There are three major ways BACTERIA enter into this discussion:
BACTERIA make up what is called a BIOFILM filter used to separate salt from water.
BACTERIA are being GMO for cleaning BIOFILMS----for being SALT-EATING-----
BACTERIA are being killed in massive numbers by release of toxic waste---hyper-brackish water all along the coastal biome.
First, let's realize BACTERIA do not naturally EAT SALT. Bacteria have evolved to withstand high salt concentrated water------by keeping that salt OUT of its body. If bacteria are SALT-EATING---they are GMO.
'Salt (sodium chloride) is a necessary component for most organisms, so bacteria do absorb some salt. They don't use it up or 'burn it' for energy, so it's not an energy source, but more a dietary mineral.
There are some bacteria, called halophilic bacteria, that are so well adapted for living in very salty water that they cannot survive without high concentrations of salt. An example is Salinibacter ruber. But these bacteria couldn't be said to be eating the salt any more than a saltwater fish, which cannot survive in fresh water, could be said to be eating the salt'.
Just like any living thing-----salt will dehydrate and kill BACTERIA.
'Does Salt Kill Bacteria? | Reference.comwww.reference.com/food/salt-kill-bacteria-789bfe...
Salt usually slows or stops the growth of bacteria and sometimes kills existing bacteria. Some strains of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus, have evolved to survive in salty environments. Bacteria require a water-rich environment to survive. Salt dehydrates cells, which can prevent them from reproducing and can even kill them'.
'Though the impact of desalination plants on these biological populations has been rarely studied, some information from studies examining the impact of power stations on biological communities are available. These studies have pointed to the mechanical damage to the organisms, once they are removed from the water column into the pumping system, as the main cause of harm to the populations. The outcome is significant damage to the plankton community, especially to the fish larvae. Recently, the state of California amended their regulations governing the activities of coastal power stations leading to the replacement of the cooling systems to closed systems that require only small volumes of water. This was a result of data showing the entrainment by the intake systems of an estimated 20 billion fish larva per year'.
REMEMBER, there is a shortage of fresh water globally because: global corporations have used a massive amount in global factories-------global corporations have devastated and made toxic a tremendous number of waterways-----fracking for natural gas is killing aquifers and ground water. Global BIG AG in pretending to FEED THE WORLD created an OVER-EATING population at the expense of literally draining all of our US a global aquifers.
How can we refurbish these depleted aquifers/ground water----clean those waterways----STOP MOVING FORWARD FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. Stop building FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES filled with global corporate campuses and factories.
THIS IS THE ONLY REAL LEFT SOCIAL PROGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTION TO PEOPLE'S NEEDS FOR FRESH WATER.
This video was produced as a COMMONER CORE education piece making sure our children never think DESALINATION is VERY VERY BAD -----instead they show pictures of children needing water.
salt eating bacteria
SALT-EATING BACTERIA ARE GMO BACTERIA. DON'T WORRY SAYS GLOBAL BANKING 1% ----THEY WILL NOT GET OUT INTO THE BIOME AND CAUSE HARM.
Global banking 1% are doing desalination to make sure there is enough potable water to use in global factories---they could care less about those children in these photos.
Volume 44, Issue 18, October 2010, Pages 5117-5128
Impacts of desalination plant discharges on the marine environment: A critical review of published studies
Author links open overlay panel
Emma L.JohnstonNathan A.Knott
Desalination of seawater is an increasingly common means by which nations satisfy demand for water. Desalination has a long history in the Middle East and Mediterranean, but expanding capacities can be found in the United States, Europe and Australia. There is therefore increasing global interest in understanding the environmental impacts of desalination plants and their discharges on the marine environment. Here we review environmental, ecological and toxicological research in this arena including monitoring and assessment of water quality and ecological attributes in receiving environments. The greatest environmental and ecological impacts have occurred around older multi-stage flash (MSF) plants discharging to water bodies with little flushing. These discharge scenarios can lead to substantial increases in salinity and temperature, and the accumulation of metals, hydrocarbons and toxic anti-fouling compounds in receiving waters. Experiments in the field and laboratory clearly demonstrate the potential for acute and chronic toxicity, and small-scale alterations to community structure following exposures to environmentally realistic concentrations of desalination brines. A clear consensus across many of the reviewed articles is that discharge site selection is the primary factor that determines the extent of ecological impacts of desalination plants.
