Throughout the periods below the fight for women's rights were always directed at those global 2% of women----where is MOVING FORWARD taking US 99% of WE THE PEOPLE? Back to DARK AGES 1000BC. Women were considered the property of their husbands, fathers, male relatives and we understand that still exists in third world nations having had no AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT. The problem for our 99% of US men is that they are going to lose all those gains as well.
We think this list is generous in whether even these rights were discussed in classical and medieval world.
by Jone Johnson Lewis
Updated March 15, 2018
Jone's B.A. in Management is from Mundelein College's Women in Business program, and her M.Div. is from Meadville/Lombard Theological School, where she had a special interest in studying the history of women in the world's religions and in social reform. (Mundelein College is now part of Loyola University, Chicago.)
This description of rights of women over thousands of years is quite expanded from the realities of Western women through Renaissance Europe. We think this writer from global banking 1% freemason LOYOLA is pushing propaganda. THOUGHT.COM has good discussion on public policy but we KNOW these come from the far-right wing OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS.
Ancient, Classical and Medieval World
In the ancient, classical and medieval world, women's rights differed somewhat from culture to culture. Some of these differences were:
- whether women were considered full citizens or were considered the equivalent of slaves or minors under the authority of husbands or fathers
- whether women could move around freely or were confined largely to the home
- whether women could freely choose or refuse marriage partners, or end a marriage
- whether women had custody of children, especially after a divorce or in a dispute with the children's father
- whether women could dress as they liked
- whether women could own property or run businesses and control their own wages, income and wealth
- which trades, occupations or professions were closed to women or more difficult for women than men to enter
- whether women could be educated at all, or to the same level as men were
- whether and how women had a voice in the public sphere, including voting or otherwise influencing the government and helping select those governing
- whether women could represent themselves or others in legal proceedings, such as lawsuits and court actions
- whether women could inherit the right to titles and rulership
Here is what women and rights really looked like and didn't happen until MAGNA CARTA opened the door to global 2% of men-----some gains by global 2% of women. Please don't be fooled as today when global banking 1% Clinton/Bush/Obama fill our US elections with 5% Hillary nasty ladies working for global 1% of MEN----thinking these women are fighting for our 99% of women's rights---or 99% of men's rights.
So, wealthy women started to have property and marriage rights as wealthy WIDOWS. It really wasn't until 1000AD medieval Europe that RICH WOMEN began to have rights to wealth and property.
The article written by a woman describing rights won by MAGNA CARTA were directed at the rich women designed to assure inheritance for the sons. So, medieval rich women were still under the thumb of male family members even when rich............the article written by THOUGHT.COM looks nothing like existed. CLEOPATRA they say---these cases were very, very rare ----
Women and Magna Carta
Dec 09, 2013
After the Norman Conquest of 1066, all lands in England became property of the Crown and the barons were all formally the King’s vassals-in-chief. In his role as liege lord, the King was expected to care for his noble tenants by ensuring that a baron’s widow and daughters were suitably provided for in the event that he died before his heir was of age. Abuse of this privilege by John and his predecessor King Richard prompted the barons to codify marriage and property rights for noblewomen.
The intent of the Magna Carta clauses pertaining to women was to reinforce the status of the nobility as a distinct social group and to ensure that children from first marriages did not lose their inheritances. Nevertheless, the formal recognition of distinct privileges enjoyed by noblewomen set a precedent for future legislation guaranteeing the rights of women.
Women’s rights in England at the time of Magna Carta were very different than they are in twenty-first century Canada. In 1215, an Englishwoman could be betrothed at seven and married at twelve. In Canada in 2014, the legal minimum age for marriage varies from province to province but is usually eighteen in lieu of parental or judicial consent. This standard is matched by most countries in the twenty-first century world, which set the minimum age of marriage to between sixteen and eighteen for women. There are exceptions to this trend. Neither Yemen nor Saudi Arabia currently legislate a minimum age for marriage (though a bill outlawing child marriage may be introduced by Yemen’s Minister of Legal Affairs by the end of 2013).
The 18th century was that period when 99% of WE THE PEOPLE men and women had the right to be exported as colonists whether someone wanted or not as slaves, indentured servants. No 99% of men or women had rights in 1700s.
The Age of Enlightenment broadened from global 2% being rich to more lower class rising and gaining wealth-----what we would call today a 5% to the 1%. It was that 5% of women who started fighting for women's basic civil rights to be extended from the global 2% of women. Our 5% of men were fighting just as well----so, our 99% of WE THE PEOPLE were being shipped off to colonial entities and these fights were taken to these colonial states. The global 2% appointed at governors of colonies ----with those global 2% of women having some property, wealth, marriage rights as WIDOWS.
Try as LOYOLA might to spin women's rights as having roots in ancient and classical world---even medieval world----what rights those rich women had were aimed at protecting the next generation prosperity for the sons.
Our US young adults and 99% of new immigrant women should educate to learn what LOSING TODAY will mean for our children and grandchildren.
So, 1700---1800s those 5% to the 1% of women started gaining civil rights expanding into education, workplace, marriage, and children.......our 99% of WE THE WOMEN were still waiting for those rights at the end of 1800s.
18th Century Calls for Women's Rights
In the century or so before that declaration, a few had written about women's rights. Abigail Adams asked her husband in a letter to "Remember the Ladies," specifically mentioning disparities in women's and men's education.
Hannah Moore, Mary Wollstonecraft, and Judith Sargent Murray focused especially on women's right to an adequate education. Just the fact of their writing implied an advocacy for women's voices having an impact on social, religious, moral and political decisions. Mary Wollstonecraft called in her 1791-92 "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" for recognition of both women and men as creatures of emotion and reason, and for such women's rights as:
- the right to be educated (and a duty to educate her own children)
- equal partnership between man and woman in marriage
- control over family size
- free speech, including to reveal the father of her children
- equality of children born out of marriage to those who were born within marriage, which implied an equal right of women to sexual relationships outside of marriage
Our 99% of WE THE WOMEN must remember women before early 1900s could not control any avenue of their lives-----they could not escape abusive marriages----they could not assure their children were able to be fed or housed if the husband was derelict---they lost housing rights and income from husband's pensions being pushed from house and home. Women were not allowed to work outside of home unless the woman was poor working as a domestic.
Did all this make our 99% of men stronger or more prosperous? NO, it creates an economy and societal structure that keeps men with families from lifting themselves to higher income status. It does help those global 2% of men wanting to control family wealth over time.
So, our 5% of global banking women wanted expanded rights for themselves and the fight for women's rights through 1800s was to allow women freedom, choice, free will to determine their own lives.
