'replacement': the level of births needed for a generation to replicate its population count.
In the US, that marker is 2,100 births per 1,000 women – well above the current 1,764.5 – although the shortfall is nothing new: the CDC says the US birth rate has generally been below replacement since 1971.
Continuing the theme, the total number of births in the US for 2017 was 3,853,472 – a 2 percent fall from 2016's count, but also the third straight year showing a decline, resulting in what is now the lowest number of births in 30 years.
Some of the overall picture can be explained by the fact that birth rates generally fell for all women of childbearing age – except for one age category: women aged 40-44 actually had 2 percent more babies than in 2016, whereas virtually every other age category saw declines or remained unchanged.
What makes this downward trend harder to comprehend is the overall population of women of childbearing age is significantly greater than it was a decade ago, with there being 7 percent more women aged 20 to 39 in 2017 than there were in 2007.
"Every year I look at data and expect it will be the year that birth rates start to tick up, and every year we hit another all-time low," University of New Hampshire demographer Kenneth M. Johnson, who wasn't involve in the report, told The New York Times.
"It's one of the big demographic mysteries of recent times."
Not that it's a total enigma.
Women under 40 in the US are having fewer babies than they used to, but it's not a trend in total isolation from other societal shifts.
At the same time, researchers say, these women are postponing marriage, achieving higher levels of education, and entering the workforce in greater numbers.
There are also temporal economic factors to consider, such as the extent to which the shadows of the Great Recession still factor on people's lives – which may make them consider delaying starting a family (or postpone adding to one).
"Our own survey data shows that people stated they were postponing birth until the economy picked up again," demographer Gretchen Livingston from the Pew Research Centre told CNN.
"Whenever there's an economic downturn, it's pretty normal for there to also be a downturn in fertility."
While experts say we shouldn't put too much stock in the results of just one year's data – which could be a blip – it's clear there's something of a larger downward trend going on here too, the future of which yet isn't clear.
If that tendency continues unabated, it might have profound implications for the US economy of the future – as the low baby population of today will be the workers of tomorrow, and if their numbers don't bounce back sometime soon, neither will the future US workforce.
That's the economic outlook, at least.
From another perspective – given what we know about the most effective ways to reduce your carbon footprint –there's also a definite upside, environmentally speaking, to having fewer children.
"There are experts out there who would argue that, given limited resources, maybe there's an advantage to lower population growth," Livingston said, "which could be driven by fewer births."
Hmmmm, if the goals of MOVING FORWARD ONE WORLD is taking the US to third world enslavement and impoverishment---that means there will ALWAYS BE LIMITED RESOURCES---ERGO, THE NEED FOR LOWER POPULATION GROWTH.
'What we are left with, then, is a disagreement as to whether the rest of the lost tribes, those who have not returned, will ever return and be reunited with the rest of the Jewish nation'.
We want to set aside this religious imagery in THE PHYSICIAN so we can concentrate on medical public policy. ROB leaves LONDON as a CHRISTIAN reaches EASTERN EUROPE where he transitions into being JEWISH as he travels back to NEAR EAST/HOLY LAND for what he sees as the best medical education in those 1000AD times. While in PERSIA his wife is forced into relations with the MUSLIM KING and of course has his baby----almost like that IMMACULATE CONCEPTION ----KING AS GOD.
So, ROB'S child by another man is tied to KING OF MUSLIMS-----ROB as a lapsed JEW thinking himself CHRISTIAN gets his TITLE OF PHYSICIAN from PERSIAN medical school returning to LONDON----where those FAKE PHYSICIANS not more than BARBER SURGEONS force him out----he returns to his wife's SCOTLAND. This represents that global 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS freemasonry myth of TRIBES OF JUDAH populating SCOTTISH/IRISH CELTIC regions. Rob's children are then of course a mixture of ISLAM, CHRISTIAN, JEWISH being sent from a SCOTTISH GARDEN OF EDEN.
If our US 99% WE THE PEOPLE could imagine what our global humanity could accomplish in REAL SOCIETAL JUSTICE for all 99% of black, white, and brown citizens while these UNEVOLVED GLOBAL 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS place tremendous energy and money to keep these thousand-year old economic and political structures in place using FREEMASONRY/GREEKS and secret societies.
ALL THIS IS NOT ONLY TOTALLY UNNECESSARY FOR OUR 99% WE THE PEOPLE TO HAVE A REAL US DOMESTIC ECONOMY----IT IS NOT WANTED.
If our US and global 99% do nothing but read 5% to the 1% black, white and brown player book reviews ----they will never understand the public policy goals hidden in these global banking 1% freemason STAR books, music, stage, movies.
Are the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel Ever Coming Back?
The saga of the ten lost tribes of Israel—part 2
By Yehuda Shurpin
Before discussing where the lost ten tribes actually went, let us first ascertain whether they are in fact ever going to be reunited with the remaining Jews.
There is a recorded dispute between two great sages in the Mishnah as to whether the ten tribes are going to come back:
Rabbi Akiva says, “The ten tribes will not return, as the verse says (Deuteronomy 29:27), ‘And the L‑rd uprooted them from upon their land, with fury, anger and great wrath, and He cast them to another land, as it is this day.’1 Just as a day passes and it will never return, so too, they will be exiled never to return.”
Rabbi Eliezer says, “Just like a day is followed by darkness, and the light later returns, so too, although it will become ‘dark’ for the ten tribes, G‑d will ultimately take them out of their darkness.”
The Talmud then goes on to cite a third opinion:
Rabbi Shimon ben Yehudah, of the town of Acco, says in the name of Rabbi Shimon: “If their deeds are as this day’s, they will not return; otherwise they shall.”
So, in short, there seem to be three opinions on the matter. Rabbi Akiva holds that the ten tribes are not coming back; Rabbi Eliezer holds that they are; and Rabbi Shimon says that it depends on whether they repent.
Rabbi Akiva: Lost Forever
Upon further analysis, Rabbi Akiva’s opinion needs further explanation, as it seem to contradict clear prophecies about the ultimate reunion of the ten tribes with the rest of Israel.
