WE ARE NOT TRYING TO SCARE PEOPLE---WE ARE ACADEMICS GIVING AN OPPOSING VIEW WITH REAL INFORMATION-----JUST THINK ABOUT IT.
Our premise yesterday was this-----bacteria modified to eat human waste as in treatment plants----or eat metals and minerals as in coal-burning energy factories----those SCRUBBERS------eating CO2-----can easily mutate in just several years to eating metals and minerals-----carbon anywhere it finds it----no tastier place then our human bodies----or other living organisms.
All animals as too humans are made of CARBON. When we have GMO BACTERIA being genetically programmed to EAT CARBON in many different forms----CARBON in OIL----CARBON in PLASTICS-----CARBON in coal-factories as CO2--------
what are the chances each of these bacteria WHEN THEY DO ESCAPE INTO THE GENERAL BIOME will mate---will mutate ----to find food sources anywhere they can.
EVOLUTION AND SURVIVAL OF FITTEST says there is a 100% CHANCE THESE BACTERIA WILL MUTATE.
'Why Are Humans Made Of Carbon? Chemist Points To Electrons
Carbon is the main component of sugars, proteins, fats, DNA, muscle tissue, pretty much everything in your body. The reason carbon is so special is down to the electron configuration of the individual atoms. Electrons exist in concentric ‘shells’ around the central nucleus and carbon has four electrons in its outermost shell'.
'by Grennan Milliken
Nov 3 2016, 5:00am
Carbon-Eating Bacteria Could Be One Answer to Climate Change
Clostridium thermocellum can metabolize CO2'.
Newly discovered bacteria can eat plastic bottles
Newly discovered bacteria (AKA GMO BACTERIA) can eat plastic bottles. After adhering to the PET surface, the bacteria secretes one enzyme onto the PET to generate an intermediate chemical. That chemical is then taken up by the cell, where another enzyme breaks it down even further, providing the bacteria with carbon and energy to grow.
How are genetically engineered oil eating bacteria produced?
GMO foods are basically the same as non-GMO foods except that they contain ingredients that have been genetically engineered. Basically, that is the process of removing a gene from one species ...
Containing Genetically Modified Bacteria | National ...www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/...
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are widely used in research and for making pharmaceuticals and other products. However, use of genetically modified bacteria outside of the lab has been limited by concerns that they—and the sometimes novel genes they carry--
could escape into the wild.
The Bacteria Kingdom, formerly called monera, are single celled prokaryotic organisms. Bacteria encompass two domains: eubacteria and archaea. Eubacteria and archaea have very different cell walls. They are also distinguished by their DNA - the DNA of archaea has histone proteins while that of eubacteria does not'.
Chemistry / Biochemistry
Which are the metals present in human body?
Elements in Animals and Humans Animals and humans have similar evolutionary backgrounds. Specific elements play critical roles in the structures of proteins and the activities of enzymes. The purpose of this page is to outline some of the uses of elements in the structure of animals and humans and to illustrate why these elements are essential in the body and for optimal health.
* Calcium (Ca)
Structure of bone and teeth. * Phosphorous (Ph)
Structure of bone and teeth. Required for ATP, the energy carrier in animals.
* Magnesium (Mg)
Important in bone structure. Deficiency results in tetany (muscle spasms) and can lead to a calcium deficiency.
* Sodium (Na)
Major electrolyte of blood and extracellular fluid. Required for maintenance of pH and osmotic balance.
* Potassium (K)
Major electrolyte of blood and intracellular fluid. Required for maintenance of pH and osmotic balance.
* Chlorine (Cl)
Major electrolyte of blood and extracellular and intracellular fluid. Required for maintenance of pH and osmotic balance.
* Sulfur (S)
Element of the essential amino acids methionine and cysteine. Contained in the vitamins thiamin and biotin. As part of glutathione it is required for detoxification. Poor growth due to reduced protein synthesis and lower glutathione levels potentially increasing oxidative or xenobiotic damage are consequences of low sulfur and methionine and/or cysteine intake.
* Iron (Fe)
Contained in hemoglobin and myoglobin which are required for oxygen transport in the body. Part of the cytochrome p450 family of enzymes. Anemia is the primary consequence of iron deficiency. Excess iron levels can enlarge the liver, may provoke diabetes and cardiac falurer. The genetic disease hemochromatosis results from excess iron absorption. Similar symptoms can be produced through excessive transfusions required for the treatment of other diseases.