Here is where our 99% of WE THE WOMEN must understand who these 5% of women were fighting for. As we make clear today that 5% to the 1% freemason/Greeks were not working for all women----we always have to look at who LEADS these fights to know whether these rights are being built for our 99% whether men or women, whether black, white, or brown citizens. At this point the push for women's rights was coming from the AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT social progressive I AM MAN left.
It is normal in free societies for rights to be won in stages so having those global banking 5% of women fighting and winning rights was a good thing for our 99% of women to come next.......that is what the early 1900s brought.
Marriage Protest - 1855
In their 1855 marriage ceremony, women's rights advocates Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell specifically refused to give assent to laws which interfered in rights of married women in particular, including:
- control over the wife's very person and her very legal existence as a person
- custody of children
- inheritance and ownership of real estate
- the right to her own wages
- equal rights to inherit a survivor's portion upon the death of one of the spouses
- choice of a place of residence
- ability to make contracts including wills and the ability to sue in court in her own name
- choosing her own name
In 1848, the first known women's rights convention in the world declared "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal...." and in closing, "we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States."
Areas of rights that were addressed in the "Declaration of Sentiments" were:
- whether women had a voice in making laws that they were subject to, including whether women could vote
- whether married women had any legal existence
- whether women had property rights, including the right to income she herself earned
- whether women could freely choose to end a marriage
- whether women had custody rights over children after a divorce or separation
- whether women had access to many professions, including theology, medicine, and law
- whether women had access to higher education
- whether women had a voice in the Church, including whether women could be ministers or in other ways publicly participate
- whether moral codes (about sexual choices) were the same for women as for men
In arguing to include the right to vote in that Declaration -- the one issue that was most uncertain to be included in the document -- Elizabeth Cady Stanton urged the right to vote as a path to gain "Equality of Rights."
If we noticed the post from yesterday tied to LOYOLA Thought.com completely ignored all of early 1900s women's rights movement and went to 1960s equal rights CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT. This is how we know THOUGHT.COM is right wing global banking 1%-----and not REAL LEFT SOCIAL PROGRESSIVE.
What Are Women's Rights?
Rights Included Under the Umbrella of "Women's Rights"? THOUGHT.COM
We KNOW these fights for 99% of WE THE WOMEN rights by those 5% to the 1% freemason/Greek players had goals of opening new workers for expanding industrial economy. Just as FDR NEW DEAL had many good public policy for our 99% of WE THE PEOPLE---this women's movement was being staged with policy ready to act as a time bomb-----as the US FED killed all of NEW DEAL wealth and prosperity for our 99% of US men and women.
THESE WOMEN RIGHTS FOR 99% OF WOMEN OPENING UP EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES, FAMILY AND CHILDREN WELFARE, PROPERTY AND WEALTH ASSETS FOR WOMEN PARTNERED WITH NEW DEAL WERE GOOD PUBLIC POLICY FOR OUR 99% OF WE THE WOMEN.
The catch these global 2% of women placed in these gains for our 99% of WE THE WOMEN was the heavy emphasis of labor unions KNOWING those US labor unions acting as REAL left social progressive organizations would turn into global banking 1% OLD WORLD MEDIEVAL TRADE GUILDS........we saw that hit hardest in CLINTON 1990s.
When people want to publish their own BIBLES----we see FREEMASON/GREEK----not early 99% of religious text.
'Elizabeth Cady Stanton publishes The Woman's Bible'.
On losing the moral high ground in the fight for "universal human rights"
"[Stanton] didn't just stand on the moral high ground. She also descended to some rather ugly racist rhetoric along the lines of, 'We educated, virtuous white women are more worthy of the vote.'
Whenever we see a populist movement target one population group over another----it is not left social progressive ---the RADICAL in our US women's movement always comes from the right wing.
STANTON et al during those early 1900s really did good work for our 99% of women----indeed, WHITE WOMEN. It was the tying of women and work to TRADE UNIONS at the same time US FED was installed handing our US economy over to global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS------that placed the TIME BOMB on our 99% US WE THE WOMEN RIGHTS MOVEMENT.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton publishes The Woman's Bible.
After its publication, NAWSA moves to distance itself from this venerable suffrage pioneer because many conservative suffragists considered her to be too radical and, thus, potentially damaging to the suffrage campaign. From this time, Stanton--who had resigned as NAWSA president in 1892--was no longer invited to sit on the stage at NAWSA conventions.
Mary Church Terrell, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Margaret Murray Washington, Fanny Jackson Coppin, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, Charlotte Forten Grimké, and former slave Harriet Tubman meet in Washington, D.C. to form the National Association of Colored Women (NACW).
Mary Dreier, Rheta Childe Dorr, Leonora O'Reilly, and others form the Women's Trade Union League of New York, an organization of middle- and working-class women dedicated to unionization for working women and to woman suffrage. This group later became a nucleus of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU).
The National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (NAOWS) is organized. Led by Mrs. Arthur Dodge, its members included wealthy, influential women and some Catholic clergymen--including Cardinal Gibbons who, in 1916, sent an address to NAOWS's convention in Washington, D.C. In addition to the distillers and brewers, who worked largely behind the scenes, the "antis" also drew support from urban political machines, Southern congressmen, and corporate capitalists--like railroad magnates and meatpackers--who supported the "antis" by contributing to their "war chests."
Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive (Bull Moose/Republican) Party becomes the first national political party to adopt a woman suffrage plank.
Alice Paul and Lucy Burns organize the Congressional Union, later known as the National Women's Party (1916). Borrowing the tactics of the radical, militant Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in England, members of the Woman's Party participate in hunger strikes, picket the White House, and engage in other forms of civil disobedience to publicize the suffrage cause.
The National Federation of Women's Clubs--which by this time included more than two million white women and women of color throughout the United States--formally endorses the suffrage campaign.
NAWSA president Carrie Chapman Catt unveils her "winning plan" for suffrage victory at a convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Catt's plan required the coordination of activities by a vast cadre of suffrage workers in both state and local associations.
Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first American woman elected to represent her state in the U.S. House of Representatives.
1918 to 1920
The Great War (World War I) intervenes to slow down the suffrage campaign as some--but not all--suffragists decide to shelve their suffrage activism in favor of "war work." In the long run, however, this decision proves to be a prudent one as it adds yet another reason to why women deserve the vote.
August 26, 1920
The Nineteenth Amendment is ratified. Its victory accomplished, NAWSA ceases to exist, but its organization becomes the nucleus of the League of Women Voters.
The National Woman's Party first proposes the Equal Rights Amendment to eliminate discrimination on the basis of gender. It has never been ratified.