The prophet Ezekiel describes the ultimate reunion between the ten tribes and the tribe of Judah (the ten tribes are represented by the tribe of Ephraim, because their capital was in the territorial portion of that tribe):
Say to them, “So says the L‑rd G‑d: ‘Behold I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel his companions, and I will place them with him with the stick of Judah, and I will make them into one stick, and they shall become one in My hand.’” And the sticks upon which you shall write shall be in your hand before their eyes. And say to them, “So says the L‑rd G‑d: ‘Behold I will take the children of Israel from among the nations where they have gone, and I will gather them from every side, and I will bring them to their land. And I will make them into one nation in the land upon the mountains of Israel, and one king shall be to them all as a king; and they shall no longer be two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms anymore.’”
Additionally, the prophet clearly foretells in detail how Israel will be divided into thirteen6 portions at the time of the redemption.7 So what exactly does Rabbi Akiva mean when he says that the ten tribes are not coming back?
Rabbi Joseph Albo (1380–1444) attempts to reconcile these prophecies with Rabbi Akiva’s opinion by explaining that Rabbi Akiva was of the view that the prophecies had been fulfilled during the era of the second Holy Temple in Jerusalem.8 However, this is problematic in light of the fact that in the Midrash, Rabbi Akiva himself compares the exile of the ten tribes from Israel to that of a widow, which implies that they are gone and will not return.
Did They Already Return?
While many have the idea that all Jews now are descendants of only two and a half tribes, the truth is that when the ten tribes were captured and sent into exile, a tenth of their population remained. As the prophet Amos proclaims, “For so said the L‑rd G‑d: The city that gives forth a thousand shall remain with a hundred, and the one that gives forth a hundred shall remain with ten, of the house of Israel.”
Additionally, there is another account of the return of some of the ten tribes: King Josiah undertook to restore the Holy Temple, which had been neglected for a long time. While the restoration was taking place under the supervision of the high priest Hilkiah, an ancient Torah scroll from the time of Moses was found. This unique Torah scroll had been kept in the Holy of Holies of the Temple, but in the time of the idol-worshipping kings an upright priest removed it from there and hid it in a secret place in the Temple. When the Torah scroll was opened and read, it opened to the section in Deuteronomy containing an admonition, where G‑d warns the Jewish people of the terrible consequences of neglecting the Torah and the commandments, leading to destruction and exile.
The king, deeply shaken and heartbroken, tore his clothes and ordered Hilkiah and four other royal messengers to go to the holy prophets to inquire as to what should be done in view of the divine warning that had just been received. The king’s messengers went to the prophetess Huldah, who then prophesied about the impending doom of exile.
The Talmud notes that under normal circumstances, the king should have sent for Jeremiah, who was the leading prophet. However, Jeremiah was on a divine mission to the ten tribes, and in fact he actually gathered them up and returned them to Israel, where Josiah ruled over them.
This, however, does not mean that the prophet Jeremiah returned all of the exiles. Rather, he gathered only some people of the ten tribes who had managed to escape while being led into exile. They then joined the rest of the Jewish nation and are included in their history.
In light of the above, we can better understand Rabbi Akiva’s view that the ten tribes will not return. For what he means to say is that all those who are meant to return have already done so; the rest are lost forever, having intermingled with the other nations.
What we are left with, then, is a disagreement as to whether the rest of the lost tribes, those who have not returned, will ever return and be reunited with the rest of the Jewish nation.
Maimonides writes, with regards to this dispute between Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Eliezer as to whether the lost ten tribes will ever return, that “when there is a dispute in the Talmud that has no actionable relevance to us, Jewish law does not rule either way.”
However, there are those who do rule, and say that we follow Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion that the ten tribes will ultimately be reunited with the rest of Israel at the time of the redemption with the coming of the Moshiach.
Remember, we discussed under ALT RIGHT ALT LEFT 5% FAKE RELIGIOUS FREEMASONRY corrupting our REAL 99% religions ----that MYTH-MAKING creates these same religious corruptions as we see in THE PHYSICIAN. These are all manufactured by humans stories made to look like our religious texts in order to advance what global banking 1% want as a STAGED SECOND COMING OF CHRIST-----GMO HUMANS create a new species of humans.
Whether or not some or any of these myths are true----they have no connection to today's global 1% or today's 5% freemason/Greek players.
So, THE PHYSICIAN makes this tie of our PHYSICIANS TO GOD-----MOVING FORWARD GOD AS FREEMASON artificially killing GOD'S NATURAL human species.
We want to finish this side of book discussion by emphasizing that today's MOVING FORWARD ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE will not take us back to MEDIEVAL DARK AGES----it will take us back to 1000BC as STONE AGE became METAL AGES.
So, ROB'S wife MARY from SCOTLAND has the KING OF KINGS representing our major world religions.
Are the Celts one of the ten lost tribes of Israel?
June 13, 2016 02:08 AM
There is a theory that the Celts are descended from one of the ten lost tribes of Israel, the tribe of Dan.
Proponents of this theory in historical essays and elsewhere point to various parallels between Irish and ancient Hebrew culture. For example, they note that the harp, the symbol of Ireland, also plays a role in Jewish history, as the musical instrument of King David.
Some maintain that the tribe of Dan, known for its seafaring, conducted sea voyages to Ireland and colonized it as early as the period of the Judges in the 7th century BC under the name Tuatha Dé Danann.
Scholar Janet Moser writes: "There are certain facts that suggest that the Celts might have derived from a Jewish tradition from the East. The Celtic body of ecclesiastical and civil knowledge was Druidism. Their system can be traced to about 1800 B.C...”
In 'The Psalter of Cashel' an ancient text written by Saint Cormac it states that: 'The Tuatha de Danaan' ruled in Ireland for about two centuries, and were highly skilled in architecture and other arts from their long residence in Greece.'
The Tuatha de Danaan were the descendants of Danaus, the son of Belus, who went with his fifty daughters to Argos, the home of his ancestor Io. In Irish legends the Tuatha de Danaan, who were considered to "be demi-gods, ... were said to have possessed a ... Grail-like vessel ... These teachers of wisdom ... were the founders of the Druidic priesthood."