Desalination plants extract large volumes of seawater and discharge hypersaline brine back into the marine environment. The urgent need for water in many parts of the world has meant that historically, marine environmental issues associated with desalination have been considered secondary concerns (Safrai and Zask, 2008). Despite this, it is widely suggested that desalination plants have strong potential to detrimentally impact both physicochemical and ecological attributes of receiving marine environments (Winters et al., 1979, Miri and Chouikhi, 2005, Maugin and Corsin, 2005).
Hmmmmmmm, seems there is a soaring amount of ALGAL BLOOMS coincidentally in proximity of DESALINATION PLANTS----or downstream. Wonder if that FOOD CHAIN disruption is causing this unprecedented rise and UNBALANCE of coastal sea life. ALGAL BLOOMS kill among other things PHYTOPLANKTON AND BACTERIA ------if these are killed the entire food chain is KILLED.
'killing small ocean creatures like baby fish and plankton, upsetting the food chain'.
Now, these algal blooms are clogging up all those BIOFILM FILTERS of desalination plants making it more expensive to operate----DON'T WORRY says global banking 1% ---we will GMO BACTERIA to eat the algae from biofilm------ the biofilm is made of GMO BACTERIA.
Massive Algal Blooms In The Gulf Of Oman - Business Insiderwww.businessinsider.com/massive-algal-blooms-in... The Massive Algal Blooms In The Gulf Of Oman Are Stunningly Beautiful From Space. Several of the world's largest desalination plants sit along the coast of the United Arab Emirates. Every year, they deliver 115 billion gallons of potable water to more than 550,000 people in Dubai alone. But the plants have had to slow or shut down production more...
As we said-----we KNEW decades ago that desalination was A BAD IDEA------that CONSERVATION OF OUR FRESH WATER was the GOOD IDEA. Global banking 5% freemason/Greek players CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA said ------we are going to be TRANSFORMATIVE and ignore all COMMON SENSE.
So, the algal blooms with the release of hyper-brackish salt sludge is killing by the billions and billions are coastal NATURAL BACTERIA.
So, the algal blooms with the release of hyper-brackish salt sludge is killing by the billions and billions are coastal NATURAL BACTERIA.
REMEMBER, FAKE GREEN REVOLUTION back in 1990s gave us tons of fertilizers and pesticides which ended in killing all of our NATURAL SOIL BIOME----we now have DEAD SOIL which used to be FERTILE FARMLAND.
EnvironmentWhy don't we get our drinking water from the ocean by taking the salt out of seawater?Peter Gleick, president of the Pacific Institute, distills an answer:
Even with all of the water in Earth's oceans, we satisfy less than half a percent of human water needs with desalinated water.* We currently use on the order of 960 cubic miles (4,000 cubic kilometers) of freshwater a year, and overall there's enough water to go around. There is increasing regional scarcity, though.
So why don't we desalinate more to alleviate shortages and growing water conflicts?
The problem is that the desalination of water requires a lot of energy. Salt dissolves very easily in water, forming strong chemical bonds, and those bonds are difficult to break. Energy and the technology to desalinate water are both expensive, and this means that desalinating water can be pretty costly.
It's hard to put an exact dollar figure on desalination—this number varies wildly from place to place, based on labor and energy costs, land prices, financial agreements, and even the salt content of the water. It can cost from just under $1 to well over $2 to produce one cubic meter (264 gallons) of desalted water from the ocean. That's about as much as two people in the U.S. typically go through in a day at home.
But switch the source to a river or an aquifer, and the cost of a cubic meter of water can plummet to 10 to 20 cents, and farmers often pay far less.
That means it's still almost always cheaper to use local freshwater than to desalinate seawater. This price gap, however, is closing. For example, meeting growing demand by finding a new source of water or by building a new dam in a place like California could cost up to 60 cents per cubic meter of water.
And sometimes these traditional means of “harvesting” water are no longer available. As such, this cost figure is expected to continue to rise, which is why California is now seriously considering desalination and why the city of Tampa, Fla., decided to build the biggest desalination plant in the U.S.
The International Desalination Association says that as of 2007 there were about 13,000 desalination plants operating around the world. They pumped out approximately 14.7 billion gallons (55.6 billion liters) of drinkable freshwater a day. A lot of these plants are in countries like Saudi Arabia, where energy from oil is cheap but water is scarce.