* Copper (Cu)
Contained in enzymes of the ferroxidase (ceruloplasmin?) system which regulates iron transport and facilitates release from storage. A structural element in the enzymes tyrosinase, cytochrome c oxidase, ascorbic acid oxidase, amine oxidases, and the antioxidant enzyme copper zinc superoxide dismutase. A copper deficiency can result in anemia from reduced ferroxidase function. Excess copper levels cause liver malfunction and are associated with genetic disorder Wilson's Disease
* Manganese (Mn)
Major component of the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase. A manganese deficiency can lead to improper bone formation and reproductive disorders. An excess of manganese can lead to poor iron absorption. * Iodine (I)
Required for production of thyroxine which plays an important role in metabolic rate. Deficient or excessive iodine intake can cause goiter (an enlarged thyroid gland).
* Zinc (Zn)
Important for reproductive function due to its use in FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (leutinizing hormone). Required for DNA binding of zinc finger proteins which regulate a variety of activities. A component of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase carbonic anhydrase, ribonuclease, DNA Polymerase and the antioxidant copper zinc superoxide dismutase. An excess of zinc may cause anemia or reduced bone formation.
* Selenium (Se)
Data bias, opacity, data monopoly, and job loss are issues that plague the field of artificial intelligence. Here's how to avoid those obstacles.
Contained in the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and heme oxidase. Deficiency results in oxidative membrane damage with different effects in different species. Human deficiency causes cardiomyopathy (heart damage) and is known as Keshan's disease.
* Fluorine (Fl)
* Cobolt (Co)
Contained in vitamin B12. An excess may cause cardiac failure.
* Molybdenum (Mo)
Contained in the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Required for the excretion of nitrogen in uric acid in birds. An excess can cause diarrhea and growth reduction.
* Chromium (Cr)
Approximately 4% of the body's mass consists of Minerals (McArdle et al. 2000). They are classified as trace minerals (body requires less than 100 mg/day), and major minerals (body requires more than 100 mg/day).
The trace minerals are iron, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, fluoride and chromium.
The major minerals are sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, sulphur, cobalt and chlorine.
Minerals serve three roles (McArdle et al. 2000):
- They provide structure in forming bones and teeth
- They help maintain normal heart rhythm, muscle contractility, neural conductivity, and acid-base balance
- They help regulate cellular metabolism by becoming part of enzymes and hormones that modulate cellular activity
Minerals cannot be made in the body and must be obtained in our diet. The daily requirements of minerals required by the body can be obtained from a well-balanced diet but, like vitamins, excess minerals can produce toxic effects.
The recommended daily requirements of minerals for men, women are shown in the table below (NHS Direct Online 2007).
700mg700mgmilk, cheese and other dairy foods green leafy vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage and okra, but not spinach, soya beans, tofu, soya drinks with added calcium, nuts, bread and anything made with fortified flour, fish where you eat the bones, such as sardines and pilchards
0.14mg0.14mgsea fish and shellfish, cereals, grains
8.7mg14.8mgliver, meat, beans, nuts, dried fruit, such as dried apricots, whole grains, such as brown rice, fortified breakfast cereals, soybean flour, most dark-green leafy vegetables, such as watercress and curly kale
<6mg<6mggreen vegetables, fruit, nuts
0.025mg0.025mgmeat, whole grains, such as wholemeal bread and whole oats, lentils, spices
0.0015mg0.0015mgfish, nuts, green leafy vegetables, such as broccoli and spinach, cereals, such as oats
1.2mg1.2mgnuts, shellfish, offal
300mg270mgnuts, spinach, bread, fish, meat, dairy foods
<0.5mg<0.5mgtea, bread, nuts, cereals, green vegetables such as peas and runner beans
550mg550mgred meat, dairy foods, fish, poultry, bread, rice, oats
3,500mg3,500mgfruit such as bananas, vegetables, pulses, nuts and seeds, milk, fish, shellfish, beef, chicken, turkey, bread
0.075mg0.06mgbrazil nuts, bread, fish, meat, eggs
Sodium chloride (salt)<6g<6gready meals, meat products, such as bacon, some breakfast cereals, cheese, some tinned vegetables, some bread, savoury snacks
9mg7mgmeat, shellfish, milk, dairy foods, such as cheese, bread, cereal products, such as wheat germ.
Vitamin and mineral interactions
Many vitamins and minerals interact, working alongside each other in groups e.g. a good balance of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, fluoride, chloride, manganese, copper and sulphur is required for healthy bones.