Were they connected back to the tribes of Israel? As part of the kingdom of Israel, the territory of Dan was conquered by the Assyrians, and the Dan were exiled; the manner of their exile led to their further history being lost.
Soon after the Celtic tribe appeared in Europe leading to speculation that the Celts were the tribe of Dan.
According to the Hebrew Bible, following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BC, Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. Dan was allocated the most northerly region, to the north of the Galilee, and west of the Jordan, stretching north as far as Laish, Dan's main city (which became known as Dan). (Joshua 19:40-48)
In the Biblical census of the Book of Numbers, the tribe of Dan is portrayed as the second largest Israelite tribe (after Judah).Some textual scholars regard the census as being from the Priestly Source, dating it to around the 7th century BC. Following the conquest of the land by Joshua until the formation of the first Kingdom of Israel in 1050 BC, the Tribe of Dan was a part of a loose confederation of Israelite tribes. No central government existed, and in times of crisis the people were led by ad hoc leaders known as Judges.
With the growth of the threat from Philistine incursions, the Israelite tribes decided to form a strong centralized monarchy to meet the challenge, and the Tribe of Dan joined the new kingdom with Saul as the first king.
After the death of Saul, all the tribes other than Judah remained loyal to the House of Saul, but after the death of Ish-bosheth, Saul's son and successor to the throne of Israel, the Tribe of Dan joined the other northern Israelite tribes in making David, who was then the king of Judah, king of a re-united Kingdom of Israel. However, on the accession of Rehoboam, David's grandson, in c. 930 BC the northern tribes split from the House of David to reform a Kingdom of Israel as the Northern Kingdom.
The most celebrated Danite was Samson, who some suggest is derived from Danyen tribal legends. The anti-Christ is also said to be a member of the tribe of Dan.
Modern artists use the "scales of justice" to represent the Tribe of Dan due to Genesis 49:16 referencing Dan judging his people. However, more traditional artists use a snake to represent Dan, based on Genesis 49:17.
Their primary trade characteristic was seafaring, unusual for the Israelite tribes. In the Song of Deborah the tribe is said to have stayed on their ships with their belongings. As part of the Kingdom of Israel, the territory of Dan was conquered by the Assyrians, and the tribe exiled; the manner of their exile led to their further history being lost.
Did they reappear as the Tuatha De Dannan or later the Celts? The truth is lost in the mists of time.
ROB was simply that passionate 99% citizen having the talent to become a REAL PHYSICIAN----while in MEDIEVAL LONDON those calling themselves PHYSICIANS were simply glorified BARBER SURGEONS selling SMOKE AND MIRRORS as medicine.
MOVING FORWARD AFFORDABLE CARE ACT BRINGS BACK DARK AGES MEDICINE-----FILLED WITH SMOKE AND MIRRORS----SIMPLY MOVING MONEY TO A GLOBAL 1% AND 5% PLAYERS HAVING NO TALENT AND NOT CARING IF THEY HARM OR KILL 99% OF WE THE PEOPLE.
While THE PHYSICIAN makes clear that these MEDIEVAL medical stances are DARK AGES compared to 3000BC-----1000BC ancient Greece and Egypt and its medical advancements. Seems it is GLOBAL 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS pretending to be FAKE RELIGIOUS leaders keeping us from today's MEDICAL ADVANCEMENTS as though WE WERE THOSE DARK AGES BARBER SURGEONS.
Today's morals and ethics surrounding medicine and medical practice tied to thousands of years of HIPPOCRATIC OATH----DO NO HARM -----is not MEDIEVAL BARBER SURGEON/RELIGION holding back today's medical progress.
If today's BOOK REVIEW whether in global banking 1% national media----or captured global corporate university academics does not educate as to THESE DETAILS in THE PHYSICIAN----then they were written by 5% to the 1% freemason/Greek players feeding our US 99% of citizens COMMONER CORE dis-information.
History of Medicine
From Haircuts to Hangnails – The Barber-Surgeon
by Elizabeth Roberts, MA, CPC | May 6, 2011
Imagine your monthly beauty routine. Perhaps you go to the salon and get a manicure and pedicure, or to the hairstylist for a cut and dye. Every six months you go to a dentist to have your teeth cleaned and examined, and to the doctor once a year for your physical exam. Three hundred years ago, your routine would have been much the same, except for one thing. It would all have been done at the barbershop.
Barbers in the modern period are known to do mainly one thing: cut hair. For much of the last hundred and fifty years, their red and white striped barber poles signified their ability to produce a good clean shave and a quick trim. This was not always the case, however.
Up until the 19th century barbers were generally referred to as barber-surgeons, and they were called upon to perform a wide variety of tasks. They treated and extracted teeth, branded slaves, created ritual tattoos or scars, cut out gallstones and hangnails, set fractures, gave enemas, and lanced abscesses. Whereas physicians of their age examined urine or studied the stars to determine a patient’s diagnosis, barber-surgeons experienced their patients up close and personal. Many patients would go to their local barber for semi-annual bloodletting, much like you take your car in for a periodic oil change.
Barbers through the Ages
Beginning in the Egyptian era, throughout Roman times and in the Middle Ages, barbers were known to perform much more than simple haircuts and efforts of vanity. They were called on to perform minor surgical operations, pull teeth, and embalm the dead. Their many duties made them the surgeons of the day.
The barbering occupation began in ancient Egypt, where both men and women shaved their heads and wore wigs, and higher-ranking officials often shaved their entire bodies. Egypt’s wealthy citizens and royalty were often tended to by personal slaves, who dressed their wigs, cleaned, and shaved their bodies. Gradually a working class of independent barbers developed, who would perform these duties for all members of society. Personal barbers would also perform additional duties, such as cleaning ears and examining teeth.
The Greeks, in their heyday, wore long hair and curled beards, which required much tending. Alexander the Great, fearing that enemies would use long hair as handles in battle, encouraged his men to cut their hair and shave their beards, which required a skilled set of haircutters. These expert Greek barbers spread along with the widening influence of the Greek state, eventually entering Roman territory, where they set up stalls in the city streets.
