WE THE PEOPLE CAN REVERSE THIS IF WE CLEAN OUT THE LEADERS ----POLITICAL, UNION, RELIGIOUS, NON-PROFIT BY BRINGING THESE INSTITUTIONS BACK TO OUR COMMUNITIES.
I'll finish the week on holding power accountable---leaders of all our vital public institutions----shouting to my Democratic and Republican friends to MOVE AWAY FROM FREE MARKET GLOBAL MARKET POLICIES THAT ARE CLINTON/OBAMA NEO-LIBERALISM AND BUSH NEO-CONSERVATISM.
Raise your hand if you know that almost all our elected officials could care less about religion and only use religion to steer voters to economic policies bad for them.
Before talking of the free market and FED economic policy of massive personal, corporate, and government DEBT----I want to shout to my friends about religious institutions just as I did labor unions and that TRADE GUILDS are their opposite.
I went into detail not long ago as to how the rich use religion when they grab control of government. This is what moving all public sector to church charity is about. I described the Catholic Church becoming more conservative and austere under Opus Dei and how American Republican politicians are moving more to the Catholic Church with this Opus Dei far-right conservatism. I speak of the fact that a person of God would not partner with people they know are acting criminally and corruptly and certainly would not take money in form of donation or grant from these people.
IT BREAKS MOST CHRISTIAN COMMANDMENTS.
If you don't think a church partnering with a corrupt city hall or Federal government for grants or funds----if you do not think a church that accepts donations from Wall Street banks and people known to have enriched themselves on fraud---if a church enters into a stock exchange global market-----or promotes Wall Street openly---IS A RELIGIOUS NORM----THEN YOU DO NOT KNOW YOUR CHRISTIAN HISTORY. It may always exit at the top of these global religions----but look locally at how our churches are now being tied to all this.
YOU ARE NOT BEING ANTI-RELIGION IF YOU ARE ANTI-THIS-KIND-OF-RELIGION
Jesus Cleanses the Temple
And Jesus entered the temple and drove out all those who were buying and selling in the temple, and overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those who were selling doves. 13And He said to them, "It is written, 'MY HOUSE SHALL BE CALLED A HOUSE OF PRAYER'; but you are making it a ROBBERS' DEN."…
The Catholic Church has a long history of their membership getting mad at the leadership over this connection to the rich. When I compare MOVING FORWARD neo-liberalism with taking us back to the DARK AGES----which it is----this is a very Catholic Europe---before Reformation created Protestant religions---Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians et al. So, when my favorite author DANTE wrote the INFERNO----he placed Catholic popes tied to corruption of the faith to its own level of Hell.
You see, the Catholic Church has a history of falling in and out of legitimacy all tied with the fact that its highest leaders are usually connected to the families of great wealth. Dante was a very religious man who hated the corruption of his Catholic Church. Fast forward to today-----
AND WE HAVE THIS SAME GREAT CORRUPTION OF OUR CHURCHES---INCLUDING THE CATHOLIC CHURCH.
No matter how national media wants us to believe in a populist people's pope in POPE Francis---he hails from a raging neo-liberal, wealth inequity, militarized government in Argentina----TRENDING TOWARDS OPUS DEI.
WE ALL KNOW THAT A RELIGIOUS LEADER WOULD NOT TIE TO INSTITUTIONS OR PEOPLE THEY KNOW ARE CRIMINAL AND CORRUPT.
Circle 8, subcircles 1-6, cantos 18-23
Fraud: Pimping and Seducing (18), Flattery (18), Simony (19), Sorcery (20), Political Corruption (21-2), Hypocrisy (23)
The offenses of circles 8 and 9--the lowest two circles of hell--all fall under the rubric of fraud, a form of malice--as Virgil explains in Inferno 11.22-7--unique to human beings and therefore more displeasing to God than sins of concupiscence and violence. While all versions of fraud involve the malicious use of reason, circles 8 and 9 are distinguished from one another according to the offender's relationship to his or her victim: those who victimize someone with whom they share a special bond of trust (relatives, political / civic comrades, guests, benefactors) are punished in the lowest circle; if there exists no bond besides the "natural" one common to all humanity, the guilty soul suffers in one of the ten concentric ditches that constitute circle 8.
Physically connected by bridges, the ditches of circle 8 contain fraudulent shades whose particular vices and actions similarly serve to interconnect the cantos and their themes in this part of the poem. Thus the pimps and seducers, whipped by horned demons in the first ditch, relate to the flatterers--disgustingly dipped in the excrement of the second ditch--through the sexualized figure of Thais, a prostitute from the classical tradition who falsely praises her "lover" (Inf. 18.127-35). These first two ditches are presented in a single canto (18). Images of degraded sexuality are even more prominent in the next canto (19). Here Dante presents simony--the abuse of power within the church--as a form of spiritual prostitution, fornication, and rape (Inf. 19.1-4; 55-7; 106-11), a perversion of the holy matrimony conventionally posited between Christ (groom) and the church (bride). Simon Magus, the man for whom simony is named (Inf. 19.1), was himself a magician or sorcerer, the profession of those punished in the fourth ditch (canto 20). Simony and Sorcery are further linked through biographical declarations--by Dante and Virgil, respectively--aimed at separating truth from falsehood: Dante sets the record straight when he announces that he shattered a marble baptismal basin to prevent someone from drowning in it (Inf. 19.19-21); and Virgil is equally emphatic that his native city, Mantua, was named after the prophetess Manto with no recourse to such dubious rituals as casting lots or interpreting signs (Inf. 20.91-3; 97-9). Political corruption (fifth ditch), the crime for which Dante himself was falsely charged when he was forced into exile, links back to similar abuses within the church (simony) and points ahead to the sin of hypocrisy. The longest single episode of the Inferno, launched when Virgil confidently believes the promise of the devils guarding the fifth ditch, concludes when the travelers make a narrow escape into the sixth ditch and Virgil learns from a hypocrite that he has been duped (Inf. 23.133-48). Dante adorns the hypocrites in religious garb--hooded cloaks similar to the elegant ones worn by the Benedictine monks at Cluny (in France)--in accordance with the biblical condemnation of false piety: just as Jesus compares hypocritical scribes and Pharisees to tombs that appear clean and beautiful on the outside while containing bones of the dead (Matthew 23:27), so the bright golden cloaks of Dante's hypocrites conceal heavy lead on the inside (Inf. 23.64-6).
AS AMERICAN POLITICS MOVED TO FAR-RIGHT LIBERTARIAN---NEO-LIBERAL/NEO-CON----SO TOO DOES THEIR RELIGION.
'Today, though, it’s quite possible the party’s leading voices of the future will be distinctly Catholic'.
Again, we are hearing of a US Supreme Court growing more Catholic and Jewish----away from the Protestant religions that came from the revolutions in Europe and America in the 1600-1700s. It was Protestant religions which took religion from an indirect feeling of GOD---through the priest and made the individual with the connection to GOD. This broke the hold on Europe by the Catholic Church and opened all of the WE THE PEOPLE POLICIES---FROM EDUCATION TO POLITICS TO WORKPLACE.
This is what breaks down what we think of as a Republican Party. Republicans are the party of revolutionary America----they are the ones devoted to the break from Europe and a free America with a separate Constitution and free from a global East India Corporation with all its taxation.