Just as FDR created great left social policies really helping our 99% of US WE THE PEOPLE-----he bound all that good to global banking structures tied to global 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS as a time bomb able to kill those gains----so too did these early 1900s 5% to the 1% freemason/Greek women players. Creating these national NGOs set the stage for our 99% women movement to be controlled by those global 2% of women.
REAL LEFT SOCIAL PROGRESSIVES are not against organized labor -----we love our 99% of trades workers. What we KNOW is this------those early 1900s trade unions were NOT AMERICAN----they were tied to global MARXIST WORKER PARTY which we discuss in detail work for global banking 1% and global corporations tied to OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS.
Who tied all of our 99% of women as workers to global trade unions? This was the TIME BOMB installed by HOUSE OF JUDAH------KNIGHTS OF MALTA ----those global 2% of women to assure down the line our US 99% of women would lose their wealth and rights. As we shout ---these global MARXIST WORKER organizations are FAR-RIGHT WING ----they are NOT REAL left social progressive labor rights whether men or women.
Below we see PAKISTAN pretending to be installing populist worker structures just as in early 1900s America-----
So, our US 99% of WE THE WOMEN attained good rights across all categories------we simply did not continue the fight to remove all structures as TIME BOMBS-----to assure we kept those rights.
THERE ARE WAYS TO HAVE LABOR ORGANIZATION LOCALLY-----WE DO NOT NEED INTERNATIONAL MEDIEVAL TRADE GUILDS----OUR 99% OF WE THE TRADES CITIZENS MUST WAKE UP-----
MARXISM IS FAR-RIGHT WING GLOBAL BANKING 1%----so our 99% of women bound tightly to these trade guilds would never have the full rights and power as citizens with these global NGOs attached to our workplace.
The role of women in the trade unions and the struggle of the PTUDC
19 April 2002
This is a report from Pakistan on the conditions of women workers and the activities and programme of the Pakistan Trade Union Defence Campaign on this question.Karl Marx once said that "all hitherto history of mankind is the history of class struggle." Since the advent of class society the exploited class has been at daggers drawn against the ruling class. In slave society, slaves raised their hands against masters, in the feudal system the serfs rose up against the feudal lords and similarly we find a continuous struggle of proletarians against the capitalists.
Class distinction in capitalist society is more obvious than those of the previous epochs. There are two classes, one of which possess the means of production, and the other one is the proletarian class, which has to sell its labour just for its survival on earth.
The struggle between these two classes commenced with the establishment of capitalist society. The proletarian struggle is still continuing and will continue till the end of class society and the emancipation of proletarians from the ruthless clutches of cruelty, barbarism, suppression and tyranny imposed upon them by the capitalist system. Their freedom is vehemently linked with the establishment of a Socialist Federation of the whole world, which is impossible without the complete elimination of capitalism.
The struggle of proletarians to change the system is actually a political struggle as Karl Marx repeatedly emphasises the point that every class struggle is in reality a political struggle as well as economic, where the proletarians strive to improve their living standards, working conditions, hours of work and wages.
To make this economic struggle more coherent, properly organised and driven by collective efforts, the proletariat brought trade unions into being. As with the development of technique and industry, larger industry and factories spread all around where the downtrodden, battered, crisis-ridden and hunger-stricken labourers got a chance to establish trade unions. Trade unions are traditional platforms of economic struggle on the part of proletariat. These trade unions played a significant role in the improvement of living standards and the economic struggle of the labourers.
In the movement of the proletariat women have fought shoulder to shoulder with male workers, whether it was the great sacrifices and struggles of the working class of Chicago or the magnificent revolution of 1905, the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 or any other political upheavals.
Although at the outset very few women used to work in industries, factories or any other economic fields yet with the expansion of the economy, the economic activities of women increased particularly after the second world war, when more and more women came out of their homes to work and now women are performing their duties in all walks of life with an immense enthusiasm.
In Pakistan large numbers of women have been joining economic fields, the basic reason for which is their being low paid workers on the one hand and their concentration along with "acquiescent obedience" on the other. That is why the increase in women workers in big industries during the last five years is baffling and incredible as in some of the industries 60% to 70% of the workers are women. Before this very few women were attached to government institutions, as most of them were associated with health and education.
Other main reasons for the involvement of women in outdoor work are the disintegration of the family system and economic crisis. The economic crisis has given a heavy blow to the conservative and traditional thinking pattern, which confined women within huge-walled houses to just serve husbands, brothers and the rest of the family. Resurgent unemployment and economic disparity have forced the families to let their women go out to offices and industries.
If we take a bird's eye view of trade union movement very few women can be found on the scene. In the past it might have been for their being less in number as workers, but now that is not so; the great causes of women not being organised in trade unions has been the improper attitude of trade union leaders, social and economic suffocation and the general decadence of the trade union movement.
If we analyse divergent departments the picture can be delineated in such a way.
In this sector women work in health, education, PTCL (Pakistan Telecommunications), PIA (Pakistan Airlines), WAPDA (Water and Power Development Authority), the Post Office, railways, banks and other institutions.
There are thousands of women nurses in the health department, although they have an association but its working is not as much effective as it should be. Before being banned by Zia al-Huq there were active unions containing a lot of ferment and active women within their sphere. Women played a significant role in the two great strikes of hospitals and they had to wash loose their jobs for going on strike in the first regime of Nawaz Sharif.
The betrayal of the trade union leadership's compromise and false strategy immensely shocked the trade unions in this sector so there is now the union but it is inactive and dormant. With a bit of hard work and correct strategy a lot of women could be organised in these unions and their potential can be galvanised into political struggle.
Women are working as teachers in the education department and a year ago a resistance movement was launched in this department, which basically opposed the steps such as downsizing. Three months back the female teachers vehemently took part in the strikes and processions and suffered violence from the state.
Similarly women in Sindh participated in the movement and played a role of leadership to much extent. The example shows that women can be brought into the movement. The trade unionists are wrong when they say that women do not have any interest in the trade unions. In Sindh the teachers pertaining to our tendency fervently participated in the movement.
With the failure of the Pakistani state to invest and develop the health and education sector these vital sectors have been sucked up by the private sector. They are now the most profitable sectors in Pakistan. On the one hand they charge heavily for health and education on the other hand they employ mainly women workers at shamefully low wages. Mostly they are as low as 7-15 pounds monthly. These workers are totally unorganised and there is a dire need of unionisation of women workers in these sectors. There are 76,000 teachers employed in private institutions, 60% of which are female.
In the PTCL more than 3,000 women work and most of them are members of trade unions. In the resistance movement and strikes women have played a vital role. At that time a lot women became active in the trade unions but due to the unions' wrong attitude and backward culture the number of women involved went down.