Many settled communities around the world also employed a set of skilled barber-surgeons. Cortez encountered barbers upon entering Tenochtitlan; European colonists relied on the surgical abilities of the newfound Indian populations in American colonies; and Chinese traveling barbers wandered through the streets, ringing a bell to announce their presence. Because barbers employed an array of sharp metal tools, and they were more affordable than the local physician, they were often called upon to perform a wide range of surgical tasks.
Barbers differed greatly from the medicine man or shaman, who used magic or religion to heal their patients. Surgery was considered a “lesser art,” and was not to be performed by the magical preist-physicians that ruled the mystical connection between the soul and the body. But this did not diminish their presence or usefulness.
In the ancient Mayan civilization, they were called upon to create ritual tattoos and scars. The ancient Chinese used them to castrate eunuchs. They gelded animals and assisted midwives, and performed circumcisions. Their accessibility and skill with precise instruments often made them the obvious choice for surgical procedures.
From Barbers to Barber-Surgeons
After the fall of the Roman Empire, barbers were a staple of monastery life. Monks required barbers to shave their faces and tonsures, the round area on the top of the head. At this time, physicians were forbidden to perform surgical procedures as the body was considered holy, and should not be violated by the hands of doctors. But monks, who also practiced as doctors, considered operations and surgical procedures as dirty and beneath their dignity, and passed those responsibilities to barbers.
One of the keystones of the barber’s surgical duties was bloodletting. Bleeding was done for a number of reasons, but the basis of the ideas was that by letting out the bad or morbid blood in the body, it would be replaced by fresh healthy blood. Bleeding of patients was done in many ways, including cupping and using leeches, but the most common was cutting a patient’s vein and letting the blood flow into a small basin.
As bleeding became one of the main responsibilities of the barbers, they came to signify their presence in the marketplace with a red and white striped pole, the colors reminiscent of the blood and rags used in bloodletting. This pole was usually capped with a small basin, used to symbolize the vessel with which they would collect the blood. Later, barbers placed bowls of blood in their shop windows, to indicate that they performed bloodletting services.
As they also often pulled teeth, they would string a row of teeth in front of their windows to alert potential customers of their services. In 1307, the people of London decried the bowls of blood sitting in barber’s windowsills, and passed a law that all fresh blood must be carried to the Thames.
In 1163, a papal decree forbade monks from shedding blood, and so all surgical tasks fell to the skilled barbers. In addition to bloodletting, barbers were called upon to perform almost all surgical and dental operations, as well as more unsavory occupations, such as embalmings and autopsies.
During the 12th and 13th centuries, secular universities began to develop throughout Europe, and along with an increased study of medicine and anatomy came an increased study in surgery. This led to a split between academically trained surgeons and barber-surgeons, which was formalized in the 13th century. After this, academic surgeons signified their status by wearing long robes, and barber-surgeons by wearing short robes. Barber-surgeons were thus largely referred to as “surgeons of the short robe.”
Barbers of both the short and long robes coexisted precariously during the next few centuries. In France in 1361, barbers and surgeons combined to form a united guild, but more often than not they formed separate guilds. The Barber’s Company guild, formed in 1462, merged with the surgeon’s guild in 1540. These guilds both helped ensure quality of service, by employing inspectors to verify the skill of the barber, as well as compete with other craftsmen, by negotiating contracts.
Certain barber-surgeons became very skilled at performing surgical procedures. Ambroise Paré, considered the father of modern surgery, was one such barber. Originally a wound-dresser at the Paris Hotel Dieu, Paré made history by his unconventional handling of gunshot wounds and open injuries, and later rose to be the surgeon to the royal family of France.
The Separation of Barber and Surgeon
Gradually, the split between barbers and surgeons became more severe, and in 1743 in France and 1745 in England, barber-surgeons who cut or shaved hair were not allowed to perform surgery. In 1800 the College of Surgery was founded in England, and the last practicing barber-surgeon in England died in 1821.
Dentistry, which was another one of the many responsibilities of the barber-surgeon, was also gradually relegated to its own specialty. Surgeon-dentists were practicing as early as the 17th century.
Barbers, who had once performed an entire plethora of surgical procedures, were now primarily responsible for the care of a patron’s hair and nails. Increasingly in the 17th and 18th centuries, barbers became wigmakers for the European elite, some of them eventually splitting off into their own specialty as hairdressers.
Even so, the barber-surgeons skills remained in high demand as late as 1727, when John Gay penned his poem, The Goat Without a Beard:
His pole, with pewter basins hung,
Black, rotten teeth in order strung,
Rang’d cups that in the window stood,
Lin’d with red rags, to look like blood,
Did well his threefold trade explain,
Who shav’d, drew teeth, and breath’d a vein.
It is hard to imagine going to the barber shop today to get a boil lanced or a tooth pulled, or for an occasional bloodletting, but for much of human history this was the case. As medicine, and surgery, advanced, so did the profession of barbery. From haircuts to hangnails, they did it all.
The barber shop was the common ancestor of many different occupations today; surgeons, dentists, tattooists, embalmers, doctors, hairdressers, wigmakers, manicurists, pedicurists, and more can all source their ancestry to that one common denominator: the barber-surgeon.
Bringing the religious with the medical and all that politics surrounding the ending our our Western REAL public health care systems in UK, Europe, Canada, and US -----THE PHYSICIAN 'ROB' apprenticed with THE BARBER who represents that medieval trade guild apprenticeship of children as free labor THE BARBER dying and having on his tombstone I SOLD SMOKE----because his main source of income was simply LIQUOR sold as a medical elixor.
'AI 'snake oil salesmen' and protecting human digital rights
Last updated 05:00, March 11 2018'
Below we see UK political propaganda same as in US------the ORANGE PARTY is of course global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS taking our LABOUR PARTY just as Blair/Clinton did from neo-liberal capture to far-right wing, authoritarian, militaristic, dicatorship, extreme wealth extreme poverty LIBERTARIAN MARXISM. ORANGE as we discuss often is SCOTTISH RITE TEMPLE----is KNIGHTS OF MALTA----having absolutely nothing to do with 99% WE THE PEOPLE LABOR AND JUSTICE.
