Once global banking 1% finish that ROBBER BARON looting and sacking----they no longer need that global banking 5% to the 1% pol and player ----they no longer need to pretend to be working under the confines of a sovereign constitution or government. This is why we shouted these few decades that CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA were working for the foreign sovereignty of MALTA----
THESE SAME GLOBAL BANKING 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS did the same in Germany. They sacked and looted Germany as the other European nations and installed a FAR-RIGHT WING CORPORATE FASCIST HITLER to build all those GLOBAL NGO societal structures that have hold of all our US cities today.
WHAT ARE ALL THOSE GLOBAL BANKING 1% NGOs IN OUR US CITIES DEEMED FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES TARGETING? YOUTH AND WELFARE.
Youth and the Welfare State in Weimar Germany
This is a study of social policy in Weimar Germany. The Weimar Republic gave German youth new social rights and a pledge of generous educational and welfare provision. Public social and welfare policies would, it was hoped, banish the spectre of delinquent and rebellious youth, and ensure that the future citizens, workers, and mothers of Germany's new democracy would be well-adjusted, efficient, and healthy. But how far could the would-be architects of modern technocratic welfare realize their vision in the midst of the economic and political instability of the Great Depression? How did young people respond to policies supposedly in their best interests, but which contained an unmistakable dimension of supervision and control? This book examines a wide range of policies implemented by central and local government, including vocational training, labour market policies, reformatory schooling, and the juvenile justice system. The book offers insights into the troubled development of the Weimar welfare state and the crisis into which it was plunged by the Depression. The book also adds evidence to the debate over continuities in social policy between Weimar Germany and the Third Reich.
All our 99% youth in Baltimore are being funneled into these same global banking societal structures instead of having actual jobs just as in WEIMAR Germany. All these NGOs are global with directors tied to policies funneled in from overseas---today it is the WORLD BANK/UNITED NATIONS.
As global banking 1% send it their global NGOs to take over a sovereign nations' public services and programs------the national media is telling our sovereign citizens all this is BIG GOVERNMENT-----they pretend it is government getting in the way. This is the stage global banking 1% corporate FASCISM it coming to its peak. CLINTON/BUSH started this movement by privatizing all that is public----OBAMA super-sized it by sending all Federal funding that did go to public agencies to private NGOs with patronage funding to those 5% freemason/Greek players who DO ANYTHING GLOBAL BANKING 1% TELLS THEM.
If our 99% US citizens imagine WEIMAR GERMANY as CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA----we can see how the sovereign nation of GERMANY was captured global foreign sovereignty of MALTA and global banking 1% and all Germany's economy and corporations fell under control of that foreign sovereignty. When we ask how those 99% of GERMAN citizens could have followed a far-right brutal HITLER---we see the same MOVING FORWARD today in US CITIES DEEMED FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES-----as Baltimore.
Once our US treasuries and people's pockets are looted----the more our 99% are made deeper and deeper in poverty-----there are those global banking 1% NGOs----treating our US sovereign citizens just as they do REFUGEES in war-torn nations.
All of our US youth are being tied to dependence upon NGOs ---all our poor are being tied to FEED THE CITY global NGOs ---and all those NGOs are led by 5% to the 1% global banking players DOING ANYTHING ----as in WEIMAR GERMANY -----they are told.
The national media kept filling our headlines with HITLER IS CRAZY NUTCASE------to hide the fact that the global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS were staging civil unrest/civil war against their OWN 99% OF SOVEREIGN CITIZENS......just as is MOVING FORWARD today with TRUMP. The difference today for US 99% of citizens is that those global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS are NOT OUR US SOVEREIGN LEADERS.
Bowling for Adolf: How social capital helped to destroy Germany’s first democracy
Joachim Voth, Nico Voigtländer, Shanker Satyanath 05 August 2013
The collapse of the Weimar Republic was a turning point in world history, bringing the murderous Nazi regime to power. This column argues that contrary to most conceptions of social capital, there can be negative outcomes to well-connected societies. Independent of ideology, dense social networks in interwar Germany greatly helped the Nazi party to rapidly and widely disseminate its messages. Putnam’s claims about the benefits of social capital for democracy need to be reassessed.
- Paying the piper, reaping the returns: Hitler’s rise and stock prices
- Betting on Hitler: the value of political connections in Nazi Germany
Social capital is associated with a host of desirable outcomes:
- There is more trust and there are more blood donations in towns with lots of civic associations.
- Voter turnout is higher, and financial markets work better (Guiso, Sapienza, and Zingales 2008).
- The Ku Klux Klan, drug-dealers and the mafia rely on social cohesion to ensure co-operation.
- Also, important recent work shows that civic associations can lead to the entrenchment of existing leaders, undermining the quality of governance (Acemoglu, Reed, and Robinson 2013).
We turn to the experience of interwar Europe for some lessons. Just as during the Arab Spring today, new democracies took the place of authoritarian regimes in many countries after 1918 – but a significant share did not survive. We focus on the canonical case of a democracy falling apart – Weimar Germany. In particular, we examine the extent to which social capital contributed to the rise of an extremist, anti-democratic movement – the Nazi party. Scholars have long pointed out that Weimar Germany had an unusually vigorous civic society (Berman 1997). Nonetheless, the country’s first democracy fell. This does not necessarily prove that social capital undermined the political system – it could well be that the Weimar Republic would have fallen apart faster without a dense network of clubs and societies.
Where the Nazi party grew the most
The rise of the Nazi party took place not just at the polls, it relied crucially on a tightly-controlled organisation composed of thousands of local ‘cells’. In the majority of German cities, these underpinned the party’s success in national elections (Brustein 1998). The party grew at the grass roots first, the votes followed. In 1928, for example, the Nazis – the National Socialist German Workers’ Party – already had 100,000 party members in some 1,400 local chapters (Anheier 2003), making it one of the largest parties in the country. At the same time, it only received 2.6% of the national vote.
To examine the link between social capital and the fall of the Weimar Republic, we collect new data on associational life in over 100 towns in interwar Germany, and marry it with existing information on entry into the Nazi party. We also use information on 19th Century associations to clarify the nature of the link between party entry and association density in Germany in the 1920s. Throughout the period, towns and cities with more social capital showed markedly higher rates of entry into the Nazi Party (Figure 1). If we look at towns and cities in the highest tercile of association density, we see rates of entry that are almost twice as high as in the bottom tercile. This means that the ‘virus’ of Nazi ideology spread much faster in the population where people interacted intensively and repeatedly as equals.
Figure 1. Nazi party entry and association density
Associations could have helped the Nazi party for two reasons.
- First, they could have contained a large reservoir of militaristic individuals thirsting for revenge against France, who were favourably pre-disposed to the Nazi message.
Then, the effect of social capital on party entry would simply show that places with a pro-Nazi political culture and outlook signed on to the brownshirt programme at a higher clip.
- Second, it could well be that even if ideological preferences are identical in two locations, the town or city with more civic capital saw more party entry because fellow club members lent credibility to the Führer’s message and convinced Germans that the party was going to improve their lot.
One member reminisced that he “ … became acquainted with a colleague of my own age with whom I had frequent conversations. He was a calm, quiet person whom I esteemed very highly. When I found that he was one of the local leaders of the National Socialist party, my opinion of it as a group of criminals changed completely”(Abel 1938).
In the university town of Marburg, analysed in detail by Rudy Koshar (1987), party entrants showed a wide range of memberships, from chess clubs to hiking associations – far transcending the militaristic realm of veteran associations. Also, individuals with association membership were overrepresented in the group of Nazi entrants. This demonstrates the power of the link we hypothesise, with association members themselves joining in higher numbers.
In our statistical analysis, we can control for other factors that are known to have influenced the appeal of National Socialist ideology, such as the strength of the Catholic party, and the relative importance of blue-collar employment. Once we take out these factors, we still find a strong and highly significant positive relationship between social capital and Nazi entry rates (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Cross-sectional relationship between association density and Nazi party entry
War veterans and pigeon breeders
To deal with the issue of interpretation more systematically, we divide association membership into two types – military associations (mainly veterans’ clubs), and other associations (rabbit breeders, singers, gymnasts, stamp collectors, etc.). When we analyse the link between association density and party entry, we find almost identical results for both types of social capital – pigeon breeders and hiking clubs were just as potent a force for the rise of the Nazi party as the veterans’ of the Franco-Prussian War of 1871.
Of course, it could well be that a third factor simultaneously drove up association membership and Nazi party entry. For example, unemployment fanned the flames of discontent with the Weimar Republic; it also gave people plenty of time to pursue other activities. In our regressions, we control for peak unemployment during the Depression, and do not find a change in results. We also use 19th-century association membership –capturing city-specific preferences for joining a club – and show that results are largely unchanged. This suggests that causation ran from associations to Nazi-party entry, instead of some omitted variable simultaneously increasing both.
Social capital and the survival of democracy
The collapse of the Weimar Republic was a turning point in world history. It brought a singularly murderous regime to power. Without the Nazi party’s massive success at the polls, its entry into government would have been inconceivable. What paved the way to electoral success was a powerful party organisation that penetrated into every corner of Germany. In this paper, we examine what allowed the party’s membership to rise to the point where it became a successful mass movement that could successfully challenge the established democratic order.