REMEMBER, in TEXAS alone there is 880 TRILLION GALLONS of waste water SALT SLUDGE-----compared to 55.6 billion gallons of drinkable water.
So how is energy used to separate salt from water?
There are two basic methods for breaking the bonds in saltwater: thermal distillation and membrane separation. Thermal distillation involves heat: Boiling water turns it into vapor—leaving the salt behind—that is collected and condensed back into water by cooling it down.
The most common type of membrane separation is called reverse osmosis. Seawater is forced through a semipermeable membrane that separates salt from water. Because the technology typically requires less energy than thermal distillation, most new plants, like Tampa's, now use reverse osmosis.
There are environmental costs of desalination, as well. Sea life can get sucked into desalination plants, killing small ocean creatures like baby fish and plankton, upsetting the food chain. Also, there's the problem of what to do with the separated salt, which is left over as a very concentrated brine. Pumping this supersalty water back into the ocean can harm local aquatic life. Reducing these impacts is possible, but it adds to the cost
We discussed yesterday how GMO BACTERIA always end up released to the WILD---AKA general biome-----showing the harm of GMO-METAL/MINERAL-EATING BACTERIA----showing the harm of GMO E COLI BACTERIA---------now we are showing how GMO BACTERIA this time in desalination will do the same HARM -------both to HUMANS and to BIOMES.
Wonder if a GMO SALT - EATING BACTERIA mutated became airbourne and decided to DESICCATE all living things along with humans. Sucking the salt from bodies. Well, there is the GMO BACTERIA inside our lungs and under skin eating all of our BODIES' carbon----metals----minerals.
THIS IS NOT SCIENCE-FICTION----THESE THINGS CAN AND ARE LIKELY TO HAPPEN.
Below we the use of GMO BACTERIA as the biofilm filter of desalination plants.
Nat Rev Microbiol. 2013 Mar; 11(3): 157–168.
Published online 2013 Jan 28. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2960
PMID: 23353768Sticking together: building a biofilm the Bacillus subtilis wayHera Vlamakis,1 Yunrong Chai,2,3 Pascale Beauregard,1 Richard Losick,2 and Roberto Kolter1
Associated DataSupplementary Materials
Go to:PrefaceBiofilms are ubiquitous communities of tightly associated bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix. Bacillus subtilis has long-served as a robust model organism to examine the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation and a number of studies have revealed that this process is subject to a number of integrated regulatory pathways. In this Review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms controlling biofilm assembly and briefly summarize the current state of knowledge regarding their disassembly. We also discuss recent progress that has expanded our understanding of biofilm formation on plant roots, which are a natural habitat for this soil bacterium.
But, there is a problem. Those GMO BACTERIA making up the BIOFILM seem to keep on dying and clogging up the BIOFILM making it inefficient. Now, they need a way to clean those BIOFILM of dead GMO BACTERIA----so, the solution is yet another GMO BACTERIA, this one will eat and/or clear away clogged BIOFILM.
'Researchers at Rice University, armed with around $1 million in National Science Foundation (NSF) grants, are working on reengineering bacteria to suit particular purposes'.
Below we see the source of much of what we call FAKE SCIENCE NEWS AND DATA----RICE UNIVERSITY in Houston kind of works for the OIL INDUSTRY which is behind DESALINATION PLANTS.
News Feature | August 26, 2014
Bacteria: The Key To Desalination?
By Sara Jerome,
The federal government is funding research to investigate how bacteria could be used to improve desalination processes.
Researchers at Rice University, armed with around $1 million in National Science Foundation (NSF) grants, are working on reengineering bacteria to suit particular purposes.
The researchers "believe they can help reduce the buildup of biofilms in desalination equipment. Biofilms are thin layers of cells that stick to each other on a surface and have the ability to obstruct the flow of liquids in water purification systems," the NSF, a federal agency, reported.
"Biofilm control is crucial for bacteria-based environmental remediation and for modern desalination," an abstract of the study said.
Focusing on a species called Bacillus subtilis, the researchers want to create new, reliable behaviors in the bacteria, the NSF report said.
Ryan Cheng, one of the researchers, explained why the idea could work.
"It has been shown experimentally that wrinkle formation in the biofilms of B. subtilis result from localized cell death," Cheng said in the report. "Since cell death is regulated by two-component and related signaling systems, the potential for controlling the morphology and mechanical properties of biofilms exists."