We know LONDON'S Johnson is that LIBERTARIAN----we know CORBYN is that MARXIST just as in US today Clinton/Bush morphing into far-right LIBERTARIAN MARXISM.
It is indeed all SMOKE AND MIRRORS as is everything being pushed by AFFORDABLE CARE ACT privatization of all our US public health into global predatory and profiteering health systems PRETENDING TELEMEDICINE is health care for all.
THE PHYSICIAN'S BARBER knew he sold SMOKE as did all of those FAKE LONDON physicians who were only really BARBER SURGEONS.
Remember, TRUMP as CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA tied to Scottish Rite Temple and Knights of Malta were ORANGEMEN ------and THE PHYSICIAN centers on the origin of that MYTH creating all this global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS freemasonry mythology-----
Sunday, March 14, 2010
End of The Party For Snake-Oil Salesmen
Finally free of the shackles and spin of the New Labour brand, a retiring MP has dared to speak out against the Gang of Four who hijacked a political Party for self-serving power. After 25 years as an MP and 46 years in the Party, Peter Kilfoyle hits out at the hypocrisy of New Labour.
Bruce Willis without the dirty vest, 'pushing sixty with a dicky heart', a man after the Orange Party's own heart. Kilfoyle is one of the few MPs who are quitting the commons come election time when the well-worn excuse of "health grounds" rings true.
In an extract from his new book published in the unlikely organ of the Mail on Sunday, the headline: "The snake oil salesmen who hijacked my party", could have been written by the Orange Party, breaking free from the shackles to show up the sham a decade of failed policies in May 2008, now all thumbs a-twiddlin' waiting for the election.
Snake-oil salesmen and a slick marketing machine. A slick snake-oil salesman from the Windy City? Dave the darling of the Tory fightback? Not Obama nor Cameron. But the daddy of them all - all heirs to Blair.
A decade of lies, deceit and spin, kept going by the superb showmanship of Blair, shifty skulduggery of Mandelson, sinister spin of Campbell and political strategy of Gould.
All propped up with a smattering of crafty accounting by Brown allowed to play with the big boys to cook the books.
There's no doubt New Labour was a marketing success, observes Kilfoyle. The Gang of Four set out to rebuild Labour in their own image and likeness and, by and large, succeeded. But New Labour’s day of reckoning is nigh. As Kilfoyle says "snake oil salesmen are always found out eventually."
The 1997 last-ditch bid for power worked for while before the public saw through the sham. The price was to emasculate Labour ideologically. New Labour became a brand. All style and no substance, sold successfully as a soap powder dream to a bedazzled electorate tired of the Tories and its painful memories and remedies.
Watching "political reality give way to political correctness" and rising above the political claptrap, Kilfoyle offers food for political thought but few crumbs of comfort for the dying days of the fag-end government.
The old guard will go. There will be no Brown, Darling or Straw at the top for long. Johnson will be consigned to the ‘too old’ scrapheap. But Hattie, a "monomaniac obsessed with 'all women' shortlists" will linger on.
Mandy will try to foist a "product" on the Party and the country, trying it on with Bananaboy Miliband. But in the eyes of the electorate, the New Labour brand is forever tarnished with his spin.
Bunkered Brown has packed his cabinet and government with inexperienced cronies kowtowing to his wishes, leaving few serious politicians in his wake. But it is from those ranks that a new leader is expected to emerge. Lightweights Jowell, Bradshaw and Ainsworth are ships that will be passed over in the night. Alexander, Murphy and Byrne have risen to sink without trace.
With little or no experience outside politics, researchers, special advisers, marketing and advertising people like the Miliband brothers, Burnham and Balls are unable to relate to the real world. A new breed of New Labour London hopefuls are being parachuted in to safe seats in the sticks.
Back in 1994, when Mandelson and Gould were arguing that Labour’s traditional voters had nowhere else to go, they were wrong, argues Kilfoyle.
That arrogance has encouraged voting for fringe parties such as the BNP, or simply staying at home. "To our national shame," says Kilfoyle, "it has given the BNP seats in the European Parliament and a worrying BNP presence in places such as Burnley and Stoke."
The choice for the Labour Party, says Kilfoyle, is between the New Labour social democrats, "complete with deregulation, devotion to markets and privatisation" and democratic socialists with calls for "regulation, appropriate intervention and a thriving public sector."
That contradiction between New Labour zealots and traditional true Labour principles and values cannot be reconciled. The failure of recent Brown plots was certainly not out of love or even respect for the struggling Supreme Leader but to do what it takes to fight the Tory threat.
A root-and-branch clear-out of those in leading positions is needed after election defeat says Kilfoyle, with outsiders such as Cruddas offer a fresh hope for the Party. The Orange Party would add McDonnell to that list of two.
However the push polls are spun, New Labour isn't winning, it's losing. The fear of 1994 has returned to haunt the Party. A shattering defeat in the election might lead to the splintering of the Party and the Labour movement.
But lurking behind the ballot box is the reality of recession, with dire times ahead. Whoever holds the reins of government will have tough decisions to make, involving cuts, tax increases and job losses.
It may well be in the Party’s longer-term interest to be in opposition when the economic storm hits the fan, leaving Labour in opposition to collect the electoral benefit.
Kilfoyle, MP for Liverpool Walton, spent years fighting the Militant Tendency 'menace' and quit as a Blair defence minister, claiming the government was failing to pay enough attention to Labour's heartlands.
A vocal backbench critic of the government against plans to replace Trident and a leading critic of the Iraq war, Kilfoyle threw his weight behind the 2008 Labour Party leadership challenge.
In the country at large, the New Labour project has done even more damage, he claims. The country has paid a high price for the shift to the right, with less compassion for those at the bottom of the heap, and a much diminished electoral base for progressive and redistributive policies.
Weighing up "the fulfilment of the personal ambitions of Brown and Blair against the longer-term interests of the majority of the nation and of the Labour Party", Kilfoyle is clear which side he would fall.
"It will take more than a ready smile and an advertising slogan," says Kilfoyle "to convince people a second time around."
As CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA in the US moved all our US national wealth to the global 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS-----all that was the strongest in world history US, UK. EUROPEAN PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM was privatized to global 1% but also those global 1% FAKE RELIGIOUS freemasonry institutions----NOT RELIGIOUS----and pushing forward all these predatory and profiteering medical policies and tying our US health system to ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE DARK AGES medicine for our 99% of WE THE PEOPLE and our 99% new immigrant citizens to US FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES.
'About this article
Assisted suicide is not about autonomy. It's a tragedy that we shouldn't allow.
Assisted suicide is gaining popularity and that's tragic. This is not about autonomy. It's about our complicit agreement that a life is worthless.
'organ harvesting-----microchip contraception'.
THIS IS WHY TODAY OUR 99% WE THE PEOPLE ARE WATCHING AS PHARMA AND MEDICAL PATENTS OPENLY HARMING AND KILLING OUR CITIZENS ARE BEING ALLOWED TO BE INSTALLED.
THE PHYSICIAN makes clear that back in DARK AGES the only people able to afford or see a REAL PHYSICIAN were those global 1% and their 2%. PHYSICIANS would not touch 99% WE THE PEOPLE COMMONERS. The 99% were left to BARBER SURGEONS----anyone wanting to pretend to be a healer.
When today we hear a US politician called a RHODES SCHOLAR-----this is to what they are tied-----they do not work for our US 99% and our US sovereignty---they work for global 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS----and most of our US national leaders are tied to these foreign sovereign NGOs.......
PHYSICIAN AS GOD-----OH, REALLY????????????
'Known as Hospitallers of Jerusalem until 1309, the members were called Knights of Rhodes from 1309 till 1522, and have been called Knights of Malta since 1530'.
THE PHYSICIAN did a good job looking at this DARK AGES practice of only people from rich or royal families being admitted to medical schools and often being those worst of doctors ----while those passionate and talented faced constant fear of death or retaliation.
Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem
October 7, 2013
(Also known as KNIGHTS OF MALTA).
A depiction of the Order of Malta Knights of uniforms:
1 – a full bailifs, Grand Cross of the Knight of,
2 – a full-fledged knight of the Order of cloak,
3 – bailifs honor, Knight of Grand Cross.
The most important of all the military orders, both for the extent of its area and for its duration. It is said to have existed before the Crusades and is not extinct at the present time. During this long career it has not always borne the same name. Known as Hospitallers of Jerusalem until 1309, the members were called Knights of Rhodes from 1309 till 1522, and have been called Knights of Malta since 1530.
The origins of the order have given rise to learned discussions, to fictitious legends and hazardous conjectures. The unquestionable founder was one Gerald or Gerard, whose birthplace and family name it has been vainly sought to ascertain. On the other hand, his title as founder is attested by a contemporary official document, the Bull of Paschal II, dated 1113, addressed to “Geraudo institutori ac praeposito Hirosolimitani Xenodochii”. This was certainly not the first establishment of the kind at Jerusalem. even before the crusades, hostelries were indispensable to shelter the pilgrims who flocked to the Holy Places, and in the beginning the hospitia or xenodochia were nothing more. They belonged to different nations; a Frankish hospice is spoken of in the time of Charlemagne; the Hungarian hospice is said to date from King St. Stephen (year 1000).
Cross of the Knights Hospitaller
But the most famous was an Italian hospice about the year 1050 by the merchants of Amalfi, who at that time had commercial relations with the Holy Land. Attempts have been made to trace the origin of the Hospitallers of St. John to this foundation, but it is obvious to remark that the Hospitallers had St. John the Baptist for their patron, while the Italian hospice was dedicated to St. John of Alexandria. Moreover, the former adopted the Rule of St. Augustine, while the latter followed that of the Benedictines. Like most similar houses at that time, the hospice of Amalfi was in fact merely a dependency of a monastery, while Gerard’s was autonomous from the beginning. Before the Crusades, the Italian hospital languished, sustained solely by alms gathered in Italy; but Gerard profited by the presence of the crusaders, and by the gratitude felt for his hospitality, to acquire territory and revenues not only in the new Kingdom of Jerusalem, but in Europe — in Sicily, Italy, and Provence. In the acts of donation which remain to us, there is no mention of the sick, but only of the poor and strangers.
In this respect the hospice of Gerard did not differ from other, and his epitaph defines his work:
Krak des Chevaliers Castle by Nev1.
In 1142 it was given by Raymond II, Count of Tripoli, to the Knights Hospitaller.
Pauperibus servus, pius hospitibus . . . . Undique collegit pasceret unde sous.
Thanks to the resources accumulated by Gerard, his successor, Raymond of Provence (1120-60), caused the erection of more spacious buildings near the church of the Holy Sepulchre, and henceforth the hospice became an infirmary served by a community of hospitallers in the modern sense of the word.
Raymond du Puy de Provence
Strictly speaking, therefore, the Hospitallers of Jerusalem only began with Raymond of Provence, to whom they owe their rule. This rule deals only with their conduct as religious and infirmarians, there being no mention of knights. It especially sets forth that the hospital shall permanently maintain at its expense five physicians and three surgeons. The brothers were to fulfil the duties of infirmarians. A pilgrim, about the year 1150, places the number of sick persons cared for at 2000, a figure evidently exaggerated, unless we make it include all the persons harboured in a whole year. Raymond continued to receive donations, and this permitted him to complete his foundation by a second innovation.