We find that dense social networks in interwar Germany ultimately contributed to the rise of the Nazi party. Independent of the associations’ ideological focus, membership grew more rapidly where there was social capital in abundance. Interacting as equals while singing or discussing rabbit breeding did not fortify Germans against the lure of an extremist party – it made it possible for its message to spread more rapidly, with many more citizens joining the cause where association density was high. These findings suggest that Putnam’s (and Tocqueville’s) claims about the benefits of social capital for democracy need to be questioned – in one historically important case at least, vibrant civic associations helped to dig the grave of an open society.
OPEN SOCIETY is only ONE in what are thousands of MARYLAND NGOs most funded by the same global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS as back in WEIMAR GERMANY. Remember, these global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS here in US and Europe are those HOUSE OF JUDAH-----KNIGHTS OF MALTA from pre-Christian CATO/NERO/SENECA-----they are not religious---they simply use religion to accumulate power and wealth. So, WEIMAR GERMANY filled with these same thousands of GLOBAL NGOs after ROARING 20s ROBBER BARON frauds and government corruptions sacked and looted their nation-----saw those 99% of GERMAN CITIZENS lose complete control of their own local, state, and national government agencies-----and global banking 1% through HITLER captured that German economy to being a WAR MACHINE.
What did CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA do these few decades? They super-sized the US military complex into a global privatized military war machine. We emphasize that this US WAR MACHINE is brought to the world by those same GLOBAL BANKING 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS-----HOUSE OF JUDAH----KNIGHTS OF MALTA-----as brought the GERMAN WAR MACHINE to all of Europe and Arabia.
The mistake those 99% of German citizens made as happens over and over as this is history repeating itself-----it that they failed to RECOGNIZE the march to global corporate FASCISM. Then they listened to national media telling them HITLER was working to make GERMANY GREAT AGAIN----when HITLER was working for FOREIGN NATIONALS who could care less about those 99% of German citizens. Who suffered and were killed by the end of WW2? The 99% of German citizens and almost all those 5% ALT RIGHT ALT LEFT civil unrest/civil war players choosing to be those FAR-RIGHT NAZI FASCISTS.
Baltimore Foundations Help Non-Profits Develop Earned Income Ventures
February 9, 2004
Baltimore Foundations Help Non-Profits Develop Earned Income Ventures
BALTIMORE—A financial services center in West Baltimore and an upholstery business that prepares disadvantaged women for family-sustaining careers are two of the eight winning social ventures chosen to be part of the new Baltimore Community Wealth Collaborative.The Collaborative, a partnership between The Annie E. Casey Foundation (AECF), the Open Society Institute-Baltimore (OSI), the Goldseker Foundation, the Alvin and Fanny B. Thalheimer Foundation, the Aaron Straus and Lillie Straus Foundation, the Baltimore Community Foundation, the University of Baltimore and Community Wealth Ventures (CWV), will provide 10 months of focused technical support to help the businesses become financially viable. The goal is to help the for-profit social ventures earn revenue to help support their non-profit parent organizations.
"At a time when funding for organizations that are meeting critical needs in our community continues to tighten, this Collaborative is crucial," said Baltimore Mayor Martin O’Malley who has supported the concept from its inception. "It will not only strengthen the city’s non-profit community, but also create jobs and opportunity in our neighborhoods."
The winning ventures were announced at a press conference today. Representatives from the non-profits were on hand for the announcement.
"Our objective in advancing these nonprofit social enterprises is to foster greater sustainability among critical human services organizations in the Baltimore community, so they can weather difficult economic times and expand their non-profit services to meet new or growing needs," said Diana Morris, director of OSI-Baltimore.
Thirty-seven nonprofit organizations applied to be part of the Collaborative. The finalists were chosen after an extensive screening process, including site visits and personal interviews. Participants include: BioTechnical Institute of Maryland, Bon Secours of Maryland Foundation, Caroline Center, Chesapeake Center for Youth Development, Goodwill Industries of the Chesapeake, Parks & People Foundation, Patterson Park Community Development Corporation, and Vehicles for Change.
CWV will provide technical assistance and support for the businesses, including in-depth monthly seminars with peer non-profit leaders and experts in the fields of social enterprise and business development, as well as customized business consulting. CWV has chosen to partner with the University of Baltimore for the project. Both graduate graphic design students and M.B.A. candidates in the entrepreneurship program will provide research and management assistance to participating organizations. In addition, business executives from leading Baltimore-area corporations will serve as mentors.
"The Casey Foundation's history of working for positive outcomes for families plus our 10-year commitment to the Baltimore community inspired us to support this terrific initiative,” said Donna Stark, director of leadership development at AECF. "Financial sustainability is a crucial issue for nonprofits. This initiative provides the strategies, the tools and the peer networks to respond to the challenges they face."
The social ventures range from a used car business to the Hollywood Diner, which was a location site for the movie Diner and other films including Tin Men and Sleepless in Seattle. The diner, operated by the Chesapeake Center for Youth Development, trains at-risk youth for Baltimore’s growing hospitality industry. The technical assistance provided by Community Wealth Ventures will lead to a new business plan, and it will help generate additional revenue to support education, job training, and after-school programs for children.
The Bon Secours of Maryland Foundation applied for help expanding and improving its financial services center in West Baltimore, which is currently financed through grants. Located in a part of town that is often ignored by banks, the center—called Our Money Place—offers low-income residents an alternative to check cashing operations that charge high fees. Our Money Place is planning to use the technical assistance to expand its range of services and to reach out to middle-income neighborhood residents.
"We have found that our neighborhood is a strong market for financial services," said Kevin Jordan, associate director for economic and community development. "By providing a lower cost alternative to the current market options, we think we can help keep money in the community and also become self-sufficient as a business."
Another non-profit participant, the Caroline Center, plans to expand its fledgling upholstery training program into a business. Started in the fall of 2001 under the guidance of a retired master upholsterer, the program teaches upholstering skills to unemployed or underemployed women in Baltimore. The women may even earn while they learn as they receive a percentage of the fees for customer pieces. The Caroline Center will use the assistance from the collaborative to structure and launch a retail upholstery shop. Profits from the business will support the center’s overall mission of enabling more women in the community to gain employment skills and become self-sufficient.
A selection team comprising Community Wealth Ventures, local educators, and Baltimore business representatives chose the winning organizations because they are mission-focused, have business ventures under way or have done considerable research towards developing a business venture, have strong boards of directors, and are willing to take calculated risks to build their financial base.
"A focused effort like this will support nonprofit social enterprise leaders who are using community wealth to diversify their revenues and better support their missions," said CWV Chairman Bill Shore. "Our goal is to ensure the ongoing viability of these organizations that are doing so much good in Baltimore."
The Annie E. Casey Foundation is a private charitable organization dedicated to helping build better futures for disadvantaged children in the United States. It was established in 1948 by Jim Casey, one of the founders of United Parcel Service, and his siblings, who named the foundation in honor of their mother. The primary mission of the foundation is to foster public policies, human-service reforms, and community supports that more effectively meet the needs of today's vulnerable children and families. In pursuit of this goal, the foundation makes grants that help states, cities, and neighborhoods fashion more innovative, cost-effective responses to these needs. For more information, visit the foundation's website, www.aecf.org.
The Open Society Institute (OSI) is a private operating and grantmaking foundation that promotes the development of open society around the world. OSI's U.S. Programs seek to strengthen democracy in the United States by addressing barriers to opportunity and justice, broadening public discussion about such barriers, and assisting marginalized groups to participate equally in civil society and to make their voices heard. U.S. Programs challenge over-reliance on the market by advocating appropriate government responsibility for human needs and promoting public interest and service values in law, medicine, and the media. OSI's U.S. Programs support initiatives in a range of areas, including access to justice for low and moderate income people; independence of the judiciary; ending the death penalty; reducing gun violence and over-reliance on incarceration; drug policy reform; inner-city education and youth programs; fair treatment of immigrants; reproductive health and choice; campaign finance reform; and improved care of the dying. OSI is part of the network of foundations, created and funded by George Soros, active in more than 50 countries around the world.
The Goldseker Foundation was created in 1975 through the generosity and foresight of Morris Goldseker (1898-1973). The foundation supports nonprofit organizations helping communities and individuals in the Baltimore metropolitan area. Visit www.goldsekerfoundation.org for more information.
The Alvin and Fanny B. Thalheimer Foundation supports programs that improve the lives of individuals and families by expanding access to education and economic opportunity, promoting self-sufficiency, and supporting local responses to problems in order to strengthen communities and advance interfaith and intergroup understanding. Through its grantmaking programs, the foundation aims to remove structural and institutional impediments to human development and to have a positive lasting effect on people's lives. Visit www.blaufund.org/foundations/alvinandfanny_f.html for more information.
The Aaron & Lillie Straus Foundation’s mission is two-pronged. The foundation promotes and sustains a strong Jewish community both locally and worldwide, and secures better futures for vulnerable children by helping to build family and community supports which nurture their educational, social, economic, and physical well-being. In order to meet this mission, the foundation funds in three specific program areas: Jewish community services; families, children and youth; and capacity building of the non-profit sector. For more information about the foundation, visit its website at www.strausfoundation.org.
The Baltimore Community Foundation (BCF) helps all kinds of people to carry out their individual philanthropic plans, with the common goal of improving the quality of life in the Baltimore region, today and for generations to come. To donors, BCF offers a complete toolkit for charitable giving, expert assistance in learning more about the causes they care about, and the opportunity to join others with similar interests to learn and give together. To the community at large, BCF offers a permanent, growing source of grant monies, as well as a common meeting ground and leadership on important issues in our region. Visit www.bcf.org for more information about the Baltimore Community Fund.