Research in this vein could have practical implications, according to Joshua Boltz, senior technologist at CH2M HILL, an engineering company with an influential water solutions program.
"The potential applications for sanitation engineers are both numerous and profound," he said in the report. "Using membranes as a desalination tool to separate solids from liquids has emerged as a mature technology that is widely used globally."
He added, "a key concern with using membranes is their fouling, or a reduction in filtration capacity due to orifice clogging as a result of biofilms."
The federal government also funds a Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research facility, which began its work in 2009.
Desalination supporters have framed it as California's best path through the effects of the historic drought. But the inefficiency and expense of desalination has also created doubts.
"Currently California is building the largest desalination plant in the Western Hemisphere in Carlsbad. At a cost of $1 billion, the plant will produce 50 million gallons a day for San Diego County by 2016," the International Business Times recently reported. "Fourteen other desalination plants are in the works. Critics say the process is too costly."
Without coincidence the major push in these far-right wing global banking 1% FAKE GREEN technologies is
------HOMELAND SECURITY-----MIT-------GLOBAL WATER CORPORATIONS.
You mean GLOBAL 1% OLD WORLD KINGS trying to bring down US to colonial status ----killing all our ability to access natural FRESH WATER? THOSE DASTARDLY KNIGHTS OF MALTA TRIBE OF JUDAH.
As fracking goes wild---as global mining tear down our US mountains and forests -----toxic waste everywhere-----global banking says---we are just trying to help POOR PEOPLE AND CHILDREN have fresh water.
The water we drink
Nature's desalination: bacteria turn salty water freshPublished 29 November 2010
The growing global shortage of water has led to a growing interest in desalination to produce fresh water from seas and estuaries; conventional desalination plants, however, consume large amounts of energy; the solution: a bug-powered desalination cell that takes salt out of seawater
With one-third of the planet’s population lacking sufficient drinking water, governments are increasingly looking to desalination to produce fresh water from seas and estuaries. Conventional desalination plants, however, consume large amounts of energy. For instance, they use reverse osmosis, in which water is forced at enormous pressure through membranes that screen out salt. This means there is a growing interest in less energy-intensive approaches.
New Scientist reports that one approach that has recently been explored uses bacteria that generate electrical power by eating organic matter. If these bacteria feast on domestic sewage in an “anode” chamber, they generate electrons that can pass into a circuit while releasing protons. To balance the now positively charged sewage solution, negative chloride ions squeeze through a membrane from an adjacent chamber containing salty water that is to be desalinated.
Meanwhile the electrons are delivered to a third, “cathode” chamber on the opposite side of the desalination chamber. The cathode chamber is also filled with a saltwater solution. Here, the electrons react with hydrogen ions in the solution and oxygen from the air to form water. To balance the negative charge caused by the loss of positive hydrogen ions, sodium ions pass from the central saltwater chamber into the cathode chamber via another membrane. With time, the salty water in the central chamber becomes fresher.
Such a device, though, is relatively inefficient, says Bruce Logan at Pennsylvania State University in University Park: as the organic content in the waste water falls, the voltage produced by the bacteria drops and pulls fewer ions out of the saline water, leaving it with a salty tang. Flushing the anode with more sewage is one option, but Logan’s team are keen to squeeze as much use from each batch of dirty water as possible.
They have has developed a simple solution: boost the voltage from the bacteria with an external power source to make up any deficit. Furthermore, if the electrons react only with water at the cathode, they generate hydrogen gas — which contains enough energy to fuel the extra voltage requirements.
The team filled the central chamber of their cell with brackish water containing five grams of sodium chloride per liter, as might be found in an estuary, and applied a voltage of 0.55 volts to the setup. Over several hours, the salinity of the salt water dropped by 68 percent to 1.6 grams of salt per liter.
A standard microbial desalination cell stalls when the salinity reaches 40 to 60 percent — or 2 to 3 grams of salt per liter.
By varying the voltage added to the system as the reaction continues — and by using more water in the anode and cathode chambers than in the saltwater chamber — Logan says it should be possible to reduce the salinity to the 0.8 grams of salt per liter typical of drinking water.
“It is likely people would still want some sort of added treatment to ensure good quality water, and thus we expect a downstream reverse osmosis unit to still be used,” he says, but using the new cell as a “pre-treatment to greatly reduce salt concentrations” should help to substantially reduce the energy needed to obtain fresh water from the sea.