Bl. Gerard Thom
To accompany and defend at need, the arriving and departing pilgrims, he defrayed the cost of an armed escort, which in time became a veritable army, comprising knights recruited from among the crusaders of Europe, and serving as a heavy cavalry (see ), and Turcopoles recruited from among the natives of mixed blood, and serving as light cavalry armed in the Turkish fashion. With this innovation originated the most ancient military dignities in the order: the marshal, to command the knights, the turcopolier, for the Turcopoles. Later the grand masters themselves went into battle. Gosbert (c. 1177), the fifth successor of Raymond, distinguished himself, and Roger de Moulins perished gloriously on the field of battle (1187). Thus the Order of St. John imperceptibly became military without losing its eleemosynary character. The statutes of Roger de Moulins (1187) deal only with the service of the sick; the first mention of military service is in the statutes of the ninth grand master, Alfonso of Portugal (about 1200). In the latter a marked distinction is made between secular knights, externs to the order, who served only for a time, and the professed knights, attached to the order by a perpetual vow, and who alone enjoyed the same spiritual privileges as the other religious. Henceforth the order numbered two distinct classes of members: the military brothers and the brothers infirmarians. The brothers chaplains, to whom was entrusted the divine service, formed a third class.While the Order of St. John became a mixed order, that of the Templars was purely military form the beginning, and on this point it can claim priority, despite the contrary assertions of the Hospitallers. The Templars followed a different monastic rule and wore a different habit — the white habit of the Cistercians, whose rule they followed, with a red cross, while the Hospitallers had the black mantle with a white cross. In war the knightly brothers wore above their armour a red surcoat with the white cross. Mutually emulous from the outset, they soon became rivals, and this rivalry had much to do with the rapid decline of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In other respects the two orders held the same rank in Church and State, both being recognized as regular orders and endowed by the papacy with most extensive privileges, absolute independence of all spiritual and temporal authority save that of Rome, exemptions from tithes, with the right to have their own chapels, clergy and cemeteries.
Grand master & senior Knight Hospitallers
Both were charged with the military defense of the Holy Land, and the most redoubtable strongholds of the country, the splendid ruins of which still exist, were occupied by on or the other (Rey, “Monument de l’architecture militaire des Croisés”, Paris, 1865). On the battlefield they shared between them the most perilous posts, alternately holding the van and rear guard. The history of the Hospitallers of Jerusalem is involved in that of the Latin Kingdom of the same name, with which the order was associated in prosperity and adversity. When the kingdom was at the height of its glory, the Hospitallers possessed no fewer than seven strongholds, some situated on the coast, others in the mountains; of these Margat and Krals, in the territory of Tripoli, are the most famous. They enjoyed the revenues of more than one hundred and forty estates (casalia) in the Holy Land. As to their European possessions, a writer of the thirteenth century credits them with about nineteen thousand manses or manors. It was necessary to organize a financial administration in order to assure the regular payment of revenues of these widely scattered possessions. This was the task of Hugh of Ravel, seventeen Grand Master of the Holy Land (c. 1270). The lands attached to a single house were placed under the command of a knight of the order, who formerly was called a preceptor, but afterwards took the title of commander. This official was charged with collecting the revenues, one portion of which was devoted to the support of his community, formed of a chaplain and some brothers the other portion being destined for the houses of the Holy Land. This latter portion consisted of an annual and invariable impost called “Responsions”.
Foulques de Villaret
Thanks to these resources, drawn from Europe, the order was able to survive the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which involved the loss of all its possessions in Asia. After the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin (1187), the Hospitallers retained only their possessions in the Principality of Tripoli, and these they lost a century later by the fall of Acre (1291). They were obliged to seek refuge, under their grand master, Jean de Villiers, in the Kingdom of Cyprus, where they already has some possessions. King Amaury assigned them as a place of residence the town of Limassol on the coast. Having become islanders, the Hospitallers were obliged to modify their manner of warfare. They equipped fleets to fight the Muslims on the sea and to protect the pilgrims, who had not ceased to visit the Holy Places. But it was chiefly the conquest of the island of Rhodes, under the Grand Master Foulques de Villaret, that brought about a complete transformation of the order.
Map of the battle of the siege of Malta painted by Egnazio Danti.
The Knights of Rhodes (1309-1522)
The Knights of Rhodes, the successors of the Hospitallers of St. John, were distinguished from the latter in many ways. In the first place, the grand master of the order was thenceforward a temporal sovereign in that island, which constituted a true ecclesiastical principality, under the nominal suzerainty of the Emperors of the East. Secondly, although Villaret’s first care was to build a new infirmary, the care of the sick took a secondary place, as the members of the order had scarcely occasion to devote themselves to any save the members of the community. The name knights then prevailed over that of hospitallers. This character was accentuated by the fusion of the Hospitallers with the remaining Knights Templars subsequent to the suppression of the latter (1312). This fusion at the same time increased the wealth of the order, to which the pope assigned the property of the Templars in every country except Aragon and Portugal. In France, where Philip the Fair had sequestrated this property, the order obtained restitution only by paying large indemnities to the king. From this time its organization took its definitive form, the whole body being divided into tongues, priories, and commanderies. The tongues, or nations, were eight in number, each having its own bailiff; and one of the eight supreme dignities was reserved to each tongue — to Provence, that of the grand commander; to Auvergne, that of marshal; to France, grand hospitaller; to Italy, admiral; to Aragon, standard-bearer; to Castile, grand chancellor; to Germany, grand bailiff; to England, turcoplier. (On these dignities see .) The grand master might be elected from any of the various tongues; he exercised supreme authority, but under control of the grand chapter and with the aid of several councils. Each tongue was subdivided into priories, and the head of each priory had the right to receive new knights and to visit the commanderies. The priories number twenty-four, and the commanderies, which were subdivisions of the priories, 656. All these posts were held according to seniority, the commanderies after three campaigns, which were known as “caravans”.
Main entrance to Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes on the Island of Rhodes, Greece.
A most important change in the character of the order was the transformation of the knights into corsairs. The piracy practiced by the Muslims was the scourge of the Mediterranean and especially of Christian commerce. The Knights of Rhodes, on their side, armed cruisers not only to give chase to the pirates, but to make reprisals on the Turkish merchantmen. With increasing audacity they made descents on the coast and pillaged the richest ports of the Orient, such as Smyrna (1341) and Alexandria (1365). However, a new Muslim power arose at this period — the Ottoman Turks of Iconium — and took the offensive against Christianity. After the fall of Constantinople, Mahomet II directed his attention to the task of destroying this den of pirates which made Rhodes the terror of the Muslim world. Henceforth the order, thrown on the defensive, lived perpetually on the alert. Once, under its grand master, Pierre d’Aubusson, it repulsed all the forces of Mahomet II in the siege of 1480. In 1522 Solyman II returned to the attack with a fleet of 400 ships and an army of 140,000 men. The knights sustained this great onslaught with their habitual bravery for a period of six months under their grand master, Villiers de l’Isle Adam, and capitulated only when their supplies were completely exhausted. Their lives were spared, and they were permitted to withdraw. Solyman II, in homage to their heroism, lent them his ships to return to Europe. They dispersed to their commanderies and begged Charles V to grant them the island of Malta, which was a dependency of his kingdom of Sicily, and this sovereignty was granted them in 1530, under the suzerainty of the kings of Spain.