The University of Baltimore (UB) is an upper-division, graduate and professional university. UB, the state’s career-minded university, is a member of the University System of Maryland and comprises the School of Law, the Yale Gordon College of Liberal Arts and the Merrick School of Business. Visit www.ubalt.edu for more information.
Community Wealth Ventures, a subsidiary of Share Our Strength, is a consulting firm that works to generate new resources for the social sector using business ventures and corporate partnerships. Community Wealth Ventures provides consulting services for a broad range of clients in the nonprofit, corporate, and foundation communities. Visit www.communitywealth.com for more information.
We spend so much time trying to educate how these global banking 1% ALT RIGHT ALT LEFT civil unrest civil war 5% players are working on the SAME TEAM. REAGAN was the poster boy of global corporate FASCISM as far-right wing global banking LAISSEZ FAIRE NEO-LIBERALISM always ending in extreme wealth extreme poverty immediately starts making OTHER POPULATION GROUPS the problem for FAILED STATE cities and communities left to stagnate and become ghettos because of these massive ROBBER BARON LOOTINGS.
So, REAGAN sold a 99% of right wing voters that too much money was going to left social progressive programs and THAT is why the US economy was stagnating. REAGAN was sucking that CA state economy dry for global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS----and he did the same as US PRESIDENT. We shared the first pipeline to prison as our US mentally ill------we all know CLINTON/BUSH made a private prison industry jailing our 99% US poor citizens black, white, and brown citizens. Then these SUPER-PRISONS expanded into jailing our NEW IMMIGRANTS pushed to come to America for work because NAFTA under CLINTON killed the LATIN AMERICAN economy. This is how and when the US became known worldwide as the PRISON NATION. None of that was AMERICAN=====none of that complete lack of societal justice existed through last century-----we understand our 99% black and brown citizens have faced these injustices but it was CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA when all those far-right global corporate FASCIST structures SOARED.
The US was turned into a continuous war machine while our US economy was hijacked to poring more and more money into funding that war machine=====one population group after another was targeted as being USELESS or a DRAIN on our US society all the while our US domestic economy was captured and being held stagnant by GLOBAL BANKING 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS with those dastardly 5% freemason/Greeks as players.
THIS IS WHAT EXISTED IN WEIMAR GERMANY IN EARLY 1900S-------OUR INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL MEDIA WERE SELLING THE SAME FAKE NEWS THEN AS TODAY-----SHIELDING THOSE GLOBAL BANKING 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS from being the BAD GUYS behind looting, sacking, and literally killing their own 99% of citizens.
IF THERE WERE ANY REAL ANTI-FASCISTS THEY WOULD HAVE BEEN OUT IN FORCE THESE FEW DECADES OF CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA----WHO WERE ALWAYS GREAT BIG GLOBAL BANKING 1% CORPORATE FASCISTS
Anti-Fascists Will Fight Trump’s Fascism in the Streets
In stark contrast with many liberals, antifa activists refuse any dialogue with Trumpism.
By Natasha LennardTwitterJanuary 19, 2017
To call Trumpism fascist is to suggest that it demands from us a unique response. We can deploy the “fascism” moniker to Trump’s ascendance by recognizing features like selective populism, nationalism, racism, traditionalism, the deployment of Newspeak and disregard for reasoned debate. The reason we should use the term is because, taken together, these aspects of Trumpism are not well combated or contained by standard liberal appeals to reason. It is constitutive of its fascism that it demands a different sort of opposition.
Liberals cling to institutions: They begged to no avail for faithless electors, they see “evisceration” in a friendly late-night talk-show debate, they put faith in investigations and justice with regards to Russian interference and business conflicts of interest. They grasp at hypotheticals about who could have won, were things not as they in fact are. For political subjects so tied to the mythos of Reason, it is liberals who now seem deranged. Meanwhile, it is the radical left—so often tarred as irrational—who are calling upon both US and European histories of anti-fascist action to offer practical and serious responses in this political moment. For all the ink spilled about rising fascism, too little has been said about anti-fascism.
Anti-fascist, or antifa, doesn’t only delineate that which opposes fascism. It is a set of tactics and practices that have developed since the early 20th century (and the rise of fascism in Italy) as a confrontational response to fascist groups, rooted in militant left-wing and anarchist politics. As organizers from anti-fascist research and news site Antifa NYC told The Nation: “Antifa combines radical left-wing and anarchist politics, revulsion at racists, sexists, homophobes, anti-Semites, and Islamophobes, with the international anti-fascist culture of taking the streets and physically confronting the brownshirts of white supremacy, whoever they may be.” As with fascisms, not all anti-fascisms are the same, but the essential feature is that anti-fascism does not tolerate fascism; it would give it no platform for debate.
The history of anti-fascism in 20th-century Europe is largely one of fighting squads, like the international militant brigades fighting Franco in Spain, the Red Front Fighters’ League in Germany who were fighting Nazis since the party’s formation in the 1920s, the print workers who fought ultra-nationalists in Austria, and the 43 Group in England fighting Oswald Mosley’s British Union of Fascists. In every iteration these mobilizations entailed physical combat. The failure of early-20th-century fighters to keep fascist regimes at bay speaks more to the paucity of numbers than the problem of their direct confrontational tactics.
A more recent history of antifa in both Europe and the United States illustrates the success these tactics can have, particularly when it comes to expunging violent racist forces from our neighborhoods and defending vulnerable communities, while also creating networks of support that do not rely on structurally racist law enforcement for protection against racists. Anti-fascist tactics focused primarily around physical force proved effective in forcing neo-Nazi groups out of entire neighborhoods in Europe and the United States in the 1980s. Back then, as longtime organizer and member of the Industrial Workers’ World General Defense Committee (GDC) Kieran Knutson told The Nation, fascist and anti-fascist formations grew out of youth subculture scenes. Taking on and largely defeating neo-Nazi gangs, multi-racial crews of anti-racist skinheads and punks coalesced and grew into semi-formal Anti-Racist Action (ARA) chapters nationwide. “At its peak, in an era without cell phones or internet, ARA had over 100 chapters across the US and Canada,” explained Knutson, adding that students, older leftists, feminists and more joined efforts to counter a broader group of racist organizations, from the white power music scene to KKK rallies. The network faded in the 2000s, drifting in part to the anti-globalization movement, but as Knutson “the several thousand veterans of this movement are still out there—many still involved politically in anti-racist, feminist, queer, labor, education and artistic projects.”
The need for this sort of community and street resistance will not be contingent on Trump carrying out repressive policies—the emboldening of far right racists is a fait accompli. At the end of November, the Southern Poverty Law Center released a report documenting nearly 900 separate incidents of bias and violence against immigrants, Latinos, African Americans, women, LGBT people, Muslims and Jews in the ten days that followed Trump’s win.
Physical confrontation is just a small aspect of antifa direct action, but the history of anti-fascist, anti-racist action is not one of so-called allies standing in polite disapproval or donning safety pins. “Fascism is imbued with violence and secures itself politically through the use or threat of it, so it is inevitable that anti-fascists have to countenance some involvement in violence themselves,” wrote M.Testa, author of Militant Anti-Fascism: A Hundred Years of Resistance.
The ability to “countenance” some involvement with violence is itself a privilege that so many people of color and LBGTQ individuals in this country cannot enjoy—violence is not countenanced but systematically thrust upon them. The question of whether the counter-violence should be a tool of resistance in the Trump era will no doubt cleave some anti-Trump unities currently breaching the liberal center, the left, and far left. Those of us who long before Trump have defended counter-violence against oppression—as in Ferguson, as in Baltimore, as in Watts, as in counter-riots against the Klu Klux Klan, as in slave revolts—know where we stand. The number of people willing to engage with explicitly anti-fascist organizing and rhetoric has certainly increased with Trump’s rise, “As an empirical measure, our Twitter followers have almost quadrupled from the beginning of this year,” organizers for NYC Antifa told me via e-mail, “new groups are popping up everywhere, and we are fielding requests from all over the country about how to get involved.” Whether this means a significant number of people are willing to engage in anti-fascist physical confrontation in Trump’s America remains to be seen.
“We don’t think it’s useful to rehash the same old [violence versus non-violence] arguments,” NYC Antifa noted. “If Trump tries to register Muslims and engage in mass deportations, a Change.org petition is not going to stop it.” (Indeed, mass deportations and the mass surveillance of Muslims under the Obama administration would not have ended with a petition either.)
But the old canard of violent versus non-violent protest is already finding a new locus in debates around whether or not to give the racist far right a platform. When neo-Nazi Richard Spencer at his National Policy Institute held their annual conference in DC last November, anti-fascist activists exposed the event, its attendees, and where its members were dining, and attempted to not only protest but disrupt and shut down the conference, as well as Spencer’s dinner plans (succeeding, at least, in dousing the white nationalist in “a foul smelling liquid’). News and monitoring sites like NYC Antifa, Anti-fascist News and It’s Going Down have been reporting on the NPI, exposing their members and their conferences since before Trump’s candidacy. “Now that Steve Bannon, who has positioned himself as a champion of the alt-right, is heading to the White House, the NPI’s seig-heiling and fashion sense is a trending topic covered by most major media outlets,” NYC Antifa noted, “Yet, for the most part, all these journalists do is reproduce Spencer’s sentiments, which he frames in liberal rhetoric to gain appeal, and feign outrage. Our approach is to expose and confront them.”