THE UNITED STATES IS A REPUBLIC----BECAUSE OF THE REPUBLICAN AND DEMOCRATIC PARTIES.
Catholic voters tied to Democratic Party have always trended towards social democracy----as that is what a church serves ---justice for people. Since the Catholic Churches problems with the child sexual abuse and Archbishops laundering Wall Street fraud to the VATICAN to Pope Benedict during the 2008 economic crash--the social justice Catholics left the church en masse----leaving a very conservative base----behind. People may not take this dynamic seriously enough as it plays strongly as to Bush and Obama moving our public sector to church charity.
NO ONE IS MORE WEALTH AND CORPORATE POWER AND PROFIT THAN REPUBLICANS AND NEO-LIBERALISM IS VERY RIGHT OF CENTER ECONOMIC POLICY.
The Republican Party’s Catholic cadre. . .coming soon
By Aaron Blake April 26, 2012 Follow @aaronblakewp Forget Mormonism; the real story in the Republican Party right now is the rise of the Catholics.
New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie (R) addresses a crowd at a town hall meeting in Manchester, N.J. Christie, like most other potential GOP vice presidential nominees, is Catholic, but the party has only had a Catholic on the ticket once before. (AP Photo/Mel Evans) First, a pair of Catholics in Newt Gingrich and Rick Santorum gave Mitt Romney a run for his money in the nominating contest, and now, four of the five politicians seen as most likely to join Romney on the ticket are Catholic as well.
Sen. Marco Rubio (Fla.), New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie, Virginia Gov. Bob McDonnell and Rep. Paul Ryan (Wis.) — four of the five most likely GOP VP choices, according to InTrade — are all Catholic, not to mention other people thought to be contenders, like Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal, former Florida governor Jeb Bush, Sen. Pat Toomey (Pa.), New Mexico Gov. Susana Martinez, Nevada Gov. Brian Sandoval and Sen. Kelly Ayotte (N.H.).
In other words, most of the top contenders are Catholic.
It means that there’s a distinct chance that the 2012 Republican presidential ticket will not have a Protestant on it after decades of Protestants having a stranglehold on the party’s presidential nomination.
But the 2012 veepstakes aside, the rising crop of Catholic politicians in the Republican Party signals a couple other shifts.
Most of these politicians will be considered top potential presidential candidates down the line, meaning it’s quite possible the Republican Party will nominate its first-ever Catholic for president in the relatively near future.
The Catholic GOP candidate, until recently, was a rare thing. And Rudy Giuliani, Sam Brownback and Tommy Thompson didn’t exactly take a big step forward in the 2008 GOP presidential race.
Also, it signals an evolution for the party beyond the days of “Values Voters,” when social conservatives and evangelicals seemed to dominate the debate within the party and set the agenda.
Catholics (aside from Santorum) are known for being more moderate and may have had a harder time fitting into that Republican Party.
Today, though, it’s quite possible the party’s leading voices of the future will be distinctly Catholic.
Below you see Protestant church members asking these questions.....and it appears clear that a church should to spending what it collects and not seeing itself as needing endowments that are large enough to hit the stock market. This is where the breakdown of our religious institutions are leading----when it comes about advancing the church over the needs of its members. We see this in all Protestant churches but we are seeing it more in the black churches and this has happened because of the massive unemployment and lose of wealth for people of color since Clinton neo-liberalism.
I heard of a Baptist church in Texas that based itself purely on the stock market-----using it to become a mega-church and then media figures----and that right there shows the corruption of church.
What Does the Bible Say About..Churches Investing?
I know the Bible speaks out against financial institutions charging high interest rates on money loaned, but is it wrong for a church to put money in a bank/financial institution and gain interest off of it. Also, is it wrong for a church to invest in CD's or the stock market?
The Law of Moses did forbid the Jews to take interest on a loan from another Jew. The Bible says nothing of how, or if, a church should invest its treasury. There are some who argue that the money given to the church is for the purpose of doing God’s work with it, and it would be wrong for the church to save it for the future. Others say that churches should put aside some for unexpected events, so why not draw interest off of it. Sometimes a church may be putting some aside for a specific work (building a new meeting place, a particular upcoming gift to a specific cause) and the safest place to keep the money is a bank, which pays interest.
“And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that, when ye fail, they may receive you into everlasting habitations. He that is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much: and he that is unjust in the least is unjust also in much. If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches? And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another man’s, who shall give you that which is your own?” (Luke 16:9-12)Is it wrong to invest in CDs or the stock market? I think that a church must consider the risks. This is money given back to God for his use. If a church enters a risky venture that would result in a loss of their treasury, or that would cause them to be ridiculed by those who would oppose God, then it would probably be wrong. If it is a long term venture with a penalty for taking it out early it may be something that would prevent the church from using the money when a need arose, and that could be wrong. But if it is being set aside for a specific reason that will not require the funds until a future date, there might be cases when it would be wise to invest in a CD.
You Asked: Should a Church Invest?
June 27, 2011
Today we’re excited to invite you to participate in a new feature called “You Asked.” Send us your theological, biblical, and practical ministry questions, and we’ll select some to pass along to The Gospel Coalition’s Council members and other friends for an answer we can share in this space. Please limit your questions to one paragraph. Questions whose answers will serve others in similar situations are more likely to be chosen for a response. So when you think of a question, send it to email@example.com along with your full name, city, and state.
In this first installment, a reader in Texas writes:
I would like something that gives biblical direction as to how much money a church should keep and how it should be invested. I am on the finance committee of my church. They saved up a considerable sum of money and recently invested in long term debt instruments and stocks in hopes of gaining a greater return. I think this money was given for ministry, and my mother suggested, “If they have that much money and can play the stock market, then I will give my tithe to someone else with a greater need.” Any good ideas on how we should proceed? Thanks for your help.
We posed today’s question to several experts active in the local church with experience working in the finance industry and writing about business.
Wayne Grudem, research professor of theology and biblical studies at Phoenix Seminary; author of numerous books, including Business for the Glory of God: The Bible’s Teaching on the Moral Goodness of Business and Politics According to the Bible: A Comprehensive Resource for Understanding Modern Political Issues in Light of Scripture, answers:
- A large endowment fund can be dangerous for a church, because it loses regular accountability to God’s people. When a church has a large endowment, it can stray into liberal unbelief and still keep going for decades even though the majority of God’s people would no longer give to it. This is how many large liberal churches stay physically alive even though they are spiritually dead, and the few remaining members shuffle past rows of empty pews. But churches that depend on yearly contributions from their members retain a greater sense of accountability to God’s people.
- When a church “invests” excess money in the (uncertain) hope of getting a large financial return later, no direct kingdom ministry is being done by that money for year after year. Many opportunities to spread the gospel and build up the church (and also collect more funds for ministry from the resulting new members) are simply missed. I cannot see that that is wise.
- On the other hand, I do think it’s good for churches to save some money to protect against sudden unforeseen expenses, a “rainy day fund,” just as it is wise for families to do so. But not more than a few months’ worth of expenses.
- There is also an important difference between a church and a family. When families save for retirement, they do so because they know that there will come a time when they are old and weak and unable to earn much. So they are rightly preparing for such a time in order that they still “may walk properly before outsiders and be dependent on no one” (1 Thess. 4:11). But churches have no need to prepare for such a future time or build a “retirement fund.” If they are no longer receiving contributions, they should close their doors and quit.