Many of them can enhance or impair another vitamin or mineral's absorption and functioning e.g. an excessive amount of iron can cause a deficiency in zinc.
We want to remind our US 99% WE THE PEOPLE of basic K-12 science. BACTERIA are the largest PHYLUM/KINGDOM of living organisms. MILLIONS to the tenth degree to the rest of the KINGDOMS/PHYLA.
Just one genetic manipulation GONE WRONG can be passed to all kinds of different phyla/classes/genus/species of this massive BACTERIA KINGDOM.
'Flesh-Eating Bacteria in Maryland Kills Man | Timetime.com/4542476/flesh-eating-bacteria
A 67-year-old man died four days after contracting a flesh-eating bacteria infection in a Maryland bay through a cut in his leg.. Michael Funk was washing crab pots in Ocean City when a strand of ...'
BACTERIA in colonies can literally wipe out all humans and other living organisms NO PROBLEM.
This is why REAL LEFT SOCIAL PROGRESSIVES started shouting decades ago against GMO-----ANYTHING. Whether GMO PLANT-----whether GMO ORGANISM----
The FAKE GREEN REVOLUTION which is far-right wing global banking 1% CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA installed in REAGAN era to kill real left social progressive ENVIRONMENTAL activism and policies------
is LYING, CHEATING, AND STEALING getting worse and worse conditions from this never-ending PRETENDING THAT ALL THIS IS GREEN---ENVIRONMENTAL.
So, GMO metal/mineral eating bacteria can escape confined industrial-use area into wild as in CHINA and its SMOG-----when it enters the body----as in breathing into lungs it has the perfect place to live and thrive and it does not see any difference between metals and minerals inside our bodies as it does metal and minerals in WASTE TREATMENT PLANTS------OIL SPILL REMEDIATION-----COAL-FIRE PLANT SCRUBBERS.
There are REAL, NATURAL fleshing bacteria---it has been a disease vector aligned with PLAGUE------for thousands of years. As with PLAGUE----we haven't seen FLESH-EATING BACTERIAL EPIDEMICS in modern times. We would simply ask that our 99% WE THE PEOPLE think----
COULD THIS BE GMO METAL/MINERAL-EATING BACTERIA SIMPLY ESCAPED/MUTATED INTO WILD.
'Flesh-eating bacteria becoming more common in Delaware Bay due to climate change, study finds
By Caitlin O'Kane
June 18, 2019 / 7:25 PM / CBS News
A dangerous flesh-eating bacteria may be on the rise at some popular East Coast beaches due to warming water temperatures. In the past two years, five cases of Vibrio vulnificus, a flesh-eating bacterial infection that is spread by handling or eating contaminated seafood, have been linked to Delaware Bay, according to a study.
Vibrio vulnificus usually occurs in high-salinity, brackish waters with surface temperatures above 13 degrees Celsius, or 55 degrees Fahrenheit, the study says. It has typically been found in the warm waters of the Gulf Coast and southern states like Louisiana and Texas, especially during the months from May to October.
Vibrio vulnificus causes about 205 infections in the United States every year the CDC estimates. The CDC also said it is important to learn more about the harmful bacteria if you live in areas where hurricanes, storm surges and coastal flooding are possible. The most common cause of infection is eating raw or undercooked shellfish, particularly oysters.
Flesh-Eating Bacteria In New Jersey Reveals One Possible ...philadelphia.cbslocal.com/2019/06/18/flesh...
In the past two years, five cases of Vibrio vulnificus, a flesh-eating bacterial infection spread by handling or eating contaminated seafood, have been tied to Delaware Bay, where water ...
This GMO BACTERIA---------touted by MIT as SUSTAINABLE and GREEN in the article below one would not to told that what was being used in creating these BIOFUELS ----was GMO E.COLI-------E. COLI is widely known by our US 99% of WE THE PEOPLE as a very serious illness. E.COLI-----that bacteria getting onto our fresh foods----YOU KNOW----those BIO-PRODUCTS used in BIOFUELS.
Global banking 1% made BILLIONS OF DOLLARS on BIOFUELS while saying this process was GREEN---SUSTAINABLE.
Genetically Modified Bacteria Produce 50 Percent More Fuel
By changing the way certain organisms process sugar, UCLA researchers have shown how to produce more biofuel.
by Kevin Bullis
Oct 3, 2013
Researchers at UCLA have opened a path to cheaper and cleaner biofuels by using genetic engineering to fundamentally change how certain organisms process sugar.