The forms of physical force that served against neo-Nazis in the street in the 1980s are harder to deploy against the contemporary suit clad neo-Nazi holding a conference with professional security details, or a position in the White House. It will be an uphill battle to beat the alt-right in the dromological battlefield of social media resonance. For one, fascism lends itself to meme form, as fascist form itself purports to give a simple solution to a complex problem; memes aren’t inherently fascist, of course, but their reductive format is well-suited to fascist content. Leftists have reductive phrases and catchphrases, too, and no one would diminish the popularity of Birdie Sanders. But weaponizing meme form is, I believe, easier for a political project that itself takes the form of reduction and over-simplification.
The antifa task, I believe, is not to make better memes, but to expose the fascists behind the Pepe avatars, reveal their connections, and chase them away. Committed neo-Nazis deserve no more privacy than they deserve public platforms, or safety, even though antifa groups have been known to grant second chances. “We’ve had success with this tactic, and have gotten people to leave groups who did not want to be publicly shamed,” the NYC Antifa organizers told The Nation. “One guy’s boss was Jewish and he didn’t want it known he was working with Holocaust deniers. We took him off our website after he promised to leave the group he was in. We believe second chances are important—our goal is to get people to leave racist and fascist movements.”
The alt-right might not seek us in the streets, and might trounce us in trolling, but disruption, confrontation, doxxing and altercation remain tactics anyone taking seriously a refusal to normalize Trump-era fascism should consider. Liberals who reject such a strategy in defense of the right to free of speech and assembly engage in an historical NIMBYism, in which only in the past, or in other countries, has militancy against white supremacy been a legitimate resistance. They forget, too, that while the First Amendment ensures that the government will not interfere with free speech, this has no bearing on neo-fascists having the right to be heard or countenanced by the rest of us. For the radical left, no such bad thought takes hold, because militant tactics against white supremacy never stopped being necessary—in the fight against slavery, Jim Crow, red-lining, and mass incarceration—with or without explicit white nationalists in center political stage.
As a recent statement from Antifa NYC noted, “Before the election, collectives in different cities were organizing in support of people dealing with exploitative bosses and slumlords, With larger participation, these networks could become increasingly viable in a post-Trump world.” Founded by a cadre of activists in New York who grew close during Occupy in 2011, anarchist community space, The Base, opened three years ago as a hub for autonomous organizing around prisoner solidarity, offering support for local residents facing abuse and coercion from landlords, reading groups, self-defense trainings, and more. Following Trump’s victory, the number of people joining their projects has skyrocketed.
Eight months ago, a number of organizers from The Base launched the Rapid Response Network, which aims to establish neighborhood groups, connected via a hotline, that can provide safety, first aid, and assistance in the event of Immigration and Customs Enforcement raids on undocumented individuals, as well as a physical presence and defense from in the event of racist street attacks. Such networks have been a staple of anti-fascist, militant anti-racist organizing—deployed by anti-state groups from the Black Panthers to the Anti-Racist Action skinheads battling an upsurge in neo-Nazi gang violence in the 1980s. “When we held our first training meeting, 15 people turned up. Since the election that number has quadrupled. Two hundred people have expressed interest on Facebook for the next session. We’ve had to find a bigger venue and add sessions” a Rapid Response Network organizer and founder who goes by Layla told The Nation. (It is common for anarchist and antifa groups, eschewing individualism and facing harassment from active neo-Nazi groups to refuse to give full names to the press; I’m respecting that here).
Alongside efforts like the Rapid Response Network, which focuses on neighborhood defense, activist collectives are working with interfaith groups and churches in cities around the country to create a New Sanctuary Movement, continuing and expanding a 40-year-old practice of providing spaces for refugees and immigrants, which entails outright refusal to cooperate with ICE. Anti-fascist mobilizations are forming voluntary networks like Community Action Team NYC (CATNYC) which are willing to travel to different neighborhoods and physically confront the rising tide of racist violence and harassment.
Since networks like RRN and CAT are still in their developmental stages, Trump’s inauguration is an opportunity—with regards to spectacle—to set the tone of resistance to come. On January 21, the day after the inauguration, an expected 200,000 people are expected to march in DC in the “Women’s March,” which, according to original organizers is “not a protest” but an effort to “send a bold message to our new administration on their first day in office, and to the world that women’s rights are human rights,” which they (wrongly) suggest “transcend politics.” It will be a show of solidarity and togetherness, a presence far better than an absence. A policy platform released by march organizers last week offers a progressive and strong message of intersectional feminism. However, a procession of hundreds of thousands of people moving through barricaded streets carrying props and banners can be easily forgotten and ignored—the most historically large marches in recent history have failed to pass muster in history making beyond their size alone. When the status quo is not threatened, its upholders tend not to listen. We rallied in our peaceful millions against the Iraq War, too. The Women’s March nevertheless promises to bring thousands of people together—at worst a liberal parade, at best a jumping of point for the necessary work of local organizing to begin. If it is not a site of protest, I hope it will still be a place of politicization.
Meanwhile on January 20, the call for the actual inauguration day is unequivocal protest. More than 50 anarchist, anti-fascist, anti-racist groups from across the country have called for a #J20 Disruption. “We call on all people of good conscience to join in disrupting the ceremonies. If Trump is to be inaugurated at all, let it happen behind closed doors, showing the true face of the security state Trump will preside over,” the announcement reads, “We must take to the streets and protest, blockade, disrupt, intervene, sit in, walk out, rise up, and make more noise and good trouble than the establishment can bear. The parade must be stopped. We must delegitimize Trump and all he represents.” One member of the “D.C. counter-inaugural welcoming committee” commented anonymously that housing space for 1,000 visiting radicals, in both church halls and houses, had been organized by their group alone. New York anarchists are raising funds to rent whole buses to attend. And, as historic anti-fascist mass protest dictates, there are plans for a large black bloc—a spectacle both intentionally threatening and anonymizing. The expectation of altercation with Trump supporters who will also descend on DC is high.
The different approaches to the Inauguration suggest a cleaving in responses to Trump along well worn liberal, liberal-left and radical-left fault lines when the need to build political alliances is urgent. The decision to join the Women’s March or Disrupt #J20 should not be a benchmark for division. This line instead should only be drawn when someone, in professed name of democracy, would sooner condemn or even imprison anti-fascist, anti-racist actors before they would see a ceremony affirming and buoying fascism meet with interference.
We KNOW our 99% of Baltimore citizens black, white, and brown citizens HATE these global NGOs controlling our Baltimore city government and public agencies-----we are failing our 99% of youth and young adult college grads when we allow these GLOBAL NGOs be their only source of community development-----avenues to jobs----and it will end just as HITLER'S Germany......TRUMP is simply MOVING FORWARD the same policies as CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA.
Below we see only two political terms that have been CORRUPTED for these few centuries -----we recognize here in US as BUSH/OBAMA were told to repeat these same terms of ELITISM-----the BEST OF BEST-----the MOST-SKILLED when the goal was simply moving global 1% and their 2% into these sovereign nations ---moving our 99% of US citizens having been that sovereign government for 300 years.
There is no elitism happening in CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA----there is simply MEDIA TELLING US THESE GLOBAL 1% AND THEIR 2% ARE ELITE.
– Philosophy that a narrow clique of the “best” or “most skilled” members of a given social group should have the power.
OBAMA's EXCEPTIONALISM was the peak of global banking corporate FASCISM using these phrases.
Here is the attempt to make global banking 1% corporate FASCISM-----sound LEFT------when it has always been FAR-RIGHT WING EXTREME WEALTH EXTREME POVERTY.
NAZISM has been allowed to be called NATIONAL SOCIALIST WORKER'S PARTY.....for goodness sake.
– The ideology and policies of Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Worker’s Party from 1921 to 1945.
This article found on website calling itself TEACHER'S GUIDE-------and it is almost all FAKE MYTH-MAKING information. HITLER was simply that global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS freemason/Greek player installed in GERMANY just as CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA---now TRUMP was installed in what 99% of US CITIZENS know were rigged and fraudulent US ELECTIONS.
Nazi Fascism and the Modern Totalitarian State
Return to the Teacher’s Guide
Nazi Fascism and
the Modern Totalitarian State
The government of Nazi Germany was a fascist, totalitarian state. Totalitarian regimes, in contrast to a dictatorship, establish complete political, social, and cultural control over their subjects, and are usually headed by a charismatic leader. Fascism is a form of right-wing totalitarianism which emphasizes the subordination of the individual to advance the interests of the state. Nazi fascism’s ideology included a racial theory which denigrated “non-Aryans,” extreme nationalism which called for the unification of all German-speaking peoples, the use of private paramilitary organizations to stifle dissent and terrorize opposition, and the centralization of decision-making by, and loyalty to, a single leader.
Students will learn:
1. The principal characteristics of totalitarianism.
2. The ways in which a totalitarian regime differs from a dictatorship.
3. The ways in which right-wing totalitarian regimes differ from left-wing totalitarian regimes.
4. The principal features of Fascism.
5. The principal features of Nazism.
Totalitarianism is a form of government in which all societal resources are monopolized by the state in an effort to penetrate and control all aspects of public and private life, through the state’s use of propaganda, terror, and technology. Totalitarian ideologies reject the existing society as corrupt, immoral, and beyond reform, project an alternative society in which these wrongs are to be redressed, and provide plans and programs for realizing the alternative order. These ideologies, supported by propaganda campaigns, demand total conformity on the part of the people.