Again, the Jewish faith dictates that the synagogue is for prayer only----they may have missed Jesus shouting to get the money-lenders out of the temple----as they are not New Testament-----but the Hebrew faith does not condone the corruption that fills banking, law, labor today. These are areas with many Jewish workers who no doubt are just as frustrated with Wall Street, a US Justice Department that no longer enforces Rule of Law, and labor union leaders tied to the worst of corporate corruption. Yet, we know Wall Street CEOs are mostly Jewish-----we know that many of the lawyers undermining Rule of Law are Jewish----and many of the labor leaders tied to Clinton neo-liberalism are Jewish.
IT IS NOT ANTI-CATHOLIC OR ANTI-SEMETIC TO STATE THE FACTS. WE ARE NOT GOING TO BE MADE TO FEEL POLITICALLY INCORRECT FOR STATING THE FACTS.
So, just as with members of the Catholic faith----the Protestant faith----and now the Jewish faith-----MOST PEOPLE OF THESE RELIGIONS ARE GOOD PEOPLE MADE TO FEEL UNEASY ABOUT PEOPLE USING RELIGION FOR BAD RESULTS.
I am not afraid to say to Pope Francis-----IF YOU FEEL BADLY FOR THE POOR VICTIMS OF SYSTEMIC WALL STREET FRAUD---THEN RETURN THE LOOT LAUNDERED THROUGH THE VATICAN BANK. I can bet of tens of trillions of dollars in Wall Street/Euro Bank fraud-----that the Vatican bank has a trillion of this to hand back to the people.
As well, when I see tons of Jewish Foundations opening buildings in Baltimore and around the nation all ready to be charitable -----
I AM NOT AFRAID TO TELL THAT JEWISH FOUNDATION HAVING I KNOW RECEIVED MUCH REVENUE FROM THE WALL STREET RICH FROM FRAUD CROWD AND I SAY-----GIVE BACK THE TRILLIONS IN FOUNDATION FUNDS TO THE COMMUNITIES TO DO AS THEY WISH SINCE IT IS THE PEOPLE'S MONEY.
It is not anti-semitism to say this to Jewish Foundations----it is not anti-Catholic to say this to Catholic Charities and Foundations.
Moving Forward in the US should mean that our churches are the ones outing the corruption------fighting hard against corrupt politicians------and making them weak by not giving their money legitimacy!
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Scolanova Synagogue, Trani, Italy
Great Synagogue of Florence
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (from Greek συναγωγή, transliterated synagogē, meaning "assembly"; Hebrew: בית כנסת beth knesset, meaning "house of assembly"; בית תפילה beth t'fila, meaning "house of prayer"; שול shul; אסנוגה esnoga; קהל kahal), is a Jewish house of prayer.
Synagogues have a large hall for prayer (the main sanctuary), and may also have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and offices. Some have a separate room for Torah study, called the beth midrash (Sefaradi) "beis midrash (Ashkenazi)--בית מדרש ("House of Study").
Synagogues are consecrated spaces that can be used only for the purpose of prayer; however a synagogue is not necessary for worship. Communal Jewish worship can be carried out wherever ten Jews (a minyan) assemble. Worship can also be carried out alone or with fewer than ten people assembled together. However there are certain prayers that are communal prayers and therefore can be recited only by a minyan. The synagogue does not replace the long-since destroyed Temple in Jerusalem.
Top Jewish Foundations and Their Philanthropic Giving
Jewish Foundations Giving 20% to Jewish Causes
Last week I wrote a post on Jewish Foundations Giving Only 20% to Jewish Causes.” A number of people were nice enough to comment and e-mail to let me know that when the report talked about Jewish organizations it referred to organizations founded by a Jew, and not necessarily those run as a Jewish community organizations.
Report on Jewish Foundational Giving
I’ve now read the report in the original, “A Study of Jewish Foundations” (of the Institute for Jewish and Community Research) and see that authors Gary Tobin and Aryeh Weinberg clearly define their terms. (My source did not.)
You can see the list of foundations below, sourced from pages 12 and 13 of the report.
Bringing You Primary Sources
As my blog develops, I am getting a better sense of my resources and will make every effort to share primary sources with you so that you can access them firsthand.
Presenting: The List
In no way is my presentation of this list intended to pass judgment on any of these foundations. Rather, consider this a user friendly guide to major foundations doing important work in the Jewish community and promoting Jewish values in the world.
Keep in mind that a small percentage of total funds given by a large foundation could still amount to a great deal of actual support. For example, the Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Foundation donates 52% of their annual funds to Jewish causes, but with a budget of $2 billion, this equals $52 million.
Here are the top Jewish foundations organized by the percent their organization gives to Jewish causes.
- Ronald S. Lauder Foundation, aiding vulnerable Jewish communities in Central and Eastern Europe
- Avi Chai Foundation, perpetuating Judaism and the Jewish people, supporting the State of Israel
- Andrea and Charles Bronfman Philanthropies, Inc., encouraging young people’s appreciation of their Jewish history, heritage, and culture, and improving the quality of life in Israel
- Charles E. Smith Family Foundation (unknown), read more about the Charles E. Smith Life Communities for older people
- Charles and Lynn Schusterman Foundation, spreading the joy of Jewish living and learning
- Ted Arison Family Foundation USA, Inc. (unknown), read more about Ted Arison (z”l)
- Mandel Supporting Foundation, providing outstanding leadership to the nonprofit world
- Russel Berrie Foundation, supporting the Jewish people, religious pluralism, medical research, and elevating the profession of sales
- Jacob and Hilda Blaustein Foundation, Inc, promoting social justice and human rights
- Steinhardt Philanthropies, revitalizing Jewish education, religion, and culture, especially for marginalized Jews
- Henry and Marilyn Taub Foundation (unknown), read more about one of the Taub Foundation’s gifts to university medical research
- Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Foundation, Inc, assisting the poor
- Leslie H. Wexner Charitable Fund, strengthening Jewish leadership in North America and Israel
- Koret Foundation, improving life and society in the San Francisco Bay
- Skirball Foundation (unknown), read more about Audrey Kenis-Skirball (z”l)
- Arie and Ida Crown Memorial, bolstering Jewish families and communities, strengthening the disadvantaged communities of Chicago
- Helen Bader Foundation, Inc., improving the quality of life in diverse communities through a broad range of programming
- Marcus Foundation, Inc. (unknown), providing funding for children, especially those with developmental disabilities, medical research, and Jewish community causes (read more about Bernie Marcus)
- Richard and Rhoda Goldman Philanthropies, spearheading environmental protection and musical and Jewish causes
- Tisch Foundation, Inc. (unknown), supporting the arts, the beautification of New York, and helping those with substance abuse problems
- Walter and Elise Haas Fund, building a healthy and vibrant society with social responsibility
- Sidney Kimmel Foundation, supporting cancer research, the performing arts, and the Jewish community
- David Geffen Foundation (unknown), supporting medical research, especially AIDS, and the performing arts (read more about David Geffen)
- Milken Family Foundation, advancing medical research and educational leadership
- Nathan Cummings Foundation, strengthening democracy and social justice in the Jewish tradition
- Abramson Family Foundation, forwarding consciousness based education and world peace
- Michael Redstone Charitable Trust (unknown)
- Charles H. Revson Foundation, supporting funding for urban affairs, education, biomedical research, and Jewish education and philanthropy
- Bernard Osher Philanthropies, providing university scholarships, funding for medical research, and opportunities for lifelong learning
- Leonard and Evelyn Lauder Foundation (unknown), read about Evelyn Lauder’s pioneering efforts to support breast cancer research and awareness (including developing the pink ribbon campaign)
- Carl and Ruth Shapiro Family Foundation, advancing arts, culture, health, and Jewish causes in Boston and Palm Beach
- Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation (unknown), providing support for environmental research and helping to combat addiction and substance abuse
- Milton and Tamar Maltz Family Foundation, helping support the arts, education, health and human services, the environment, and Jewish federated giving
- Arthur M. Blank Family Foundation, promoting positive change for families in low income communities
- Jeffrey M. and Barbara Picower Foundation (unknown), giving to universities
- David Lerner Foundation, driving human potential, working with nonprofits to promote dialogue, creativity, and sustainable solutions to personal evolution and human advancement
- Rady Family Foundation (unknown), supporting business and university management, hospitals, universities, and children’s welfare (read more about the Rady Family Foundation)
- Michael and Susan Dell Foundation, addressing the issues of children living in urban poverty
- Sandler Family Supporting Foundation (unknown), advancing international human rights
- Evelyn and Walter Haas, Jr. Foundation, seeking mutual respect among diverse communities for all people for the betterment of society
- Pritzker Foundation (unknown), giving to children’s health and welfare and universities (read more about Penny Pritzker)
- Soros Fund Charitable Foundation, promoting democratic governance, human rights, and economic, legal, and social reform
- Weingart Foundation, addressing the needs of the under-served through social, educational, and community programming
This is what the DARK AGES looked like-----the 99% of people taken for every asset they were able to secure----right down to having their crops taken by the rich in taxes and just because leaving people to starve. The operated with impunity and were sociopaths----DOES THIS SOUND FAMILIAR?