The standards of living of the women workers in the PTCL is comparatively higher and that is why they are economically free somewhat and having combined working conditions - they can better perform in the movement and collaborate with other male workers. In big trade unions women take the casting of votes in referendums and elections seriously and they do not pay any heed to those who want to hold back the movement.
Similarly a great number of women work in PIA, Railways, WAPDA, banks and other institutions. But they are not active in the trade unions of these institutions. Most of the women are motivated just for the election campaigns so that the leadership can get their votes.
In the industrial sector most of the women work in textile, garments, pharmaceuticals, sports and the factories of surgical tools. In some of the big factories more than half of the workforce consists of women. Most of the women work on daily wages and contracts. These women are working in the worst conditions. They have to work for 12 to 14 hours and their wages are 40% to 50% lesser than those of male workers.
In most of the factories there are no trade unions present. The leadership does not play any active role in organising women in the unions. The policies of the free market, liberalisation, anti-labour laws and anti-trade union policies have put the trade union at stake. No federation and leadership are serious about raising a voice for the problems of women and in organising them in the trade unions.
Apart form them women workers in offices of multinational corporations, travel agencies, private schools, big hotels and departmental stores, they are not allowed to establish trade unions whereas the conditions of women working in the homes and fields are worse than slaves.
At present more than 40% of women are enthusiastically active in the villages and these women do not enjoy their rights. The women who are fervently speaking for the human rights of women, child labour, and democracy and are working in the NGOs are themselves deprived of these rights. These non-governmental organisations have contributed in the decadence of the trade unions.
The NGOs exploit women burdened with economic duties. These NGOs prove to be a comfortable refuge for the men and women who accept charity and distribute it in the name of reforms. The male and female bosses of these NGOs live in luxury with huge wages and perks.
Without any processions, strikes, and economic and political struggle, enjoying delicious food, seminars allocated in the air-conditioned hotels, they have ensnared a lot of enthusiastic workers of trade unions.
The following are the main reasons why women are not active:
- The social stress and suffocation, which does not allow women to take an active part in activities.
- The negative attitude of trade union leaders and male chauvinism, which considers women just a source of sexual satisfaction and that is why they hesitate to go ahead with male workers.
- Cultural bankruptcy, conservatism, social suffocation and cultural primitiveness hinder regular meetings of men and women.
- The crisis of the trade union movement and stagnation are important in this situation. The betrayal of the leadership and compromises have immensely disappointed the workers.
- The pressure of the bosses and the administration in private factories are some other obstacles in the way. Women are afraid of being expelled from jobs and are reluctant to join the unions.
- The conservativeness of the institution of the family and the social impact of Islamic fundamentalism.
In the wake of the massive increase in women workers in industry it is essential to include and organise women for the consideration and dynamism of movement. No trade union be establish itself and perform work without the inclusion of women workers in the union.
The inclusion of women in trade unions in the private sector can make the movement more transparent after evaporating the dark clouds of dejection. Women workers in trade unions can infuse a new determination into the movement.
Now it is the responsibility of the PTUDC to organise women and motivate them to play a dynamic role in the movement.
- Study circles are being set up where trade unions do not yet exist. Small groups can be formed and prepared politically. These study circles and groups can play an important role in the formation of trade unions.
- A forceful struggle is being launched against the male chauvinism, mental perversion and conservatism in the unions to end discrimination against women workers.
- PTUDC activists who are present in the trade unions in the public sector make conscious efforts to bring women forward. A transparent programme is being put forward with reference to the problems of women. Meetings of women are being arranged and their work organised. Female representation in the structures of PTUDC is being encouraged.
- The factories in which unions are present should be pressurised to let women become members and they should be encouraged to play an active role.
- Pamphlets on the problems of women have been printed and distributed.
- The PTUDC believes that women can play a vital role in the trade unions and class struggle.
Working women are sobbing under the suffocating pressure of extreme exploitation, force, lust, ignorance and poverty. They want change and end to the decayed system. A correct revolutionary programme, strategy, and to crown them all a revolutionary party, can activate women by affiliating them with other parts of society. The emancipation of women is only possible through a class struggle along with their male comrades and not feminism, which only serves to disunite the working class on the basis of gender. History has put this duty on our shoulders.
The PTUDC's programme is:
- Pay at least Rs 7,500 (£80), linked to inflation.
- Trade union rights and the unconditional right to strike.
- Elimination of the contract system and all anti-labour laws.
- Total ending of downsizing, forced retirement and the privatisation in the name of the so-called independence of colleges, schools and hospitals.
- Revocation of all discriminatory laws against women.
- Equal wages and equal opportunities for men and women.
- The draconian law of two female witnesses against one male witness should be abolished.
- Women workers be given maternity leave with full wages.
April 19, 2002
Here is the 1960s civil rights women rights worker rights movement tied to US CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT for equal protection for our 99% of WE THE PEOPLE----BLACK, WHITE, AND BROWN CITIZENS-----focused on our 99% of WE THE WOMEN.
This US Constitutional Amendment and Bill of Rights WERE the real women's rights movement to attain REAL protections for families, women, children, communities. Our US labor unions were working until these years to advance rights, income, benefits for workers-------
Our US 99% of black and brown citizens are correct. These early women's and men's rights movements were aimed at a 5% of white women workers. But not even our 99% of white women had won REAL rights until these civil rights 1960s. These early 1900s citizens rights movements created that 1% black boule GREEK which was the same as those 5% freemason/Greek white women.
So, our US black 1% of men and women win rights in early 1990s but as we hear over and again----these 1% black boule had rights to wealth accumulation and property ----but they had very little voice in political and economic development.
IF WE LOOK AT YET ANOTHER NATIONAL NGO FOR WOMEN---THEY ARE REPEATING THOSE RIGHT DEMANDS FROM EARLY 1900S----WE NEED TO WAKE UP WHEN THESE 'FAKE ALT RIGHT ALT LEFT' GROUPS KEEP PRETENDING TO FIGHT FOR THE SAME ISSUES FOR A CENTURY.
NOW Statement of Purpose - 1966
The 1966 Statement of Purpose created by the formation of the National Organization for Women (NOW) summarizes key women's rights issues of that time. Women's rights addressed in that document were based on the idea of equality as an opportunity for women to "develop their fullest human potentials" and to put women into the "mainstream of American political, economic and social life." Women's rights issues identified included those in these areas:
- employment and economics
- family, including marriage and divorce laws and home responsibilities
- political participation
- images of women in culture and social practice
- opposition to "protectiveness" in work, school, church and so on, as limiting women's rights
- racial justice because of the "double discrimination" experienced by women of color
REAL left social progressive 99% of women grassroots fighting for the same women's rights as those 5% to the 1% had won back in early 1900s were not connected with this national women's movement-----just as BLACK LIVES MATTER-----just as INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S UNITED NATIONS ------these national NGOs were always known to be tied to global banking 1%.