Totalitarian forms of organization enforce this demand for conformity. Totalitarian societies are hierarchies dominated by one political party and usually by a single leader. The party penetrates the entire country through regional, provincial, local and “primary” (party-cell) organization. Youth, professional, cultural, and sports groups supplement the party’s political control. A paramilitary secret police ensures compliance. Information and ideas are effectively organized through the control of television, radio, the press, and education at all levels.
Totalitarian Regime vs. Dictatorship
Totalitarian regimes differ from older concepts of dictatorship or tyranny. Totalitarian regimes seek to establish complete political, social and cultural control, whereas dictatorships seek limited, typically political, control. Two types of totalitarianism can sometimes be distinguished: Nazism and Fascism which evolved from “right-wing” extremism, and Communism, which evolved from “left-wing” extremism. Traditionally, each is supported by different social classes. Right-wing totalitarian movements have generally drawn their popular support primarily from middle classes seeking to maintain the economic and social status quo. Left-wing totalitarianism has often developed from working class movements seeking, in theory, to eliminate, not preserve, class distinctions. Right-wing totalitarianism has typically supported and enforced the private ownership of industrial wealth. A distinguishing feature of Communism, by contrast, is the collective ownership of such capital.
Totalitarian regimes mobilize and make use of mass political participation, and often are led by charismatic cult figures. Examples of such cult figures in modern history are Mao Tse-tung (China) and Josef Stalin (Soviet Union), who led left-wing regimes, and Adolf Hitler (Germany) and Benito Mussolini (Italy), who led right-wing regimes.
Right-wing totalitarian regimes (particularly the Nazis) have arisen in relatively advanced societies, relying on the support of traditional economic elites to attain power. In contrast, left-wing totalitarian regimes have arisen in relatively undeveloped countries through the unleashing of revolutionary violence and terror. Such violence and terror are also the primary tools of right-wing totalitarian regimes to maintain compliance with authority.
Fascism was an authoritarian political movement that developed in Italy and several other European countries after 1919 as a reaction against the profound political and social changes brought about by World War I and the spread of socialism and Communism. Its name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax. Italian fascism was founded in Milan on March 23, 1919, by Benito Mussolini, a former revolutionary socialist leader. His followers, mostly war veterans, were organized along paramilitary lines and wore black shirts as uniforms. The early Fascist program was a mixture of left- and right-wing ideas that emphasized intense Nationalism, productivism, anti-socialism, elitism, and the need for a strong leader. Mussolini’s oratorical skills, the post-war economic crisis, a widespread lack of confidence in the traditional political system, and a growing fear of socialism, all helped the Fascist party to grow to 300,000 registered members by 1921. In that year it elected 35 members to parliament.
The Philosophy of Fascism
The intellectual roots of Fascism can be traced to the voluntaristic philosophers who argued that the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or reason.
(1788-1860) was a German philosopher who held that the will is the underlying and ultimate reality and that the whole phenomenal world is the only expression of will. Human beings have free will only in the sense that everyone is the free expression of a will and that we therefore are not the authors of our own destinies, characters, or behavior, he wrote. He theorized that space, time, and causality were not absolute principles but only a function of the brain, concepts parallel to the scientific discoveries of relativistic physics two generations later.
(1844-1900) was a German philosopher and poet best known for “Thus Spoke Zarathustra.” He theorized that there were two moral codes: that of the ruling class (master morality) and that of the oppressed class (slave morality). The ancient empires grew out of a master morality, and the religions of the day out of the slave morality (which denigrates the rich and powerful, rationalism, and sexuality). He developed the concept of the “overman” (superman) which symbolized man at his most creative and highest intellectual capacity.
(1859-1941) was a French philosopher of Jewish parents who was the leading rejectionist of the concept that scientific principles can explain all of existence. He asserted that metaphysical principles also apply. He found credence in applying the biological theories of Darwin (which pointed to the “survival of the fittest” in biological systems) to social theory.
(1847-1922) was a French social philosopher who had a major influence upon Mussolini. Sorel believed that societies naturally became decadent and disorganized, and this inevitable decay could only be delayed by the leadership of idealists who were willing to use violence to obtain power. His anti-democratic, anti-liberal views and pessimistic view about the natural life-cycle of a society were antithetical to most of his contemporaries.
(1863-1938) was an Italian politician, poet, dramatist, novelist and war hero who was a supporter of Mussolini.
Fascist ideology was largely the work of the neo-idealist philosopher, Giovanni Gentile. It emphasized the subordination of the individual to a “totalitarian” state that was to control all aspects of national life. Violence as a creative force was an important characteristic of the Fascist philosophy. A special feature of Italian Fascism was the attempt to eliminate the class struggle from history through nationalism and the corporate state. Mussolini organized the economy and all “producers” – from peasants and factory workers to intellectuals and industrialists – into 22 corporations as a means of improving productivity and avoiding industrial disputes. Contrary to the regime’s propaganda claims, the system ran poorly. Mussolini was forced into compromises with big business and the Roman Catholic Church. The corporate state was never fully implemented. The inherently expansionist, militaristic nature of Fascism contributed to imperialistic adventures in Ethiopia and the Balkans and ultimately to World War II.
Nazism refers to the totalitarian Fascist ideology and policies espoused and practiced by Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Worker’s Party from 1920-1945. Nazism stressed the superiority of the Aryan, its destiny as the Master Race to rule the world over other races, and a violent hatred of Jews, which it blamed for all of the problems of Germany. Nazism also provided for extreme nationalism which called for the unification of all German-speaking peoples into a single empire. The economy envisioned for the state was a form of corporative state socialism, although members of the party who were leftists (and would generally support such an economic system over private enterprise) were purged from the party in 1934.
Nazism made use of paramilitary organizations to maintain control within the party, and to squelch opposition to the party.
Violence and terror fostered compliance. Among these organizations were the:
: Stormtroopers (also known as “brown-shirts”) were the Nazi paramilitary arm under Ernst Rîhm. It was active in the battle for the streets against other German political parties.
: the Security Service under Reinhard Heydrich.
: Defense Corps, was an elite guard unit formed out of the S.A. It was under the command of Heinrich Himmler.
Gestapo (Geheime Staatpolizeil)
: the Secret State Police, which was formed in 1933.
Nazism also placed an emphasis on sports and paramilitary activities for youth, the massive use of propaganda (controlled by Joseph Goebbels) to glorify the state, and the submission of all decisions to the supreme leader (FÅhrer) Adolf Hitler.
Communism – A social, political, and economic system characterized by the revolutionary struggle to create a society which has an absence of classes, and the common ownership of the means of production and subsistence and centralized governmental control over the economy.
– A ruler having absolute authority and supreme jurisdiction over the government of a state; especially one who is considered tyrannical or oppressive.
– Philosophy that a narrow clique of the “best” or “most skilled” members of a given social group should have the power.
– A philosophy or system of government that advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership, together with an ideology of belligerent nationalism.
– A body of persons organized or classified according to rank, capacity, or authority.
– The body of ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual, group, class, or culture.
– As used in this chapter, individuals and groups who desire to reform or overthrow the established order and advocate change in the name of greater freedom or well-being of the common man.
– The ideology and policies of Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Worker’s Party from 1921 to 1945.
– The systematic spreading of a given doctrine or of allegations reflecting its views and interests.
– As used in this chapter, individuals or groups who profess opposition to change in the established order and who favor traditional attitudes and practices, and who sometimes advocate the forced establishment of an authoritarian political order.
– A form of government in which all societal resources are monopolized by the state in an effort to penetrate and control all aspects of public and private life, through the state’s use of propaganda, terror, and technology.
Global banking 1% used TROTSKY LENIN to create these same FAKE public communal structures leading to STALIN-----global banking 1% used these same FAKE public communal structures with MAO'S GREAT LEAP FORWARD-----leading to MAO as that far-right global banking OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS corporate FASCIST.
'Name two right-wing and two left-wing leaders of totalitarian regimes'.
The clue to FAKE MYTH-MAKING political discussions over what is LEFT WING and what is RIGHT WING-----can easily be solved EASY PEASY. REAL LEFT wing political policies HELP AND PROTECT our 99% of citizens-------do TOTALITARIANISM sound like political policies in place to HELP our 99% of citizens? NO-----MOVING FORWARD DEEP, DEEP, REALLY DEEP STATE SMART CITIES IS TOTALITARIAN-----there is nothing left wing happening in MOVING FORWARD. The LEFT would not unleash MARXIST policies designed to maximize global corporate profit with enslaving structures.
When our US 99% of WE THE PEOPLE look at US elections these few decades of ROBBER BARON CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA----now TRUMP-----we KNOW our elections installing these global banking 1% pols were rigged---and we can be sure the same existed during WEIMAR GERMANY.
Again, it was the failure of those 99% of German citizens to stand up against global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS in STOPPING MOVING FORWARD what led to WW2. This fake NATIONALISM would no more have fooled those 99% of Germans as does this FAKE AMERICANISM coming from empire-building continuous wars CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA....now TRUMP.