We can reverse this folks if we do not keep allowing these global pols to install more and more of their International Economic Zone and Trans Pacific Trade Pact policies and continue to dismantle all of our Federal state, and local government structures ----THE WE THE PEOPLE STRUCTURES THAT ARE THE PUBLIC SECTOR.
'The preachers, who represent some of the largest African American churches in the country, have written an open letter to the president that praises the job Obama has done and encourages him to "stay the course."'
Now, having corruption in a Catholic Church leadership or a Jewish leadership needs to be reversed----but what is far worse in this race to religious leader corruption is the black church leaders. There is great wealth in the Catholic and Jewish religions with congregations of citizens largely with financial assets and stability. So, these institutions can go corrupt and still allow members to move on with life.
The black church leaders are far more culpable to this Wall Street global market fraud and injustice as they are moving a vital institution in the black community to one of pay-to-play politics with leaders in the larger mega-churches using the pulpit to keep what everyone knows are the most corrupt of politicians in office----whether white or black. As with the other religions----the members of black churches and many church leaders are not involved with and hate this corruption---but these larger mega-church leaders are the ones getting VITAL SOCIAL SERVICE FUNDING FOR BASIC SURVIVAL------AND PLAYING GAMES WITH IT.
These are people who see being a church leader as having a job and self-promotion and cities in the US are filled with this because Clinton and Obama neo-liberals must maintain control of politics in these cities with these players as black citizens face the worst of abuse and injustice in the beginning of the MARCH TO THE DARK AGES.
Rank and file black citizens know by now---and many long ago that Obama and his policies were bad for everyone---but mostly people of color and women.
Who is hurt most by massive corporate fraud and government corruption of Federal, state, and local revenue and people's pockets? Our crumbling city communities from where much of this money is taken.
Obama to Meet with Black Church Leaders
By Washington Post, Washington Post - April 6, 2010
President Obama will sit down Tuesday with about 20 black religious leaders, including representatives of the major African American denominations, in the second White House meeting in three months to discuss the needs of the black community.
The president has faced growing questions about whether he has done enough to help African Americans deal with the nation's economic downturn. Blacks have been hurt more than other communities by the lack of jobs and the difficulty in obtaining bank financing, among other issues, and some -- including political commentator Tavis Smiley and some members of the Congressional Black Caucus -- say that Obama has not responded urgently.
As the criticism intensified last month, the White House paid little public attention to the critics while aides privately pushed back, citing examples of the president's agenda, such as health care and education, that specifically benefit African Americans.
Tuesday's meeting appeared to be a clear sign that Obama has heard the complaints, especially because it precedes a gathering with a larger group of ministers in the East Room for an Easter prayer breakfast. But a White House spokesman rejected the conclusion.
"This meeting is not about politics," spokesman Corey Ealons said. "It is about connecting with key faith leaders on the challenges impacting our nation. President Obama appreciates the acute challenges facing African Americans across the country and respects the work these pastors are doing to support the communities they serve."
The preachers, who represent some of the largest African American churches in the country, have written an open letter to the president that praises the job Obama has done and encourages him to "stay the course."
"President Obama has pursued policies that are crucial for our communities and the nation as a whole, and we cannot afford to lose courage and fortitude at this juncture," reads the letter, which more than 30 ministers signed. "President Obama has fought for us -- and we must fight for him. . . . We have been troubled by the trivial debates that have become more prominent in Washington and across the country, while at the same time our families are facing historic challenges."
The public show of support and its welcome by the White House is a shift from Obama's seeming detachment from the question of whether he should have a "black agenda." In the past, he has responded by saying that "a rising tide lifts all boats" and that his job "is to be president of the whole country." This time, he is letting the ministers sing his praises.
"He is the president of the United States, not just the president of black people, the president of Latino people," said Bishop Vashti Murphy McKenzie, a leader of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. "We expect him to put together policies and an agenda that will impact all of America and not just one special interest."
The letter, to be presented to Obama by the Rev. T. DeWitt Smith Jr., president of the 2.5 million-member Progressive National Baptist Convention, outlines Obama's accomplishments on behalf of "the least of these," citing changes in education policy, health care and financial regulation.
"We are in the mix here," McKenzie said. "If you are talking about health care, you are talking about African Americans. If you talk about unemployment, African Americans are losing jobs disproportionately."
Joshua DuBois, director of the White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships, said that the president "is honored to have deep support in the African American church."
Nothing is more disturbing than having this deluge of black ministers from mega-churches march into action after decades of injustice and after a rising level of this injustice in the last several years as militarized policing goes third world. In Baltimore, we are forced to watch as media parades all kinds of national black leaders-----and these church leaders all saying---- DO NOT PROTEST OR RIOT. Everyone understand citizens in Baltimore did everything else they could to address these issues and where ignored and treated as criminals being thrown into jail and/or out of public meetings. For several years of the worst of this injustice -----REAL justice activists in the city SHOUTED ----WHERE ARE THE BLACK LEADERS IN BALTIMORE? WHERE ARE THE BLACK CHURCH MINISTERS IN FIGHTING THIS RISING POLICE BRUTALITY AND KILLING. The answer is of course-----these leaders are working with Wall Street Baltimore Development in using all this injustice to move black citizens out of the city. It seems the 15 black ministers in Baltimore who always support the most corrupt and Wall Street connected pols every election feel it is the best interest of black citizens to be denied their Constitutional rights and human rights all in the cause of gentrification of Baltimore----THE MASTER PLAN.