The bacteria in this petri dish have been genetically modified to increase the amount of biofuel that can be made from sugar.Conventional biofuels are either too expensive to compete with fossil fuels or they release so much carbon dioxide that they’re hardly worth making—or both.
This article tells us this BIOFUEL process uses GMO E.COLI BACTERIA. This technology started during CLINTON-----expanded during BUSH----exploded during OBAMA-----so, this article acts as if all this GMO is good stuff----DON'T WORRY----we know what we are doing.
Flash forward a few decades later----and these GMO E.COLI BACTERIA have escaped into the general BIOME-----they have mutated and since they like what HUMANS EAT-----and what HUMANS ARE MADE OF-------they are heading for our human digestive system----OUR GUTS.
What has happened to these MUTATED GMO E.COLI used in BIO-FUEL industry is that they have mated/mutated having been exposed to waterways/big MEAT filled with ANTI-BIOTIC TOXIC WASTE-----they now are ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT-----E COLI.
So, a disease vector already tough on our human bodies ----E COLI OUTBREAKS-------which were fought by doctors with ANTIBIOTICS ------HAVE NO KNOWN TREATMENT. People getting E COLI illnesses with these wild strain GMO E COLI ---will simply DIE.
SINCE E COLI OUTBREAKS CAN SPREAD NATIONALLY---GLOBALLY------THESE ARE RIPE AS A PANDEMIC.
'FDA Investigated Multistate Outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce from Yuma Growing Region
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, along with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local partners, investigated a multistate outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 illnesses linked to romaine lettuce from the Yuma growing region.
Update – November 1, 2018
On November 1, 2018 the FDA released an Environmental Assessment: Factors Potentially Contributing to the Contamination of Romaine Lettuce Implicated in a Multi-State Outbreak of E. coli O157:H7, along with a memo of investigation and letter to state agriculture officials and the leafy greens industry'.
What we hear in national media and from corporate FAKE SCIENCE NEWS AND DATA academics is that people are being made antibiotic resistant---which can be true---but we do not hear that the E COLI BACTERIA have been made antibiotic resistant----or that today's E COLI are very likely MUTATED versions of GMO E COLI BACTERIA used in BIOFUEL industry.
Efficient Biofuel Made From Genetically Modified E. Coli Bacteria
January 7, 2008
University of California, Los Angeles
Researchers have developed a new method for producing next-generation biofuels by genetically modifying Escherichia coli bacteria to be an efficient biofuel synthesizer. The method could lead to mass production of these biofuels. The research team modified key pathways in E. coli to produce several higher-chain alcohols from glucose, a renewable carbon source.
Researchers at the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science have developed a new method for producing next-generation biofuels by genetically modifying Escherichia coli bacteria to be an efficient biofuel synthesizer. The method could lead to mass production of these biofuels.
Concerns about long-term fossil fuel availability, coupled with environmental problems resulting from their production and use, have spurred increased efforts to synthesize biofuels from renewable resources.
Biofuels, like commercially available ethanol, are produced from agricultural products such as corn, sugarcane or waste cellulose. Ethanol, however, has limitations — it is not as efficient as gasoline and must be mixed with gas for use as a transportation fuel. It also tends to absorb water from its surroundings, making it corrosive and preventing it from being stored or distributed in existing infrastructure without modification.
Higher-chain alcohols have energy densities close to gasoline, are not as volatile or corrosive as ethanol, and do not readily absorb water. Furthermore, branched-chain alcohols, such as isobutanol, have higher-octane numbers, resulting in less knocking in engines. Isobutanol or C5 alcohols have never been produced from a renewable source with yields high enough to make them viable as a gasoline substitute.
A new strategy has been developed by UCLA professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering James Liao, postdoctoral fellow Shota Atsumi and visiting professor Taizo Hanai.
"These alcohols are typically trace byproducts in fermentation," Liao said. "To modify an organism to produce these compounds usually results in toxicity in the cell. We bypassed this difficulty by leveraging the native metabolic networks in E. coli but altered its intracellular chemistry using genetic engineering to produce these alcohols."
The research team modified key pathways in E. coli to produce several higher-chain alcohols from glucose, a renewable carbon source, including isobutanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol.