Germans Elect Nazis
Adolf Hitler and the Nazis waged a modern whirlwind campaign in 1930 unlike anything ever seen in Germany. Hitler traveled the country delivering dozens of major speeches, attending meetings, shaking hands, signing autographs, posing for pictures, and even kissing babies.
Joseph Goebbels brilliantly organized thousands of meetings, torchlight parades, plastered posters everywhere and printed millions of special edition Nazi newspapers.
Germany was in the grip of the Great Depression with a population suffering from poverty, misery, and uncertainty, amid increasing political instability.
For Hitler, the master speech maker, the long awaited opportunity to let loose his talents on the German people had arrived. He would find in this downtrodden people, an audience very willing to listen. In his speeches, Hitler offered the Germans what they needed most, encouragement. He gave them heaps of vague promises while avoiding the details. He used simple catchphrases, repeated over and over.
A typical campaign scene with Nazi posters on display next to the Center Party, Communists, Socialists and others. Below: Repeated propaganda marches became a cheap and effective form of publicity - sometimes leading to violence between rival political groups. Hörst Wessel, pictured at the front, was killed during such a brawl in 1930 and raised to the status of a martyr by Nazis via the "Hörst Wessel" banner anthem.His campaign appearances were carefully staged events. Audiences were always kept waiting, deliberately letting the tension increase, only to be broken by solemn processions of Brownshirts with golden banners, blaring military music, and finally the appearance of Hitler amid shouts of "Heil!" The effect in a closed in hall with theatrical style lighting and decorations of swastikas was overwhelming and very catching.
Hitler began each speech in low, hesitating tones, gradually raising the pitch and volume of his voice then exploding in a climax of frenzied indignation. He combined this with carefully rehearsed hand gestures for maximum effect. He skillfully played on the emotions of the audience bringing the level of excitement higher and higher until the people wound up a wide-eyed, screaming, frenzied mass that surrendered to his will and looked upon him with pseudo-religious adoration.
Hitler offered something to everyone: work to the unemployed; prosperity to failed business people; profits to industry; expansion to the Army; social harmony and an end of class distinctions to idealistic young students; and restoration of German glory to those in despair. He promised to bring order amid chaos; a feeling of unity to all and the chance to belong. He would make Germany strong again; end payment of war reparations to the Allies; tear up the treaty of Versailles; stamp out corruption; keep down Marxism; and deal harshly with the Jews.
He appealed to all classes of Germans. The name of the Nazi Party itself was deliberately all inclusive – the National Socialist German Workers' Party.
All of the Nazis, from Hitler, down to the leader of the smallest city block, worked tirelessly, relentlessly, to pound their message into the minds of the Germans.
On election day September 14, 1930, the Nazis received 6,371,000 votes – over eighteen percent of the total – and were thus entitled to 107 seats in the German Reichstag. It was a stunning victory for Hitler. Overnight, the Nazi Party went from the smallest to the second largest political party in Germany.
It propelled Hitler to solid national and international prestige and aroused the curiosity of the world press. He was besieged with interview requests. Foreign journalists wanted to know – what did he mean – tear up the Treaty of Versailles and end war reparations? – and that Germany wasn't responsible for the First World War?
Gone was the Charlie Chaplin image of Hitler as the laughable fanatic behind the Beer Hall Putsch. The beer hall revolutionary had been replaced by the skilled manipulator of the masses.
On October 13, 1930, dressed in their brown shirts, the elected Nazi deputies marched in unison into the Reichstag and took their seats. When the roll-call was taken, each one shouted, "Present! Heil Hitler!"
They had no intention of cooperating with the democratic government, knowing it was to their advantage to let things get worse in Germany, thus increasing the appeal of Hitler to an ever more miserable people.
Nazi storm troopers dressed in civilian clothes celebrated their electoral victory by smashing the windows of Jewish shops, restaurants and department stores, an indication of things to come.
Now, for the floundering German democracy, the clock was ticking and time was on Hitler's side.
What kept those 99% of GERMAN citizens during those few decades of WEIMAR GERMANY from standing up to STOP MOVING FORWARD global corporate FASCISM was the installation of what always comes as far-right global banking 1% corporate fascism is allowed to take a sovereign nation-----DEEP, DEEP, REALLY DEEP STATE structures. Here in US we are seeing those secret society 5% freemason/Greek structures tied to sacking and looting US treasuries and people's pockets now morphing into being global banking 1% ALT RIGHT ALT LEFT 5% CIVIL UNREST CIVIL WAR PLAYERS. This is what our 99% of GERMAN citizens allowed to be installed all the while being told it was for GERMANY AS A MASTER RACE. MAKING GERMANY GREAT AGAIN.
We make public policy discussions surrounding MOVING FORWARD US CITIES DEEMED FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONE global militarized policing being installed during CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA----now being super-sized under TRUMP just for these reasons. We KNOW when we allow our local policing and security be brought under the control of global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS-----we are allowing our US cities to made just as WEIMAR GERMANY-----a POLICE STATE that will be made far-right wing corporate FASCIST.
Until this happens in our US cities -----99% of WE THE PEOPLE have the power to STOP MOVING FORWARD. We do not have to allow history to repeat itself. So, the public policy discussion for this week will center on that FEAR-MONGERING societal structure of HITLER'S FASCIST GERMANY ----being installed in our US CITIES DEEMED FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES.
THESE STRUCTURES ARE NOT INSTALLED YET TODAY'S US------WE NEED TO WAKE UP BEFORE THOSE DASTARDLY 5% GLOBAL BANKING POLS AND PLAYERS DOING ANYTHING THEY ARE TOLD DO INSTALL GLOBAL MILITARIZED POLICING AND SECURITY.
Today's MOVING FORWARD ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE for only the global 1% will be worse than modern history in repressive brutal regimes because we are getting it from global banking 5% players black, white, and brown players. While our global banking OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS have their history as brutal far-right corporate fascist militarized policing and security----our 99% of US black citizens KNOW the history of those brutal AFRICAN global banking players.
And that is to where MATA HARI falls into her deadly spying trap.
10 Most-Feared Secret Police Forces In History
There's nowhere to hide when this lot are about...
Every dictator needs their cronies on the ground in order to exert control over their population. Historically, the legwork behind most of the world's most-brutal regimes has been carried out by secret police forces, whose job it is to subjugate the populous and enforce their leader's policies. As far back as Ancient Rome, through to the Nazi Germany and as recently as in the last few years in dictatorships in Africa and the Caribbean, secret police forces have maintained order in a brutal and often arbitrary manner. No dictatorship could survive without a secret police force. However, not all secret police forces are the same. Their remits have differed over time - for example some serve solely as police forces, others take on intelligence roles, others are also paramilitary forces, while many perform executions on top of secret police work. The remit of a secret police force has been dependent on various factors, including the type of regime imposed, the era in which they were introduced, and the political climate present in the nation at the time. Here are the 10 most-feared police forces in the history of mankind - and let's just be thankful they are no longer around today...
Stasi - East Germany
With 91,000 full-time agents and tens of thousands of unofficial collaborators at its height, the German Democratic Republic's Stasi ("Ministry for State Security" or "MfS") is undoubtedly the most sophisticated and far-reaching secret police force in the history of mankind. So ingrained into everyday society were the Stasi that the MfS was the single biggest employer in East Germany in 1989 - and it is estimated that one in every five adults in the GDR had a direct connection to the secret police. Once the Nazis had been removed from power, the German population had expected less of a Big Brother-style state yet the socialist government that replaced Adolf Hitler's men were far more extensive in their control over the nation. After being founded in 1950, the Stasi originally modelled themselves on the Soviet KGB but soon became far more advanced - infiltrating almost every workplace, school and hospital in the entirety of the GDR. An initial use of physical abuse of prisoners soon became replaced with more sophisticated psychological torture methods. This level of intrusion and psychological torture led many people to have breakdowns or attempt to flee the country.
NKVD (Formerly The Cheka And Latterly The KGB) - USSR/Russia
The second entry from Russia, there could in theory have been four if the Cheka and the KGB were counted as separate organisations, but both were similar to - if not quite as merciless - as the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD). Formed in 1934 under Joseph Stalin's brutal leadership of the Soviet Union, the NKVD helped keep the population of the USSR under control - primarily through the gulags. These forced-labour camps accounted for the death of more than 10million prisoners - either through exhaustion, starvation or execution. Yet this was not the most frightening period of the NKVD's history - that was during the Great Purge, between 1936 and 1940, when an average of 1,000 people were executed every day. Some 750,000 people were killed, many of who were NKVD officers, while a total of 1.6million were detained in all. Genocide was commonplace under the NKVD when Stalin was in control, with between 5million and 7million Ukrainians murdered by forced starvation during Holodmor in 1933. The Katyn Forest massacre - when 22,000 Polish nationals were executed by the KGB in 1940 - proved a step too far for Stalin's successor, Nikita Khrushchev, who disbanded the NKVD. However, his replacement secret police - the KGB - remained almost as feared, if not quite as bloodthirsty.
Central Office Of Banditry Repression - Central African Republic
The name, Central Office of Banditry Repression (OCRB), tells you straight away that this secret police force was entirely uncompromising - and they ruled the Central African Republic with an iron fist. In the early 1990s, the Central Africa Republic was rife with bandits and looters, so the government acted by introducing the OCRB - a police force based on a French agency. Trials were almost non-existent for the suspected criminals who the OCRB captured, but torture was an almost ever-present in all cases. In fact, Le Café method of torture was perfected by the OCRB - with suspects beaten to within an inch of their life before being forced to walk extended distances. The OCRB committed a whole host of crimes themselves, but they have never been punished for them. But, to be fair, it's hard to imagine who could make such a savage police force face justice, isn't it?