These are the religious leaders appointed by the rich ----same as Catholic or Jewish----only they represent the people already having the least and taking the one institution that should be working for black citizens and making them feel safe----was deliberate actions by the Clinton/Obama neo-liberal crowd. That is what shows people how determined these global pols are to MOVING BACKWARD----
Today----Baltimore media is going wild reporting of all the corporate non-profits coming in to help these communities----all the worthless startup jobs-----the temporary job as non-profit worker=====
When religious institutions are controlled by the rich-----they move towards making people reconcile to poverty and injustice.
Baltimore riots: A few people tried to stop the unrest
By Ben Brumfield, CNN
Updated 12:03 PM ET, Tue April 28, 2015 | Video Source: CNN
(CNN)Please, not even a demonstration. Freddie Gray's family had asked for quiet on Baltimore's streets the day they laid him to rest. And above all, no violence.
Many people turned a deaf ear to that Monday, but a handful of people embraced the family's message. They tried to stop young people from flinging rocks at police, breaking windows, looting and setting fires.
The peacemakers -- clergy, Gray's family and brave residents -- placed themselves in the rioters' way.
"I want them all to go back home," said the Rev. Jamal Bryant.
"It's disrespect to the family. The family was very clear -- we've been saying it all along -- today there was absolutely no protest, no demonstration," he said.
Baltimore pastor: Young people out of control 03:00The would-be peacemakers, though, were outnumbered by rowdy groups that burned and looted. The rioters overshadowed the message of peaceful protesters on prior days: They had called for justice for Gray, a 25-year-old African-American man who died from spinal injuries after police arrested him this month.
The early fits of violence came in the afternoon, about the time mourners left Gray's memorial services blocks away, Bryant said. They bumped right into it.
"For us to come out of the burial and walk into this is absolutely inexcusable," he said. He did not want to see it spread to downtown Baltimore, where some rioters said it would, and he organized people to stand in the way.
"We have a line of gentlemen from the Nation of Islam to build a human wall, as well as men from the Christian church making that human wall," he said.
As officers in riot gear receded, flames engulfed cars and stores and roared out of apartment buildings into the night sky. A senior living facility under construction by a Baptist church burned to the ground. The blazes stretched the fire departments' resources, as at least 30 trucks deployed.
Pastor of destroyed senior center: 'I see revival' 02:38Looters streamed into a CVS, bodegas and liquor stores and walked out with what they could carry.
A young man in a blue sweatshirt tried to talk people down by himself.
He walked up to CNN correspondent Miguel Marquez, as a store nearby was being looted. It later went up in flames. The man, who didn't say his name, was disgusted by what was happening in his neighborhood and disappointed in the police response to rioting.
There was a line of police down the street, not far away. "They could have moved down here to stop it," he told Marquez.
The Gray family's lawyers, again, put the family's wish out to the public that there be no protests that day, let alone violence.
The riot mars the cause and takes the focus off a hope for change that may come out of the investigation into Freddie Gray's death, said family attorney Mary Koch. "That's just disintegrated into just looking at Baltimore city and thinking that the city is the city of violence," she said.
Against all odds, a handful of individuals kept trying to stop it.
A tall, adult man walked up to a young man who was confronting riot police. He slung an arm over his shoulder, turned him back around in the other direction and marched him away from police lines.
But as they strolled past a crowd, a young man behind them hurled a stone at police, putting his whole body into the throw.
Angry mom smacks protesting son 01:00At least one young man paid the price for his participation, when his mother turned up to spank him home. Before rolling cameras, she slapped him in the head again and again, driving him away from the crowd, as she cursed.
Police Commissioner Anthony Batts later thanked her. "I wish I had more parents that took charge of their kids out there tonight," he said.
After night fell, giving way to a 10 p.m. curfew for juveniles, Robert Valentine stood alone with his back to a line of police in riot gear. He shooed away young people tempted to approach them.
"Go! Step your --ss away!"
"I'm just a soldier," said Valentine. He told CNN's Joe Johns that he was a Vietnam vet.
Veteran stands up against rioters 01:17Young people had no business on the streets, he said. "They need to be in their home units studying and doing something with their lives."
Even Baltimore members of the Crips and Bloods, two street gangs renowned for drug dealing and extensive violent crime -- and for killing each other -- came together with others who condemned the rage that swept through their neighborhoods.
"The guys who pulled me aside are self-identifying as Crips and say they don't approve of whats happening. 'This is our community,' " Baltimore Sun reporter Justin Fenton wrote on his confirmed Twitter account.
Gang members joined community leaders and Gray's family for a news conference Monday night on the stage at New Shiloh Baptist Church, which had held Gray's funeral. An announcer thanked them for coming to the church.
The gangs have signed a peace deal and are uniting to push against police lines in protests, according to a report by The Daily Beast. Bryant, the reverend, also mentioned their peace treaty.
Police however, say the gangs' purpose goes much further. Investigators warned Monday that gangs planned to work together to "take out" law enforcement officers, police said.
At the end of the day, Gray's family had the last word on the violence: It wasn't good.
"To see that it turned into all this violence and destruction, I am appalled," said Richard Shipley, Gray's stepfather.
"I want y'all to get justice for my son, but don't do it like this here," said Gray's mother, Gloria Darden, who wore a T-shirt with her son's photo.
"I don't think that's for Freddie," said his twin sister, Fredericka Gray. "I think the violence is wrong."
After their comments, Gray family lawyer William H. Murphy took the microphone. Violence is not the path to change, he said. Then he got back to the message that had been bitterly marred by the rioting.
Murphy asked for church audience members to raise their hands if they had experienced police brutality or personally knew someone who did.
All but a few hands went up.
This video does a great job giving perspective to the history of Freemansonry and it's status today. People will immediately recognize the famous musicians and athletes always brought out to calm civil unrest-----Al Sharpton actually came on the Wendy Williams program and openly stated when Obama's policies were killing the black community and leaders were criticizing Obama-----WE MADE YOU AND WE DETERMINE WHO HAS A JOB. This is freemasonry and it was no different back in the DARK AGES. A few TRADE GUILD folks have a comfortable life---will do anything for the rich including not allowing riots to harm economic profits in a city like Baltimore.
Again, the industries with TRADE GUILDs today are the entertainment/media ------the lawyers----the real estate/developers-----but not all people in those industries are in these secret society TRADE GUILDS but this is the source of the organized looting of America, the fraud and corruption in business and government all with the goal of moving back to a wealth inequity as seen in the DARK AGES. As an academic on public policy---I do not want to get into satonic symbolism or all of the secret culture----I simply want people to see where national policy is driven with Clinton neo-liberalism and Bush neo-conservatism. It is based in the Harvard as neo-liberal/Yale as neo-con axis and expands from Ivy League universities----Ivy League meaning Wall Street, not sports. So, Johns Hopkins for one----owned and operated by NYC Mayor Bloomberg has Baltimore very Freemasonry ----corrupt and criminal.
It is easy to extend those persons part of this GUILD mentality----being religious because churches have religious guilds.
The Secrets Of Freemasonry Exposed
Published on Dec 14, 2014 YOU TUBE
The Secrets Of Freemasonry Exposed
Bringing this back to the DARK AGES and neo-liberalism being all about creating great wealth and corporate power-----the policies breaking down our Constitutional WE THE PEOPLE government and Magna Carte making everyone accountable to law...................................