This strategy leverages the E. coli host's highly active amino acid biosynthetic pathway by shifting part of it to alcohol production. In particular, the research team achieved high-yield, high-specificity production of isobutanol from glucose.
This new strategy opens an unexplored frontier for biofuels production, both in coli and in other microorganisms.
"The ability to make these branched-chain higher alcohols so efficiently is surprising," Liao said. "Unlike ethanol, organisms are not used to producing these unusual alcohols, and there is no advantage for them to do so. The fact that they can be made by E. coli is even more surprising, since E. coli is not a promising host to tolerate alcohols. These results mean that these unusual alcohols in fact can be manufactured as efficiently as what evolved in nature for ethanol. Therefore, we now can explore these unusual alcohols as biofuels and are not bound by what nature has given us."
UCLA has licensed the technology through an exclusive royalty-bearing license to Gevo Inc., a Pasadena, Calif.-based company founded in 2005 and dedicated to producing biofuels.
"Given that part of UCLA's mission is to transfer technologies to the commercial sector to benefit the public, we are excited at the prospect that this UCLA-developed technology may play a key role in addressing climate change and energy independence," said Earl Weinstein, assistant director of the UCLA Office of Intellectual Property. "It has been a pleasure to work with the team at Gevo on this deal, and we look forward to an ongoing relationship with them".
"This discovery leads to new opportunities for advanced biofuel development," said Patrick Gruber, Gevo's chief executive officer. "As the exclusive licensee of this technology, we can further our national interests in developing advanced renewable resource-based fuels that will help address the issues of climate change and future energy needs while creating a significant competitive advantage."
Liao has joined Gevo's scientific advisory board. In this role, he will continue to provide technical oversight and guidance during the commercial development of this technology.
"Dr. Liao's input will be invaluable as we scale up the commercial applications made possible by this breakthrough in technology and bring advanced biofuels to market," said Matthew Peters, chief scientific officer of Gevo.
Full details of the research appear in the Jan. 3 issue of the journal Nature.
The research was supported in part by the UCLA–Department of Energy Institute for Genomics and Proteomics and the UCLA–NASA Institute for Cell Mimetic Space Exploration.
Whether GMO BACTERIA are in the AIR as colonies------GMO BACTERIA in the WATER as colonies---OR GMO BACTERIA in our human bodies in colonies----the problem is this process of allowing
These processes are still being sold by global banking 1% as GREEN----as cleaning up pollution------when the end result ALWAYS causes DEATH AND HARM to plants and animals.
Food and Drugs Global Superbugs
Superbugs killing twice as many people as government says
We tell the stories that matter. To help defend quality reporting and spark change, please support the Bureau
Published December 11 2016
By Madlen Davies
This story was published in partnership with:
The Sunday Telegraph. Read the story.
Find out how to use the Bureau’s work
Superbugs are now killing more patients than breast cancer and at least twice as many people as the government estimate, experts have warned.
The Bureau has also established that the government’s stated figure of 5,000 people a year dying from superbugs is based on guesswork. And we have obtained official NHS data confirming that significantly more people than that died with drug-resistant infections last year'.
Another DUBIOUS claim by BARBER SURGEONS calling themselves DOCTORS-----doing this research is below. They are saying as they KNOW the harm these GMO organisms can cause if/when they hit the general BIOME----go WILD-----is this: they say DON'T WORRY-----we have genetically programmed these GMO BACTERIA to die ----they cannot live past one life cycle. This is no doubt why a NEW YORK TIMES article would report that CHINESE SMOG WITH BACTERIAL COLONIES as having DEAD BACTERIA----rather then the real information that these colonies are ALIVE AND THRIVING.
BUT THEY WERE PROGRAMMED WITH A 'KILL SWITCH' SAY THE MADMEN SCIENTISTS WITH BLIND AMBITION.
Of course bacteria will mutate around these FIXES.
Just so happens that the discovery of bacterial colonies in China's SMOG happened in 2015-----same year as this article.
“Kill Switch” Prevents Spread of Genetically Modified Bacteria
By Kari Lydersen | January 21, 2015 12:00 pm
As genetically-modified microbes take on ever more tasks – from creating new pharmaceuticals to turning out clean fuel sources – researchers have searched for a way to biologically isolate them from their wild counterparts, so that if they were ever accidentally released, they wouldn’t be able to survive.