We want to look more closely at how HITLER and these global banking OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS were able to create that FEAR-MONGERING we know ended in SILENCING those 99% of GERMAN citizens----black, white, and brown citizens---REAL 99% of Jewish, Protestant, Catholic, Muslim, Hindi/Buddhist citizens. Germany was less ethnically diverse but those far-right FASCIST policing and security structures are basically the same for thousands of years.
We can read any dozens of article or books written on MATA HARI and each of them will say something different-----each will make her a villian or a victim---but one thing about WEIMAR GERMANY back when MATA HARI was trying to be that VAMP, CAMP, AND A BIT OF A TRAMP as CHER made famous-----was that any 99% of citizens inside Germany especially but those surrounding European nations were being HIJACKED----FORCED-----MADE FEARFUL TO REFUSE ----these far-right wing government 'requests' to serve that FOREIGN NATIONALISM.
MATA HARI is a representation of what those 5% freemason/Greek players faced when they went from being ROBBER BARON sacking and looting players to being FORCED to become 5% freemason/Greek civil unrest civil war players.
MATA HARI was a prime example of our 5% freemason/Greeks and global banking STARS LIVING FOR TODAY.
Remember, those global banking 5% players come in ALL population groups---please do not allow MOVING FORWARD fear-mongering confuse those 5% player bad guys with our 99% of citizens having nothing to do with these public policies and the sacking and looting of our US sovereignty.
Mata Hari was only interested in one thing - and it wasn't espionage
by TONY RENNELL
Last updated at 22:00 10 August 2007
She stood alone in the sodden field on the outskirts of Paris, her fashionable ankle boots firmly planted in the mud churned up by the cavalry who drilled there.
No, she would not be tied to the stake, she told her executioners politely. And nor would she allow them to blindfold her. She faced the barrels of the firing squad without flinching.
Earlier, at 5am, they had woken her in her filthy cell in the Prison de Saint-Lazare to tell her this was the day she would die. She dressed in her best - stockings, a low-cut blouse under a dove-grey, two-piece suit.
On her head she perched a three-cornered hat at a jaunty angle, hiding her greying hair, unkempt and unwashed through nine months of incarceration. Over her shoulders she slung a vivid blue coat like a cloak to keep out the cold October air.
In a black car with its window blinds down, Margaretha Zelle, convicted of espionage, was then driven at speed through the still streets of the capital - a place she loved with a passion, though she was Dutch not French - to this damp and drear spot.
The 12 soldiers in their khaki uniforms and red fezzes raised their rifles. She waved to the two weeping nuns who had been her comfort in prison and on her last journey. She blew a kiss to the priest and another to her lawyer, an
The sun was coming up when the shots rang out. Zelle slumped to the ground. The officer in charge marched forward and fired a single bullet into her brain, the coup de grace.
An extraordinary life was over. The woman who was executed that day in 1917 was better known as Mata Hari, the name Zelle had chosen for herself when she became Europe's queen of unbridled eroticism, an exotic dancer, courtesan, harlot, great lover, spendthrift, liar, deceiver and thief.
And German spy? That is what - in the fevered atmosphere of France in World War I, with the Kaiser's troops encamped within its borders - she had been shot for. She caused the deaths of tens of thousands of French soldiers, it was said, a crime that would ever after make her synonymous with seduction and treachery, the ultimate femme fatale.
Except that she may not have been guilty at all.
In a new and fascinating biography, American academic Pat Shipman makes the case that, far from being the betrayer, she was the one betrayed, and by that breed she loved all her life - men.
It was men who, like witchhunters, built the case against her, driven by prejudice not fact. And with France gripped by anti-German spy mania, few would stick their heads above the parapet to defend her. Britain's fledgling intelligence service, MO5 (soon to change its name to MI5) also helped dig her grave with, as we will see, the dodgiest of dossiers.
But in the story of Mata Hari, there was one thing that needed no sexing-up - Mata herself. Sex was the driving force of her life.
In the little Dutch town where she grew up, her shopkeeper father lavished extremes of affection on his "little princess". It made her vain, self-centred and spoilt, and with an insatiable longing for male attention.
At school, the 16-year-old bedded the headmaster. Was he the seducer or her? No one knows, but this was 1893 and it was the girl who was sent home in shame.
The restless teenager now set about finding a man to take her away from the stuffiness of Dutch society. When, through a Lonely Hearts ad, she met Captain Rudof MacLeod, a hard-living, hard-drinking officer home on leave from Holland's vicious colonial wars in the East Indies, she didn't care that he was 22 years older than her.
He was handsome, with a splendid moustache. She was tall (5ft 10in) and elegant, with flirty dark eyes and a dark olive complexion. The attraction was immediate, sexual and very strong. She told him she longed to do "crazy things" and they were engaged within six days.
They married three months later, she in a bright yellow gown rather than the traditional white.
There were problems almost straight away. She couldn't keep her eyes off the other officers and, as she was the first to admit, did not have it within her to be "a good housewife".
"I was not content at home," she later confessed. "I wanted to live like a colourful butterfly in the sun."
He was jealous, though saw no reason why he should forego the womanising, drinking and coarseness of his bachelor days. He was constantly in debt; she was extravagant, always spending. As for his syphilis, caught overseas, he neglected to tell her.
The omens were not good. Nonetheless, she bore him two children, and they returned as a family to his new posting in the colonies. There, in the exotic surroundings of Indonesia, their marital problems multiplied.
She did not fit the mould of the officer's wife, not least because her dark skin made the snobbier women suggest she had native blood in her. To the men, however, that look was seductive, and she made the most of it.
"Her languid, graceful style of moving, her dark eyes and luxurious hair, telegraphed her sexuality to any male in her presence," writes Shipman. "She drew every man's lustful admiration and every woman's envy. She was seen as morally dangerous, selfish and frivolous."
The marriage deteriorated into sharp quarrels, too much drinking, rows about money and accusations of infidelity. But what destroyed the union was tragedy. Their son, Norman, was struck by serious illness and died at the age of two. His sister, one-year-old Nonnie, nearly died, too, but pulled through.
The boy's death shattered both parents. Who was to blame? A local nanny was said to have poisoned the children because of some grievance, real or imagined, against MacLeod, though no case was ever brought. Nor was the death ever reported in the colonial press. For some reason, it seemed to have been hushed up.
Shipman's hypothesis is that the children were being treated for congenital syphilis, caught from their father, and the garrison doctor accidentally overdosed them with mercury. Whatever the real cause of the boy's death, the couple blamed each other.
The relationship sank into hatred. His wife was "scum of the lowest kind" MacLeod told his family back in Holland, "a woman without heart, who cares nothing for anything".
On that he was wrong - she cared for officers. He caught her with a second lieutenant. She flaunted herself in a low-cut dress at a ball. She was punishing him by stoking up his jealousy. He punished her in return with a cat-o'-nine-tails.
She wrote to her father: "I cannot live with a man who is so despicable. I eat and live apart and I prefer to die before he touches me again. My children caught a disease from him."
MacLeod left the army and the family returned to Holland. There they separated. But MacLeod had one more weapon to use against her.
He put an advertisement in the local papers warning shops not to give her credit because he had resigned all responsibility for her. It left her penniless. She had to earn money - and there was only one way she knew how.
Sexual favours were her only useful assets, but she did not see Holland as the best place to exploit them. In 1903, with little money and no contacts, she took herself off to Paris. There, she would recreate herself as a model, an actress, perhaps, or a chic cosmopolitan in that chicest of cities.
But, as Shipman tells us, "the only dependable source of income available to her was pleasing men for money" - prostitution. But then a circus gave her a job, and the owner advised her where her talents lay - dancing.
And dance she did. From the depths of her experiences in the East Indies she invented what she called "sacred dances". They were exotic and seemed to have some mysterious eastern mythology about them but, most of all, they involved her ending up all but naked.
It was a brilliant move. Dancers at the Moulin Rouge were flashing their knickers and breasts but Zelle's great departure was to push the bounds of discretion even further and wrap sex up with religion and art.
She began by performing in private homes, but soon the stories of her "artistry" and, above all, her nudity were passing round the salons of Parisian high society. She wore a beaded metallic bra, which never came off - she was self-conscious about her tiny breasts - but the veils covering the rest of her floated free as she danced in "slow, undulating, tigerlike movements".
The critics enthused, "feline, trembling in a thousand rhythms, exotic yet deeply austere, slender and supple like a sacred serpent". She added spice to the performance with lies.
First there was her name - Mata Hari, meaning "sunrise" or, more literally, "the eye of the day", in the language of the Dutch East Indies. Then there were the stories to the press, that she was the daughter of an Indian temple dancer who had died giving birth to her, that she grew up in a jungle in Java.
Her life became an unending performance, both on stage and off. Her success seemed unstoppable and the money came rolling in. But she still managed to spend more than she earned as she travelled Europe, picking up lovers, dropping some, keeping others.
"Tonight I dine with Count A and tomorrow with Duke B. If I don't have to dance, I make a trip with Marquis C. I avoid serious liaisons. I satisfy all my caprices," she said.