As you see below-----TRADE GUILDS were very connected to the Catholic Church----the church itself had its own guilds. This is what tied our three societal sectors together-----the rich merchants appointed one of their family members to head the Catholic Church and that church controlled all of the town's public affairs not connected to the government of the rich. The Trade Guilds were the working class ties to both the rich patron and the church. Remember, the guilds had only a few people living a comfortable life overseeing most deeply impoverished and very few people were able to get into these guilds----the masses were the peasants living lives of desperation.
PLEASE THINK ABOUT HOW NEO-CONS AND NEO-LIBERALS TODAY ARE WORKING AS HARD AS THEY CAN FOR CORPORATE EMPIRE AND WEALTH----THINK ABOUT THE CURRENT LOSS OF RULE OF LAW AND MOVEMENT OF WEALTH TO THE TOP----AND THEN THINK WHO THE PLAYERS IN ALL THIS ARE IN A WELL-ORCHESTRATED LOOTING OF THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT TREASURIES AND PEOPLE'S WEALTH TO SEE A TAG TEAM THAT LOOKS MUCH AS IT DID IN THE DARK AGES.
Think as well how our US military and troops are now mostly privatized to global military contracting corporations---working for those global corporations and not the US or WE THE PEOPLE. Congress passed laws----albeit unconstitutional -----allowing a military presence in our communities that feels it can ignore US laws-----all of this is DARK AGES.
The laws of that time were GUILD laws and church law-----GUILD Law being corporate law.
This article is long but please glance through thinking how today's political, religious, and labor structures are moving towards early Europe. GUILD LAW!
Help support New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99...
Guilds were voluntary associations for religious, social, and commercial purposes. These associations, which attained their highest development among the Teutonic nations, especially the English, during the Middle Ages, were of four kinds:
- religious guilds,
- frith guilds,
- merchant guilds, and
- craft guilds.
The earliest traces of guilds in England are found in the laws of Ina in the seventh century. These guilds were formed for religious and social purposes and were voluntary in character. Subsequent enactments down to the time of Athelstan (925-940) show that they soon developed into frith guilds or peace guilds, associations with a corporate responsibility for the good conduct of their members and their mutual liability. Very frequently, as in the case of London in early times, the guild law came to be the law of the town. The main objects of these guilds was the preservation of peace, right, and liberty. Religious observances also formed an important part of guild-life, and the members assisted one another both in spiritual and temporal necessities. The oldest extant charter of a guild dates from the reign of Canute, and from this we learn that a certain Orcy presented a guild-hall (gegyld-halle) to the gyldschipe of Abbotsbury in Dorset, and that the members were associated in almsgiving, care of the sick, burial of the dead, and in providing Masses for the souls of deceased members. The social side of the guild is shown in the annual feast for which provision is made. In the "Dooms of London" we find the same religious and social practices described, with the addition of certain advantageous commercial arrangements, such as the establishment of a kind of insurance-fund against losses, and the furnishing of assistance in the capture of thieves. These provisions, however, are characteristic rather of the merchant guilds which grew up during the latter half of the eleventh century.
These differed from their predecessors, the religious or frith guilds, by being established primarily for the purpose of obtaining and maintaining the privilege of carrying on trade. Having secured this privilege the guilds guarded their monopoly jealously. Everywhere the right to buy and sell articles of food seems to have been left free, but every other branch of trade was regulated by the merchant guild or hanse, as it was often called. The first positive mention of a merchant guild, the "enighten on Cantwareberig of ceapmannegilde", occurs during the primacy of St. Anselm (1093-1109). From the time of Henry I the charters of successive sovereigns bear witness to the existence of merchant guilds in the principal towns. These charters, such as those granted to Bristol, Carlisle, Durham, Lincoln, Oxford, Salisbury, and Southampton, were of the utmost importance to the guilds as they secured to them the right and power of enforcing the guild regulations with the sanction of law. For this reason Glanvill, the lawyer, writing in the twelfth century, regards the guild merchant as identical with the commune, that is, the body of citizens with rights of municipal self-government (Ashley, op. cit., inf., 72). From the fact that out of one hundred and sixty towns which were represented in the parliaments of Edward I, ninety-two are certainly known to have possessed a merchant guild, the conclusion is drawn that a guild was to be found in every town of any size, including some that were not much more than villages.
The organization of the merchant guilds is known from the constitutions or guild rolls which have survived. These documents are only four in number, but fortunately refer to towns in four different parts of England. They are the guild statutes of Berwick and of Southampton, and the guild rolls for Leicester and Totnes (Ashley, p. 67). From these we learn that each guild was presided over by one or two aldermen assisted by two or four wardens or échevins. These officials presided over the meetings of the society and administered its funds and estates. They were assisted by a council of twelve or twenty-four members. The guildsmen were originally the actual burgesses, those inhabitants who held land within the town boundaries, whether they were merchants or holders of agricultural land; but in course of time rights of membership passed by inheritance and even by purchase. Thus the eldest sons of guildsmen were admitted free as of right, while the younger sons paid a smaller fee than others. The guildsmen could sell their rights, and heiresses might exercise their membership either in person or through their husbands or sons.
The merchant guilds possessed extensive powers, including the control and monopoly of all the trades in the town, which involved the power of fining all traders who were not members of the guild for illicit trading, and of inflicting punishment for all breaches of honesty or offences against the regulations of the guild. They also had liberty of trading in other towns and of protecting their guildsmen wherever they were trading. They exercised supervision over the quality of goods sold, and prevented strangers from directly or indirectly buying or selling to the injury of the guild. Besides these commercial advantages the guild entered largely into the life of all its members. The guildsmen took their part as a corporate body in all religious celebrations in the town, organized festivities, provided for sick or impoverished brethren, undertook the care of their orphan children, and provided for Masses and dirges for deceased members. As time went on the merchant guilds became more exclusive, and when the rise of manufactures in the twelfth century caused an increase in the number of craftsmen, it was natural that these should organize on their own account and form their own guilds.
Seeing that the merchant guilds had become identical with the municipality, the craftsmen, ever increasing in numbers, struggled to break down the trading monopoly of the merchant guilds and to win for themselves the right of supervision over their own body. The weavers and fullers were the first crafts to obtain royal recognition of their guilds, and by 1130 they had guilds established in London, Lincoln, and Oxford. Little by little through the next two centuries they broke down the power of the merchant guilds, which received their death-blow by the statute of Edward III which in 1335 allowed foreign merchants to trade freely in England. In the system of craft guilds the administration lay in the hands of wardens, bailiffs, or masters, while for admission a long apprenticeship was necessary. Like the merchant guilds, the craft guilds cared for the interests both spiritual and temporal of their members, providing old age and sick pensions, pensions for widows, and burial funds. The master craftsman was an independent producer, needing little or no capital, and employing journeymen and apprentices who hoped in time to become master craftsmen themselves. Thus there was no "working class" as such, and no conflict between capital and labour. At the end of the reign of Edward III there were in London forty-eight companies, a number which later on rose to sixty. Besides the merchant and craft guilds, the religious and social guilds continued to exist through the Middle Ages, being largely in the nature of confraternities. At the Reformation these were all suppressed as superstitious foundations. The trade guilds survived as corporations or companies, such as the twelve great companies of London which still maintain a corporate existence for charitable and social purposes, though they have ceased to have close connexions with the crafts, the names of which they bear. The merchant guild of Preston also survives in a similar state, but such bodies have no real significance. The Reformation shook their constitution, while the altered industrial and social conditions finally deprived them of the power and influence they had possessed in the Middle Ages.