Here is where national media pushed all those FAKE 5% FREEMASON/GREEK women players in headlines as our 99% WOMEN LEADERS. So, Jane Fonda and all the global banking 1% freemason STARS came out-----taking ALL THE POWER from our local 99% of WE THE WOMEN movements during 1960-70s----just as was done for our 99% of black citizens empowerment movements.
REAL left social progressive 99% of women always knew our power and rights to be citizens were being CO-OPTED by these FAKE ALT RIGHT ALT LEFT women's organizations. We have been fighting THEM as much as fighting for our US CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS.
Of course NOW was used these few decades to push far-right wing global banking ONE WORLD policies killing all of our 99% of women gains in wealth, rights, and CITIZENSHIP because it is controlled by 5% global banking players.
This Day in History: National Organization for Women was Founded
June 30, 2015 at 4:01 PM ET by Molly Wolfe
On June 30, 1966, the National Organization for Women was founded by a group of activists who wanted to end sex discrimination. Today, the organization remains as a cornerstone of the women's rights movement.
“We, men and women who hereby constitute ourselves as the National Organization for Women, believe that the time has come for a new movement toward true equality for all women in America, and toward a fully equal partnership of the sexes, as part of the world-wide revolution of human rights now taking place within and beyond our national borders.”
—National Organization for Women’s 1966 Statement of Purpose
On June 30, 1966, Betty Friedan wrote three letters on a paper napkin: N O W. She invited fifteen women to her hotel room. Then, Catherine Conroy slid a five-dollar bill onto the table and said, “Put your money down and sign your name.” In that moment, the National Organization for Women became a reality.
As representatives at the Third National Conference of Commissions on the Status of Women, these women were disgruntled by the lack of commitment to the convention's theme, “Targets for Action.” Inspired by the Civil Rights movement and historic marches such as in Selma, the women founded a parallel effort to ensure the equal treatment of both sexes. They brainstormed an alternate action plan to enforce Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits employers from discriminating against employees based on sex, race, color, nationality, and religion.
Photograph shows people standing in front of the United States Capitol with a banner reading "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex" and holding flags for various organizations including the National Organization for Women. July 9, 1979. (by Bettye Lane)
NOW Through the Years:October 1966: NOW founding conference
Betty Friedan, best known for her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique, which changed the conversation on traditional gender roles, was chosen as the organization’s first president.
Betty Friedan, half-length portrait, facing right / World Telegram & Sun. 1960 (by Fred Palumbo)
August 1967: First picket by NOW members
Activists dressed in vintage clothing to protest the gender segregated help-wanted advertisements in The New York Times.
1973: NOW members organized “Take Back the Night” marches and vigils.
Protestors stimulated the movement against sexual assault and power-based personal violence against women.
July 1978: Biggest-ever march for the Equal Rights Amendment
In 95-degree heat, over 100,000 people decked in purple, white, and gold marched in Washington, D.C. to call for an extension to the deadline for ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment.
Feminists make history with biggest-ever march for the Equal Rights Amendment, including NOW's first president Betty Friedan. (by Feminist Majority Foundation)
April 2004: March for Women’s Lives
A record 1.15 million people marched in Washington, D.C. to fight for women’s reproductive health care options.
The March for Women’s Lives took place on April 25, 2004. (by Feminist Majority Foundation)
Today, NOW is the largest organization of women’s rights activists in the United States, using grassroots organizing to push for social change. NOW focuses on advocating for justice and equality in reproductive healthcare and the economy and continues its work to put a stop to violence against women and discrimination based on race and sexual orientation.
The fight to end workplace discrimination is not over. The Administration has shown its support for a number of anti-discrimination actions, including fair housing, employment non-discrimination, and health reform for women. President Obama, with help from organizations like NOW, continues to lead the charge for equal rights no matter who you are, what you look like, or who you love.
Here is that US CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOR ALL 99% OF WOMEN---BLACK, WHITE, AND BROWN CITIZENS----just after 1960s grassroots women's movements continuing to fight for real left social progressive rights for 99% of women. The early 1900s created that 5% to the 1% of global banking women---expanded from only global 2% of women having any rights------but it was not until 1972 we saw REAL left social progressive women's rights for our 99% of women.
Look at the date of these amendments------NIXON was going to CHINA to begin the FLIPPING OF EARTH'S AXIS FROM WESTERN HEMISPHERE TO EASTERN HEMISPHERE. REAGAN and raging global neo-liberalism was right around the corner.
So, all of these public policy geared to making our 99% of women whether black, white, or brown citizens was PROPAGANDA made to keep the appearance of our 99% of US citizens participating in public policy.
WHEN PEOPLE WIN THE RIGHTS TO CITIZENSHIP----GAIN POWER OF RIGHTS AND JUSTICE----THE RIGHTS TO VOTE----IT TAKES TIME TO LEARN HOW TO PLAY AT POLITICS----DON'T BE DISCOURAGED ---BE INSPIRED TO STOP MOVING FORWARD TO PROTECT OUR WOMEN'S RIGHTS WON OVER SEVERAL CENTURIES.
Global banking 5% pols and players are still today pretending an EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT is right around the corner--------there was never any intention of meeting the 38 state ratification even by those global 2% and 5% women players.
'Only 35 states ratified the E.R.A. by the 1979 deadline, three short of the necessary 38. Congress extended the deadline by three years, but no new states ratified the amendment. Though the E.R.A. was never ratified, 21 states have added similar amendments to their state constitutions'.
What just passed during OBAMA era? Women signing up for military service as MOVING FORWARD goes far-right, authoritarian, militaristic, global corporate FASCIST.
OH, LUCKY 99% OF US WOMEN!
'Anti-E.R.A. activists warned that the amendment would deny women privileges such as exemption from the military draft and the ability to be supported by their husbands'.
March 22, 1972 |
Equal Rights Amendment for Women Passed by Congress
By The Learning Network
March 22, 2012 4:04 am March 22, 2012 4:04 am
Warren K. Leffler/ Library of Congress U.S. News & World Report Collection
Representative Martha Griffiths outside the U.S. Capitol in 1970 after the House passed the Equal Rights Amendment for the first time.
On March 22, 1972, the Senate passed the Equal Rights Amendment to the United States Constitution, which proposed banning discrimination based on sex. The E.R.A. was sent to the states for ratification, but it would fall short of the three-fourths approval needed.