All too soon she was suffering from over-exposure in another sense. By 1908 anyone who was anyone in Europe had seen her dance at least once, while the lesser theatres were overrun with imitators doing Oriental dances.
The dance work was now more irregular and increasingly she would have to rely on her men friends for her livelihood.
One, a stockbroker, provided her with a chateau in the Loire and another house on the Seine - until he went bankrupt. Still she refused to cut her prodigious spending or alter her outrageous lifestyle. When she was frantic for money, some said, she would ply her trade at Paris's maisons de rendez-vous, one step up from ordinary brothels.
Her financial problems seemed eased when in May 1914 she signed a contract to dance for six months at the Metropol in Berlin, starting in September.
But the political situation overtook her. When war broke out in August that year, though Holland was neutral, she was stuck in a now belligerent and increasingly jingoistic German capital with no money and no job. Her fur coats and money had been seized. She charmed a Dutch businessman to pay her train fare to Amsterdam.
Back in Holland, she took up again with a former lover. Aristocratic and wealthy, he was just her type. There she was visited by Karl Kroemer, the German consul, who told her he was recruiting spies. He gave her 20,000 francs and a code name, H21.
She took his money but she didn't take him seriously. She told herself the cash was compensation for the furs taken from her in Berlin and threw away the invisible ink he gave her.
"As she never had the slightest intention of spying for Germany, she felt no guilt or obligation to do anything for the money she had accepted. She had always taken money from men because she needed it and they had it; she always felt she deserved it," says Shipman. Others, ominously, would not agree.
Naively, she failed to realise the Europe she had travelled through so freely and so promiscuously had disappeared for ever.
British counter-intelligence certainly had her number. They stopped her at Folkestone, while she was travelling from Holland to France via Britain to avoid the front-line, and recorded that "although she was thoroughly searched and nothing incriminating was found, she is regarded by police and military to be not above suspicion".
A copy of the report was sent to intelligence officials in France, Britain's ally against Germany.
But on what was this suspicion based? The report noted that she "speaks French, English, Italian, Dutch and probably German. Handsome, bold type of woman".
And that, says Shipman was the key. "The problem was not what Mata Hari said but who she was. She was a woman travelling alone, obviously wealthy and an excellent linguist - too educated, too foreign. Worse yet, she admitted to having a lover. Women like that were immoral and not to be trusted."
A British intelligence officer in Holland now added to Mata Hari's dossier with rumours about payments to her from the German embassy. He added, with no evidence whatsoever: "One suspects her of having gone to France on an important mission that will profit the Germans."
In Paris, Mata resumed her glamorous life, living at the Grand Hotel and with plenty of men in uniform to keep her occupied. She did not know that two secret policemen were tailing her.
They steamed open her letters, questioned porters, waitresses and hairdressers and collected abundant evidence of her love life - but not of espionage. She spent a day and a night with the Marquis de Beaufort, had a flirtatious dinner with a purveyor of fine liquors and then met another lover, who embarrassingly for the secret policemen was a senior colleague from their own bureau.
But her main intention at this time was to get a permit to go to the town of Vittel, which was in the eastern war zone, because she was desperate to see the man with whom she had fallen deeply in love, a Russian captain 18 years her junior named Vadime.
For that, she had to apply to the head of French Intelligence, Captain Georges Ladoux, an ambitious man who had staked his reputation on France being riddled with foreign spies and his being able to destroy their network. He was in need of an attention-grabbing case to prove the worth of his bureau.
He regarded Mata as little better than a prostitute; she thought him small-minded and coarse. They fenced words with each other. She wanted her pass to Vittel. He agreed, if she promised to enlist as a spy for France.
The entire encounter was bizarre, Shipman argues. If Mata Hari was already a German spy, as Ladoux believed, then he was foolhardy to try to recruit her to be a French one.
Mata Hari was known by sight throughout Europe. Her comings and goings were reported in gossip columns. Wherever she went, she was the centre of attention. It is difficult to imagine a woman less able to engage in clandestine activities.
But she accepted his offer - as long as she was given enough money to pay off her massive debts and settle down with Vadime. The great seductress wanted out of the game.
But it was too late. Ladoux was convinced she was a German spy, however ridiculous that was. So, too, were the British. For Mata Hari, everything in her tangled life was unravelling dangerously.
She went to Vittel and had a blissful interlude in the spa town with her Russian. On her return to Paris, Ladoux sent her on her first mission - to German-occupied Belgium where she said an ex-lover could steer her into the arms of the German military governor.
But Belgium proved impossible to reach and she ended up in Spain. There, she turned her charms on a German captain, an intelligence officer named Kalle, and stretched out on a chaise longue as he told her secrets about German manoeuvres in North Africa.
This information she triumphantly passed on to Ladoux, believing she was doing his bidding, earning the million francs he had promised her. Instead, she had fallen into his trap. Her meetings with Kalle would be turned against her, twisted to claim that she was handing over French secrets to the enemy rather than teasing out German ones.
On February 10, 1917, a warrant for her arrest was signed by the French war minister. Three days later, police officers knocked on the door of her hotel room and found her eating breakfast in a lace-trimmed dressing gown. She was not, as wild rumours around Paris soon claimed, naked.
At the Palais de Justice she faced the investigating magistrate, Pierre Bouchardon. "From the very first interview, I had the intuition that she was a person in the pay of our enemies," he wrote later. "I had but one thought - to unmask her."
The process was under way that would lead her unfairly but inexorably to her execution.
It did not seem to matter that no one had the least bit of evidence against her. Nor could anyone point to a single document, plan or secret that she passed to the Germans. Suspicion, envy and the prejudices of small-minded men would triumph.
Only 30 years after her death would one of her prosecutors concede the truth - "there wasn't enough evidence to flog a cat".
This is so sad coming from what was one of our great US media outlets---NY TIMES.
The US has been struggling with fixed elections these few decades but Bush era and computerized ballots just in time for MOVING FORWARD to make that steady march to far-right wing, authoritarian, militaristic, extreme wealth extreme poverty global corporate campus LIBERTARIAN MARXISM is assuring that the US is indeed brought to HITLER, STALIN, MAO corporate FASCISM.
WHY IS TRUMP STILL IN OFFICE WHEN WE ALL KNOW 2016 PRIMARY AND GENERAL ELECTIONS WERE RIGGED AND NOT BY RUSSIA?
Because MOVING FORWARD required all this FASCIST media.
This is what assured our US government on every level would be filled with those 5% global banking freemason/Greek players as politicians---passing all that is global militarized policing and security for DEEP, DEEP, REALLY DEEP STATE far-right global corporate campus FASCISM.
Will We Stop Trump
Before It’s Too Late?
Fascism poses a more serious threat now than
at any time since the end of World War II.
By MADELEINE ALBRIGHTAPRIL 6, 2018
On April 28, 1945 — 73 years ago — Italians hung the corpse of their former dictator Benito Mussolini upside down next to a gas station in Milan. Two days later, Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his bunker beneath the streets of war-ravaged Berlin. Fascism, it appeared, was dead.
To guard against a recurrence, the survivors of war and the Holocaust joined forces to create the United Nations, forge global financial institutions and — through the Universal Declaration of Human Rights — strengthen the rule of law. In 1989, the Berlin Wall came down and the honor roll of elected governments swelled not only in Central Europe, but also Latin America, Africa and Asia. Almost everywhere, it seemed, dictators were out and democrats were in. Freedom was ascendant.
Today, we are in a new era, testing whether the democratic banner can remain aloft amid terrorism, sectarian conflicts, vulnerable borders, rogue social media and the cynical schemes of ambitious men. The answer is not self-evident. We may be encouraged that most people in most countries still want to live freely and in peace, but there is no ignoring the storm clouds that have gathered. In fact, fascism — and the tendencies that lead toward fascism — pose a more serious threat now than at any time since the end of World War II.
Warning signs include the relentless grab for more authority by governing parties in Hungary, the Philippines, Poland and Turkey — all United States allies. The raw anger that feeds fascism is evident across the Atlantic in the growth of nativist movements opposed to the idea of a united Europe, including in Germany, where the right-wing Alternative für Deutschland has emerged as the principal opposition party. The danger of despotism is on display in the Russia of Vladimir Putin — invader of Ukraine, meddler in foreign democracies, accused political assassin, brazen liar and proud son of the K.G.B. Putin has just been re-elected to a new six-year term, while in Venezuela, Nicolás Maduro, a ruthless ideologue, is poised to triumph in sham balloting next month. In China, Xi Jinping has persuaded a docile National People’s Congress to lift the constitutional limit on his tenure in power.
Around the Mediterranean, the once bright promise of the Arab Spring has been betrayed by autocratic leaders, such as Abdel Fattah el-Sisi of Egypt (also just re-elected), who use security to justify the jailing of reporters and political opponents. Thanks to allies in Moscow and Tehran, the tyrant Bashar al-Assad retains his stranglehold over much of Syria. In Africa, the presidents who serve longest are often the most corrupt, multiplying the harm they inflict with each passing year. Meanwhile, the possibility that fascism will be accorded a fresh chance to strut around the world stage is enhanced by the volatile presidency of Donald Trump.
If freedom is to prevail over the many challenges to it, American leadership is urgently required. This was among the indelible lessons of the 20th century. But by what he has said, done and failed to do, Mr. Trump has steadily diminished America’s positive clout in global councils.