In Flanders and France
The word gilde, or ghilde, is but one of many terms used formerly in France and in the Low Countries to denote what the more modern word corporation stands for, viz., an association among men of the same community or profession. Gilde, métier, métier juré, confrérie, nation, maîtrises et jurandes, and other like appellations, all essentially express this idea of association, at the same time laying stress on some particular feature of it. The word gilde, however, is the first to appear and we meet it very early in the history of western continental Europe. A capitulary of 779 says: "Let no one dare to take the oath by which people are wont to form guilds. Whatever may be the conditions which have been agreed upon, let no one bind himself by oaths concerning the payment of contributions in case of fire or shipwreck." This prohibition appears several times in the laws enacted under the Carlovingian emperors; nevertheless the guilds continued to exist, at least in the northern part of the empire. The records of the provincial councils held in those districts also show that the guilds were a matter of no small concern for the ecclesiastical authorities; for a long time the Church was bent on extirpating from their organization a number of objectionable features which made them a menace to morals.
In France and the Low Countries a guild was originally a sort of fraternity for common support, protection, and amusement. The members paid each a certain contribution to the common fund; they pledged their word to give one another assistance; they took care of the children of the deceased members and had Masses offered up for the repose of their souls; they celebrated the patron saint's day with great festivities in which the poor had their share. These and other features of the guilds did not, of course, appear all at the same time. Like most human institutions they had a modest beginning, and they developed according to circumstances. Again, it should be noted that they do not everywhere present one and the same type. Some are mainly social, others emphasize the religious side of the organization, while, later on, in the merchant and craft guilds, it is the economic aspect which becomes predominant. Before speaking of the latter a word should be said of the origin of the guilds in the two countries with which we are concerned here. This has been a much debated question. Some scholars consider the guilds as the product in Christian soil, of the German instinct of association, and they would assign for their remotest origin the banquets (convivia) so common among the Teutons and Scandinavians. Others claim that they were nothing else than the Roman corporations (collegia) established in Western Europe under Roman sway and reconstructed on Christian principles after the great invasions. That the Roman colleges of artisans flourished in southern and central Gaul has been established beyond doubt by the discovery of numerous inscriptions at Nice, Nîmes, Narbonne, Lyons, and other cities. It is not likely that the Barbarian invasion broke entirely the Roman traditions in countries where the influence of Rome had been felt so deeply, and one is warranted in saying that in southern and central France the origin of the guilds was to a certain extent Roman. Such an assertion, however, could hardly be made for northern France and still less for the Low Countries. There is no evidence to show that the Roman collegia ever attained great importance in these regions. At any rate, the dominion of Rome was established there much later than in the South and was never so deep-rooted. Roman institutions and customs had scarcely had time to take root before the German invasion, and they must have given way very easily under the pressure of the conquerors, whose numbers, rapidly increasing, soon insured to them a preponderating influence.
But whether a legacy of Roman civilization or a native institution of the young Teutonic race, the guild would never have attained its wonderful development had not the Church taken it under its tutelage and infused into it the vivifying spirit of Christian charity. Furthermore, it is certain that a large number of guilds owed their existence solely to the aspirations which gave rise to chivalry and induced thousands of men to join the monastic communities. Towards the end of the tenth century, with the greater security following the Norman invasions, there was an increase of trade on the Continent. In each of the large towns, such as Rouen, Paris, Bruges, Arras, Saint-Omer, there soon arose a corporation which was known as the Merchant Guild and which was, in some instances at least, a development of an older association. None but the brethren of the corporation were allowed to trade in any article except food. Whether the communes (chartered towns) of France and the Low Countries had their origin in the Merchant Guild is a moot question, although it seems certain that the merchants were at least instrumental in the granting of charters by princes, for the right of managing its own affairs, conferred on the town, practically meant that its government fell into the hands of the trading class. At the origin of the Merchant Guild, any townsman might become a member of the corporation on payment of a stated fee, but with the increase of their wealth, the traders showed more and more a tendency to shut out the poorer classes from their association. The latter classes, however, were not without organization; they had their own corporations (the craft guilds), most of which seem to have been constituted in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Each one of these craft guilds, like the merchant guilds, had its charter and statutes, its patron saint, its banner and altar, its hall, its feast day, and its place in the religious processions and public festivities. There were in the craft guilds three classes of persons: the apprentices, or learners (apprendre, "to learn"), the journeymen (journée, "day"), or men hired to work by the day, and the masters or employers.
The apprentice had to remain from three to ten years in a condition of entire dependence under a master, in order to be qualified to exercise his trade as a journeyman. Before a master could engage an apprentice, he had to satisfy the officers of the guild of the soundness of his moral character. He was to treat the boy as he would his own child, and was held responsible not only for his professional, but also for his moral, education. On completing his apprenticeship, the young artisan became a journeyman (compagnon); at least, such was the rule from the fourteenth century onward. To become a master, he must have some means and pass an examination before the elders. At the head of the corporation was a board of trustees composed of two or more deans (doyens, syndics) assisted by a secretary, a treasurer, and six or more jurymen (jurés, assesseurs, trouveurs, prud'hommes). These officers were elected from among the masters and entrusted with the management of the guild's interests, the care of its orphans, the defence of its privileges, and the protection of its members. It was more especially the duty of the jurymen to enforce the statutes of the guild bearing on the relations between employer and employee, engagement of apprentices and journeymen, salaries, hours of work, holidays, etc. They could punish or even expel from the corporation any member whose conduct incurred their disapprobation.
From this strong organization, all pervaded with the spirit of Christianity, there resulted great benefits for the artisan. His work, which was well regulated and broken by many holidays, did not tax his strength too severely; the good life he was induced to live saved him from need, while his rights and interests were protected against the vexations of the local or central government. Still more noteworthy was the brotherly character of the relations between employee and employer, to which the great cities of the Middle Ages were indebted for the social peace which they enjoyed for many centuries. This alone would outweigh what disadvantages may have been attached to this organization of labour. The guilds of the Low Countries, otherwise similar to the French guilds, differed from them in one respect: political importance. The latter never gained enough influence to free themselves from the condition of utter dependence in which they had been placed by the kings, but in the Low Countries several circumstances combined which gave the labouring classes a power they could not have in France. Of these circumstances, the most important were the wealth of the cities, the large number of artisans, and their organization into military brotherhoods (confréries militaires) which formed a regular militia, capable of holding its own against the feudal armies, as was illustrated many times in the history of Flanders and Liège.
As this article has to deal mainly with the guilds in the Middle Ages, but little can be said of the corporations of artists, which, in France and the Low Countries, were few and had not much importance before the sixteenth century. The explanation of this tardy growth is found, at least partly, in the fact that, during the greater part of the Middle Ages, the fine arts remained within the Church or under its supervision; even in the thirteenth century the number of laymen engaged in these professions was still very small, as is shown in "Le Livre des métiersde Paris", or book of the statutes of the Paris craft guilds, drawn up by Etienne Boileau under the direction of St. Louis. Two other classes of guilds which deserve a special mention are the basoches (see Vol. VI, p. 193) and the temporary or permanent corporations for the exhibition of religious and other plays. The best known of the latter class of guilds is "La Confrérie de la Passion", established in 1402. Its Mystères form the link which unites the French tragedy of the seventeenth century with the dramatic literature of the Middle Ages.