The March 23 New York Times listed “some of the laws and practices that the amendment expected to invalidate,” including laws that impose greater restrictions on women in business, laws that favor women in child-custody and alimony cases, laws that deny compensation to pregnant women still able to work and differing standards for boys and girls in public school programs.
The amendment, originally known as the Lucretia Mott Amendment, was first drafted by the women’s rights leader Alice Paul in 1923, three years after the passage of the 19th Amendment guaranteeing women’s suffrage. Variations of the amendment were presented to every session of Congress between 1923 and 1970, mostly remaining in committee until Representative Martha Griffiths, a Democrat from Michigan, was able to push it before Congress for debate in 1970.
The House passed it that year, but it failed in the Senate; the House passed a reworded version the following year. The Senate approved it in March 1972. The passed Equal Rights Amendment read, “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.”
The Times reported, “Confidence that ratification would be achieved swiftly was expressed by a number of supporters of the amendment,” adding: “How long it might take for the amendment to be ratified was unclear. Senator [Birch] Bayh indicated he thought it would be two years. The amendment itself permits seven years to elapse before it dies, if unratified.”
The E.R.A. was ratified by 30 states within a year, but the ratification process slowed as anti-E.R.A. organizations mobilized, like the conservative activist Phyllis Schafly’s Stop E.R.A. Anti-E.R.A. activists warned that the amendment would deny women privileges such as exemption from the military draft and the ability to be supported by their husbands. Many conservative women also turned against the women’s rights movement for its support of abortion rights, contraception, gay rights and other issues, weakening support for the E.R.A..
Only 35 states ratified the E.R.A. by the 1979 deadline, three short of the necessary 38. Congress extended the deadline by three years, but no new states ratified the amendment. Though the E.R.A. was never ratified, 21 states have added similar amendments to their state constitutions.
What our US 99% of WE THE PEOPLE whether black, white, or brown---whether 99% of women or men need to understand------although early 1900s rights movements were targeting that 5% of US citizens with empowerment----the stepping stones for all 99% of WE THE PEOPLE were indeed placed -----they were the NEW DEAL safety net programs designed to help our 99% maintain wealth through difficult times----they were the US MONOPOLY AND ESTATE TAX laws which are critical for our 99% of citizens to access a REAL free market economy. We cannot have our rights as citizens if we cannot access education, access a REAL free market economy.
What CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA did was dismantle even those 99% of WE THE PEOPLE rights and gains. No doubt, FDR and Eleanor Roosevelt as ROBBER BARON global banking players set the stage for a TIME BOMB -----but this is the pathway our 99% must take to attain REAL FULL CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS AS CITIZENS.
Our 99% of black citizens were blocked in NEW DEAL----those 1% black boule took the lead in black economic development and they took the 3000 BC route of OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS FREEMASONRY/GREEKS.
When we allow global banking 1% to play one set of 99% of people's gains against one another rather than recognizing the fight for all 99% of rights is ongoing---which is what US CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS for equal protection, opportunity and access was to address----all 99% of WE THE PEOPLE across all population groups WILL BE LOSERS.
FDR and The New Deal
During the Great Depression, African Americans were disproportionately affected by unemployment: they were the first fired and the last hired. After Roosevelt was elected, he began to institute his “New Deal,” a series of economic programs intended to offer relief to the unemployed and recovery of the national economy. Though African Americans were not the intended audience for these programs, they benefitted as many citizens did. Labor laws that encouraged union organization and defined a minimum wage also supported black workers.
Roosevelt’s relief programs made him popular with many African Americans, though he shied away from aggressively promoting civil rights or an anti-lynching law, for fear of alienating Southern whites. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt was more sympathetic to black causes. She created a stir when she helped to move Marian Anderson’s performance at the Lincoln Memorial after the black singer was prohibited from performing at Constitution Hall because of her race.
After the United States entered World War II, Roosevelt quickly moved to shore up African American support and silence foreign propaganda about the treatment of the negro in America. He ordered the justice department to not only pass anti-lynching laws but to finally begin enforcing longstanding anti-peonage laws aimed at ending forced labor in the South.
One thing is sure as far as REAL LEFT SOCIAL PROGRESSIVE 99% WE THE WOMEN know-----any organization tied to GREEKS AND FREEMASONRY -----steeped in ancient mythology as a source for public policy and myth-making propaganda as to being some sort of PUBLIC BENEFIT----is always far-right wing global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS. Women never win when tied to these organizations.
We discussed BACCHUS VS PENTHUS where PENTHUS appears to simply want to stop the invasion of civil society by what he knows is a socially disorienting deity. Has PENTHUS made imbibing illegal in his kingdom----we are led to believe not. His intuition is BACCHUS intent is OPIUM WAR to install himself as top deity. Of course as these myths go----the good are seduced and compromised ---made fools -----
For our discussion this week on women's rights and empowerment----when we began to see from DANCING OF SEVEN VEILS forward to the expansion of GREEK LIFE to our US public universities where GREEKS have a long history of being only in OLD WORLD IVY LEAGUE universities open to only the global 1% and their 2%----our 99% WE THE PEOPLE---black, white, and brown citizens---99% of men and women MUST STAND UP-----these structures are always designed to take the PENTHUS good in government and KILL IT with MOVING FORWARD ONE WORLD US FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES for only the global 1%.
Who are those 5% to the 1% freemason/Greek players today? Clinton/Bush/Obama----across all population groups----LET'S JUST GET RID OF THEM TO STOP MOVING FORWARD.