Now, scientists releasing two separate papers in the journal Nature think they have a solution. They unveiled two different approaches to modifying a strain of E. coli to make it dependent on artificial nutrients. In a controlled environment, such as a research lab or factory, scientists would provide that sustenance. But if the bacteria break free, they wouldn’t be able to make the compounds themselves, and would die.
Scientists have previously used similar approaches, making GMO bacteria reliant on synthetic nutrients. But in the past, the GMO bacteria have evolved the ability to live without the synthetic nutrients. Bacteria have ejected the part of their DNA that made them reliant on the nutrients, or they figured out how to cobble together an equivalent of those nutrients from the natural world.
In separate projects, teams led by Yale molecular biologist Farren Isaacs and Harvard molecular geneticist George Church have genetically modified E. coli so that it is totally dependent on synthetic amino acids. And in both cases that need is built in to multiple parts of the bacteria’s genome – 49 times in the Harvard study – so that the likelihood that the bacteria would evolve to overcome the restriction is unlikely. And both strains showed an undetectably small escape rate – the number of E. coli able to survive without being fed the synthetic amino acid.
Out in the Open
Church and Isaacs said that their work is most likely to be used in pharmaceutical or dairy operations – making cheese, yogurt or drugs. These processes happen in closed facilities and fermenters. Unlike in the fields, bees or breezes won’t spread genetically modified material around, but there is a risk of contamination if the microscopic bacteria get onto employees’ clothing or into the air.
Meanwhile the scientists hope their research lays the groundwork for larger applications of modified bacteria in open-air settings, including for bioremediation – the use of living organisms to clean up polluted sites like landfills and oil spills. In these settings a reliance on synthetic amino acids mean the genetically modified organisms could be “contained” molecularly even if they are no longer physically contained.
The safety features aren’t the only appealing attribute of the modified E. coli featured in the new papers. The scientists also built in resistance to a number of viruses. That means the bacteria are safe from attack by viruses that can be devastating in food or pharmaceutical manufacturing – like when viral contamination caused a Genzyme Corp. plant to halt manufacturing in 2009, temporarily cutting off the medication supply for some patients.
Church noted that the viral resistance could be an incentive to “sweeten the offer” and encourage companies to use “safe” GMOs. The technique could also provide intellectual property protection for industrial, pharmaceutical or food companies, since they could make their own GMOs dependent on specific synthetic amino acids, and other companies would have trouble replicating those modified organisms without the “key.” Such built-in IP protection could actually encourage collaboration between different companies, Isaacs said.
“This is really motivated by anticipating the impact biotechnology will have over the next several decades, recognizing the importance of endowing these GMOs with more sophisticated functions, to have more safety measures going forward,” Isaacs told reporters. “Endowing safeguards will be important to allow the field to progress.”
CRISPR “Kill Switches” for GMOs
Researchers create an inducible method to remove specific genes and even kill escaped genetically modified organisms.
May 21, 2015
WIKIMEDIA, NISHIMASU ET AL.
An environmentally dependent method to excise particular genes and eliminate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) if they leave the lab, published this week (May 19) in Nature Communications, uses an inducible CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing system to snip out vital pieces of the E. coli genome.
The most recent published attempts at creating such a GMO “kill switch” relied on making the survival of genetically-modified bacteria dependent on synthetic amino acids that were only available under laboratory conditions. In the latest study, scientists at MIT created a system that would instead make fatal changes to the bacterial genome when triggered by a change in environmental conditions.
The system, dubbed DNAi, contains two components: CRISPR targeting RNAs, which direct the destruction of a particular gene, are always expressed, and a Cas9 enzyme responsible for excising the targeted gene, which is controlled by a promoter that will only activate the gene when the sugar arabinose is present.
For their proof-of-concept study, the scientists used CRISPR to target genes on an extra plasmid. Two hours and fifteen minutes after the team introduced arabinose, the bacteria edited out the plasmid genes. The number of cells containing intact target plasmids decreased by a factor of one million to 100 million within 45 minutes. Targeting the bacterial genome, the number of viable cells similarly decreased. The DNAi system remained viable for more than two months and did not appear to impact the cells’ growth as long as it was not induced, the team reported.
The ability to excise a particular gene without necessarily killing the organism may make the system appealing to commercial GMO manufacturers to protect specific engineered modifications, the authors suggested.
“You just plug in all the systems you want erased, and when the system is turned on it will erase that DNA and largely leave the other DNA in place,” study coauthor Christopher Voigt told The Verge. The next hurdle will be to design a more relevant trigger than arabinose to control the kill switch.