The Hospitaller grand master Guillaume de Clermont defending the walls at the Siege of Acre in 1291, by Dominique-Louis Papéty.
The Knights of Malta (1530-1798)
The Knights of Malta at once resumed the manner of life they had already practiced for two centuries at Rhodes. With a fleet which did not number more than seven galleys they resisted the Barbary pirates who infested the western basin of the Mediterranean. They formed a valuable contingent during the great expeditions of Charles V against Tunis and Algiers and at the memorable victory of Lepanto. The Knights of Malta were also permitted to equip galley at their own expense to give chase to the Turkish galleys. These enterprises did not fail to draw upon them fresh attacks from the Ottomans. Solyman II, regretting his generosity, gathered a second time all forces of his empire to dislodge the Christian corsairs from their retreat. The siege of Malta, quite as famous as that of Rhodes, lasted for four months (1565). The Turks has already taken possession of a part of the island, destroying nearly the whole of the old city, slaying half the knights and almost 8000 soldiers, when Malta was delivered by an army of relief from Spain. In retreating the Turks are said to have left 30,000 slain. A new city had to be built — the present city of Valette, so named in memory of its valiant grand master who had sustained this siege. Malta, however, was not rid of its most dangerous adversary until the battle of Lepanto (1571) which dealt the Ottoman fleet a fatal and final blow.
Jean Parisot de Valette, Grand Master Jean de La Valette.
From this time the history of Malta is reduced to a series of encounters by sea with the Barbary corsairs which have only local interest. The struggle was carried on chiefly by younger knights who were in haste to accomplish their three “caravans” in order to merit some vacant commandery. It was an existence filled with perils of every kind, sudden attacks, adventures, successes and defeats. There was constant risk of life, or of liberty, which could be regained only at the cost of enormous ransoms. But when success came, the undertaking proved lucrative, not only defraying all costs but also enriching the captain. The best result was the deliverance of hundreds of Christian slaves, chained as rowers on the Turkish galleys. In requital the vanquished Turks were in turn reduced to slavery and sold to Christian galleys which had need of rowers. In this respect Malta remained a veritable slave-market until well into the eighteenth century. It required a thousand slaves to equip merely the galleys of the order, which were a hell for those unfortunates.
It will be readily understood that the habit of living in the midst of these scenes of violence and brutality exercised a bad influence on the morals of the knights of the order. Discipline became relaxed and the grand mastership became a more and more perilous honour. Revolts were frequent. In 1581 the grand master, Jean de la Cassière, was made prisoner by his own knights, whose principle grievance was the expulsion of lewd women. The vow of obedience was little better observed than that of celibacy. Once in possession of some commandery situated on the Continent, a knight would become indeed independent of the grand master’s authority and maintain only the most remote relations with the order. As to the vow of poverty, the knights were recruited solely from among the nobility, proofs of noble descent being more severely scrutinized than religious dispositions, and naturally, the wealth of the order formed the only motive of these vocations. Its decay began, too, with the confiscation of its possessions. One effect of Protestantism was the alienation of a large group of commanderies, to be thenceforward appropriated to the Protestant nobility, as, for instance, the Bailiwick of Sonnenburg in Prussia. In other Protestant countries the order was simply suppressed. In Catholic countries the sovereigns themselves assumed more and more the right to dispose of the commanderies within their jurisdiction. At last Malta, the very centre of the order, was treacherously surrendered under the grand master, the Count von Hompesch, to General Bonaparte when he made his expedition to Egypt (12 June, 1798).
Knights of Malta 900 years
Present State of the Order
The secularization of the property of the order in Protestant countries was extended by the French Revolution to the greater number of Catholic countries. On the other hand, Czar Paul of Russia assigned them considerable property in his domains (1797), and in return was elected grand master, but his election was not recognized by the pope. From that time forward the pope has named the grand master of the bailiff who takes his place. From 1805 to 1879 there was no grand master, but Leo XIII re-established the dignity, bestowing it on an Austrian, Geschi di Sancta Croce. It is now (1910) held by Galeazzo von Thun Hohenstein. The actual conditions for admission to the order are: nobility of sixteen quarterings, the Catholic Faith, attainment of full legal age, integrity of character, and corresponding social position. There are now in existence only four great priories, one in Bohemia, and three in Italy. There are still commanders and several classes of knights, with different insignia, but all wear the same eight-pointed Maltese cross (see DECORATIONS, PONTIFICAL).
To the Order of the Knights of Malta belong the Convent of S. Maria del Priorato on the Aventine in Rome, overlooking the Tiber, and commanding from its gardens one of the most delightful views of the city. The walls of the convent are adorned with portraits of the knights, and the archives are rich in records of the order. The tombs of the knights in the convent church are interesting. The order was summoned to attend the Convention of Geneva (1864), on the same footing as the great powers.
The Protestant Baliwick of Sonnenburg in Prussia disappeared after the secularization of its property in 1810. Nevertheless Frederick William IV created a new confraternity of “Evangelical Johannittes” (1852), under the master (Herrenmeister) always chosen from the royal family, and with a great number of other dignitaries. Admission to the order is subject to numerous conditions, ancient nobility, corresponding social position, and entrance fee of 900 marks, a probation of at least four years as a knight of honor before admission of the accolade which confers the title of Knight of Justice. Their first obligation is to collect contributions for the support of hospitals. Thus this Protestant branch of the order has returned to the ideal of its first founder in the time of the First Crusade. Moreover, in times of war, since 1870, the order has been devoted to ambulance service on the field of battle.