Women working for global 1% of men----no left social progressive feminism happening---and they are setting themselves up for being losers as MOVING FORWARD DARK AGES ends even those gains by global 2% of women----even those gains by 1900s 5% of women
'When a Feminist Pledges a Sorority
By JESSICA BENNETTAPRIL 9, 2016 '
May 13, 2013
Lack of Metamorphoses:
The Persistence of Woman-Woman Violence in Ovid
The Greeks and Romans of antiquity were clearly no strangers to violence. Indeed, judging by the literature that survives, it would seem that it permeated their culture and moral values in everything from marriage to acts of war. Feminist writers and academics have addressed the more obvious aggrievances as excessive and degrading acts of violence against women; rape is rampant throughout the texts. Mutilation, torture, and the perverse enjoyment in stripping women of their beauty and power therein, are also themes that are evidence of a culture-wide belief system in subduing, if not silencing completely, the feminine sex. Though the culprits of these ancient stories of rape, mutilation, incest, and murder of women are often men, it is significant that women, specifically angry goddesses, play a large role themselves in the humiliation, and continued degradation of their own gender. Added to the fact that these stories were written by men, in these specific instances of violence against women, it is clear that certain lessons or warnings were meant to be heeded by both men and women from the male author. For men, it was a warning to always be wary of women, that they were helplessly prone to irrational and emotional rages or actions that could hurt the man, his honor, or his offspring and family name. For women, these stories were cautionary tales of such said behavior; beauty, strength, potential, and talent were things to be careful of having, for they could lead to unwanted (or heaven forbid, wanted) male attention, or hubris; both of which could result in severe shame and punishment, or even death, from husband, father, or god. Stories of such warnings and punishment for females, by females, through a male writer, are exemplified in the work of the Roman poet, Ovid; specifically his mythological, epic poem Metamorphoses, which remains as one of the most important classical mythology sources. This paper will therefore explore a myriad of stories in the primary source of Metamorphoses in which female on female aggression is exemplified as another patriarchal deterrent for women to not vocalize or present the power of their sex and sexuality, and how patriarchy thus encourages women to seek revenge on other women for violations perpetrated upon them by men, ultimately alienating the females from other females, deconstructing the gender even further. Additionally, this paper will show contemporary examples of how such female behavior is still encouraged by a predominantly patriarchal society; and finally, that women and feminists alike have a responsibility to ourselves and each other, not to fall prey to this psychologically damaging cultural construction any longer.
Metamorphoses is Ovid’s most famous work. It is a single poem, written in the form and rhythm of an epic (dactylic hexameter), as well as in the size, in that it comprised of fifteen books. Finished around 8 A.D., Metamorphoses is comprised of roughly 250 myths, all centered around the common theme of transformation, and is the literature in which some of the most famous classical myths are played out, or elaborated upon. In discussing the violence of women against other women, there are a two main themes that Ovid predominantly uses repetitively throughout the epic as cautionary tales for women: the jealous goddess punishes the object of her husband’s affections, and women who are punished for their beauty/strength/talent. Many times the themes overlap, as will be shown in the following analyses.
Ovid’s myth that first addresses the theme of the jealous goddess is that of Jupiter and Io, in Book I of Ovid’s Metamorphoses. The story goes that Io was a beautiful nymph, merely resting at her father’s stream when Jupiter sets eyes on her and immediately begins to lust after her. He comes down to Earth to try to seduce her, but she flees.
Spread darkness and concealed earth far and wide.
He caught her as she was running away
And forced her to have sex against her will.
(Johnston, Book I:883-86).
Juno, both his sister and jealous wife, senses it, suspicious of the clouds: “Either I am quite mistaken, or I am being wronged.” (I:895-96) Although her husband has just raped an innocent girl, Juno claims such an act of violation is actually against herself. But it is not her husband, Jupiter, who has wronged Juno by straying; rather, Juno blames Io for her husband’s adultery. Her own beauty was Io’s wrongdoing, for in such beauty she attracted the lust of Juno’s husband, though the affection was clearly unwanted by Io.
Not only does Juno blame Io for her husband’s transgression, but she also takes pleasure in punishing and torturing the poor girl. Jupiter tried turning Io into a cow in order to conceal what he had done from Juno, thus she is still a cow when Juno discovers the truth. A significant concept to note is that the transformation that takes place in this myth, in turning Io into a cow, is initially a form of protection, rather than punishment, as is usually the case. However, the protection of turning Io into a cow is more for Jupiter’s own guise of fidelity towards Juno, rather than Io’s safety from the wrath of Juno, which comes anyway.
She made no attempt to hide her anger.
To the eyes and mind of that Argive girl
She sent out a terrifying Fury,
Pierced her breast with hidden stings, and drove her
Through the whole world in wandering terror. (I:1095-99)
Thus Juno gets her perceived revenge on the girl by humiliating and torturing her, all because Io’s unassuming beauty attracted the unwanted advances of Juno’s husband. The story of Io is therefore a cautionary, terrifying tale for any girl or woman reading it in antiquity, for the message is quite clear: to be beautiful means to invite male attention to the point of violation, in which shame, severe punishment, and humiliation are the only outcomes; women should never trust a beautiful woman, for she could lure their husband to stray; beautiful women should be punished. For the men, the message is equally clear: take advantage of the opportunity a beautiful woman represents; women’s sole purpose is to provide for the pleasure and amusement of men; fidelity is emasculating.
Another myth in Metamorphoses that explores the jealous goddess theme is that of Jupiter, Callisto, and Juno in Book II. Jupiter is once again preying on a young and beautiful nymph, Callisto, as she unsuspectingly goes about her own business. Ovid sensually describes this forest nymph as one of Phoebe’s warriors. She carries a bow and wears her hair and clothes seductively loose:
A simple clasp held her dress together,
White ribbons kept her tangled hair in place. (II:601-602)
Thus we can infer once again that there is a message to be taken here; if nothing else, the way that she is described in dress is almost a foreshadowing of her ultimate fate, as if to suggest, or argue perhaps, that such a fate is her fault because of the way she looks and dresses. The author, after conjuring up this titillating image of Callisto, is quick to prove his point in doing so:
No nymph wandering on Mouth Maenalus
Was more pleasing to the goddess Trivia.
But no power lasts for long. (II:606-608)
It is here, significantly, that Ovid admits the power of women in their sexuality and beauty, and subsequently alludes to, if not outright threatens for, the imminent destruction of such power thus.
Callisto is the perfect proverbial strong woman for Ovid to make an example of in his literature: a woman warrior skilled in the use of her own weapon, free, beautiful, independent – all things classical women are cautioned from being. But even a woman as strong and fierce as Callisto can still be made to be vulnerable in the writings of Ovid because, at the end of the day, she is still a woman.
Jupiter spied Callisto there, tired out
And with no one to protect her. (II:614-615)
The author even seems to amuse himself at the downfall of the once powerful woman, now overpowered and finally subdued, as he comments: “She does fight back, as much as women can,” (II:634). It is as if Ovid writes of these beautiful and strong women, building them up as so, only to tear them back down again to prove a moral point.
Juno finds out about this next transgression when Callisto gives birth to a son, Arcas, out of the rape. “That, too, really angered Juno, who thought she was a slut,” (II:689-690). This is where the woman-woman violence escalates, with the use of derogatory rhetoric and threats by a woman to describe another woman who has been raped by the former’s own husband.
“‘That’s the only thing that’s missing,
You adulteress—you would be fertile
And publicly proclaim the injury
By giving birth and thus acknowledging
the disgrace to Jupiter, my consort.
You wretched girl, you’ll get your punishment.
I’ll take away that shape of yours, which gave
You and my husband such delight.’” (II:692-699)
As if Callisto could stop her pregnancy! And it is especially absurd that Juno claims Callisto and Jupiter shared “such delight” – Juno seems to either forget or deny completely that Jupiter raped Callisto; and yet somehow Juno believes Callisto has disgraced Jupiter in such an encounter.
The saddest thing Ovid does here in his writing, therefore, is pit woman against woman. It would seem that in a culture or world where men constantly objectify and violate women for their own pleasure, women would look to their own gender for some sense of security and stability, if not safety. How alone Callisto must have felt; first she was shamed and violated by a man, then she was rejected by Diana, a goddess and therefore of the female gender, and finally punished and degraded further by Juno, another goddess and powerful female figure. It is in this way that Ovid writes into his stories the encouragement of the alienation of the female gender. The women, especially the goddesses in these stories, are especially competitive and judgmental to the point of irrationality and delusion of the facts. Women are not safe among men, and clearly they are not safe around other women either. This sort of patriarchal writing, from a man’s point of view towards women and other men, thus helps to set cultural and moral boundaries for the real women of Ovid’s own time period. Ovid seems to reiterate over and over that women are not to be trusted by men or women, thus creating an environment where the female gender deconstructs from the inside out, as it is threateningly exemplified over and over that women should not interact with other women. This works in favor of the men, however, in a patriarchal society that is trying to subdue the women’s voice. If there is strength in numbers, the men must continue to make the women feel unwilling to interact with one another, thus weakening the gender as a whole.
Similar to Books I and II, Juno makes another appearance in Book III in the story of Jupiter and Semele. Juno is already on edge because of some past transgressions detailed above. However, instead of seeing the common denominator in these scandals as her husband, Jupiter, she instead, by the pen of Ovid, chooses to blame her own female gender for such repeated grievances:
All those numerous complaints of mine –
What good have they done me? I must attack
That girl in person. I have to kill her
If I am rightly called the most mighty Juno (III:391-394)
Juno decides that the mere punishment she had been dolling out before has done nothing to deter those other females from her mighty husband Jupiter, and decides that death is the only way to prove her point once and for all. She must make an example out of Semele to truly deter the women from directing their unending sexual appetites toward her husband. Or so Ovid infers.
Once again, Ovid, through Juno of course, aims to tear down these women by attacking their most favorable attributes first. Juno even seems to sadistically delight in planning the downfall for this poor girl, going the extra cruel step to coerce Jupiter, Semele’s own lover and father of her child, to kill her himself.
She has such great faith in her own beauty.
I’ll make sure that confidence deceives her.
I am not Saturn’s daughter if that girl
Does not fall into the waters of the Styx,
Dumped down in them by Jupiter himself. (III:406-410)
Jupiter indeed succeeds in this plot, and Semele is consumed by the fire of Jupiter’s own lightning bolt. Thus Ovid again makes plain the moral of the story that beautiful women are to be punished, and that transgressions by a male are always the female’s fault. This effectively continues to encourage women to be suspicious of and competitive with one another, essentially preventing any hope of empowering the women to feel comfortable in heir own gender. It is a rather unassuming psychological brainwash that such classical women had to endure. In each story where a strong woman appears to exist and vocalize or exhibit her power, she is torn down as an example to others who might try to do the same. Moral threats and sexual anxieties through such literature as Metamorphoses thus effectively kept women in their “place” as mere objects of pleasure and domesticity to men.
Classical literature, however, is not the only place where women-women violence is perpetuated or encouraged to serve a patriarchal agenda. Even in contemporary society, women and girls participate in some of the same general behavior, though perhaps a little less extreme, as Juno and Minerva in Ovid’s Metamorphoses.
Biology plays a bigger role than one might think in this. Though society is accustomed to masculine aggression, sexual selection in humans has also bred hostility in women towards other women, especially when it comes to our partners or spouses. The competition of females for males is just as prevalent as the competition of males for females; the only difference being that females are more emotionally motivated, while men are more physical. That jealous twinge in the pit of your stomach when your partner’s eyes linger too long on someone else, or the unbearable pain when your loved one has strayed with another, are all aggravated by how women are taught to respond to such circumstances.
For example, sometimes it can be too much for a woman to imagine her lover committing adultery. It is much easier to blame the other woman rather than to admit that the person you invested time, energy, and emotion into could betray your trust like that. In a patriarchal society, the men especially encourage this type of behavior. If the woman fails to put the responsibility on her significant other, he can perpetuate the adulterous cycle, while still managing to keep his girlfriend for his own.
Furthermore, we live in a society that considers girls fighting to be an encouraged spectacle, if not also attractive even by some. So oftentimes men will encourage girls to go after the other girls their significant others cheated on them with, perpetuating a cycle of violence-revenge-violence seen in many of the myths of Ovid as explained above.
Women, as in Ovid’s work, are in constant competition with themselves to this day. Too often in high school, for example, does one hear girls spreading nasty rumors, using derogatory words to describe other girls, making up reasons not to trust them because they are beautiful, or talented, or both. These are the same themes discussed in myths such as Jupiter and Callisto, or Juno and Io.
In the career specter, women in power are also called awful names for being so, while a man in power is just considered natural. It seems people want to tear women down or pick them apart until they find something wrong, just because they are strong women.
Finally, one of the most prevalent themes of Ovid’s work that remains quite rampant in today’s society is that of women ‘deserving’ rape. Just recently, the country came together in shock at the vulgarity of a case in Steubenville, Ohio. A fifteen-year-old girl was dragged around by the football team while she was passed out drunk, and was subsequently raped and molested by at least two of players. Outrage ensued and the case gained national attention when pictures posted on social media of the victim went viral. The worst part is the lack of support the victim received in her own town. Because of her intoxication level, and the fact that she was at a party when she blacked out, some kids at her school believed that she ‘deserved’ what happened. How girls can say this of other girls, I will never understand. The worst part happened just when it seemed that the victim could finally get some peace. The two players charged with her rape and molestation were convicted and sentenced to three years in a juvenile detention center. Right after this was made public, tweets from two of the convicted rapists’ female family members tweeted threats of violence, and even death, towards the young girl their family members had just been convicted of raping.
Why do women feel so compelled to thrust violence and distrust at one another? Some of it may be biology, but a lot of it has got to be a more permeable cultural construction through space and time, as it has lasted through several millennia, especially when encouraged by a patriarchal cultural construction. From Ovid’s tales of the wrath of Juno and Minerva, to real life (and almost harder to believe) examples of contemporary female aggression, it appears we women have a lot to work on in terms of remembering that we should be breaking down the patriarchal constructions, rather than perpetuating them. Feminists and females alike therefore have the responsibility as such to be able to tease out the patriarchal undertone from stories such as Metamorphoses, so as not to fall prey to such rhetoric.