After the end of the fifteenth century, under the despotic rule of the French kings, the guilds ceased to be a means of protection for a majority of their members — the journeymen — who formed associations of their own, regardless of all professional and even religious distinctions. Their privileges became a means of filling the royal coffers at the expense of the employers; the latter retaliated on the public, all the more readily that they had no competition to fear. By the middle of the eighteenth century the outcry against the guilds was general in France. In 1776 Turgot, then prime minister, planned their suppression, but his fall gave them some respite. In 1791 they were abolished by the Constituent Assembly. But remnants of these corporations are still found in many French and Belgian customs, as, for instance, the fees to be paid by notaries, solicitors, sheriff's officers, when they enter office. In the first half of the nineteenth century, several attempts were made in France to partially restore the craft guilds, but without success. During the last thirty years, however, there has been a Catholic movement in France and Belgium to counteract the evil effects of socialism by forming associations of employers and employed.
The first well-known German guild is that of the watermen of Worms, its charter (Zunftbrief) dating from 1106; the shoemakers of Würzburg received theirs in 1112; the weavers of Cologne, in 1149, the shoemakers of Magdeburg, in 1158. But it was not until the thirteenth century that the German guilds became numerous and important. Zunft, Innung, Genossenschaft, Brüderschaft, Gesellschaft, are the terms used in Germany to designate these associations. Here, as in Italy and the Low Countries, the most conspicuous guilds were those connected with the manufacture of linen and wool. In Ulm, for instance, towards the end of the fifteenth century, there were so many linen-weavers that the number of pieces of linen prepared in one year amounted at one time to 200,000. In the year 1466 there were 743 master weavers in Augsburg (Herberger, "Augsburg, und seine frühere Industrie", p. 46). In the large cities, the linen- and the wool-weavers formed two distinct corporations, and the wool-weavers again were divided into two classes: the makers of fine Flemish or Italian goods, and the makers of the coarser homespun materials.
Other important guilds were those of the tanners and the furriers; the latter included the shoemakers, the tailors, the glove-makers, and the stocking-knitters. In the shoemaker's trade there was a sharp distinction between the Neumeister, who made new shoes, the cobbler, and the slipper maker. The most striking example of an elaborate classification according to craft is found in the metal-workers: the farriers, knife-makers, locksmiths, chain-forgers, nail-makers, often formed separate and distinct corporations; the armourers were divided into helmet-makers, escutcheon-makers, harness-makers, harness-polishers, etc. Sometimes they went so far as to have special guilds for each separate article of a suit of armour. This accounts for the remarkable skill and finish seen in the simplest details.
A class of brotherhoods which deserves special mention is that of the guilds of the mining trades, which from an early date were very important in Saxony and Bohemia. "No politician or socialist of modern times", says H. Achenbach (Gemeines Deutsches Bergrecht, I, 69, 109), "can suggest a labour organization which will better accomplish the object of helping the labourer, elevating his position, and maintaining fair relations between the employer and the employed than that of the mining works centuries ago." The statutes of these mining guilds show, indeed, a remarkable care for the well-being of the labourer and the protection of his interests. Hygienic conditions in the mines, ventilation of the pits, precautions against accident, bathing houses, time of labour (eight hours daily — sometimes less), supply of the necessaries of life at fair prices, scale of wages, care of the sick and disabled, etc. — no detail seems to have been lost sight of.
As to their organization, government, and relations with the public or the civil authorities, the German guilds did not substantially differ from those in other European countries. The members were divided into apprentices, journeymen, and masters. At the head of the corporation was a director assisted by several officers. He was the sworn and responsible power of the guild, called the meetings, presided at them, had the right of final decision, managed the property of the guild, led it in case of war. Each guild had its fully equipped court of justice and enjoyed complete independence in all private concerns, but all the guilds were subject to the town council and town authorities, and were obliged to submit their statutes and ordinances to them. In the event of quarrels, either within or between the guilds, the civil authorities exercised the rights of a commercial judge; in conjunction with the guild, they also made regulations for the markets and police arrangements, fixed the prices of wares, organized the supervision of traffic and the protection from fraud or dishonest dealing.
The purchase of raw material was managed by the guild as a body so as to prevent monopoly. Strict regulations protected the rights of every one. There was equality between all the members with regard to the sale of their productions. The protection of purchasers and customers was assured by the city authorities; the guild was held responsible for the quality and quantity of the goods which it brought for sale to the market. In Germany, as elsewhere, however, the most striking feature of the guilds was the close connexion they established between religion and daily life. Labour was conceived by them as the complement of prayer, as the foundation of a well-regulated life. We read in the book "A Christian Admonition": "Let the societies and brotherhoods so regulate their lives according to Christian love in all things that their work may be blessed. Let us work according to God's law, and not for reward, else shall our labour be without blessing and bring evil on our souls." Each guild had its patron saint, who, according to tradition, had practised its particular branch of industry, and whose feast day was celebrated by attending church and by processions; each had its banner, its altar, or chapel in the church, and had Masses offered up for the living and the dead members. The religious observance of Sunday and holy days was commanded by most of the guilds. Whoever worked or made others work on those days, or on Saturday after the vesper bell, or neglected to fast on the days appointed by the Church, incurred a penalty. This union of religion and labour was a strong tie between the members of the guilds, and it was of great assistance in settling peacefully the differences arising between masters and companions.
The guilds were also mutual and benevolent societies; they helped the impoverished and sick members; they took care of the widows and orphans; they remembered the poor outside the society. Many benevolent institutions owed their foundation to some guild, as, for instance, St. Job's Hospital for smallpox patients at Hamburg, which was founded in 1505 by a guild of fishmongers, shopkeepers, and hucksters. There were a large number of these benevolent associations of tradesmen in the Middle Ages; at the close of the fifteenth century there were seventy at Lubeck, eighty at Cologne, and over one hundred at Hamburg.
In connexion with the guilds should be mentioned the workmen's clubs, which were very common at the end of the fifteenth century. So long as the German journeyman remained at work in a city, he belonged to one of these clubs, which supplied for him the place of his family and country. If he fell sick he was not left to public charity, but taken into the family of some master or cared for by his brother members wherever he went he could make himself known by the society's badge or password, and receive help and protection from the local branch of the association to which he belonged. Thus the journeyman was, in the first place, associated with the family of his employer, in whose house he generally lodged and boarded; in the second place, he stood in close relation with his associates of the same age and trade, co-members with him of the society which protected and helped him; finally, he enjoyed special connexion with the Church, because he generally belonged to one of the sodalities which were ordinarily, but not necessarily, a part of the society's organization.
Side by side with the artisans' guilds, there were also merchants' guilds, organized on the same plan as the former, and having similar objects in view with respect to the communal life of their members and their moral and religious well-being. But they differed in their attitude towards trade; for, while the chief object of the artisans' guilds was the protection and improvement of the different trades, the merchants' guilds aimed at securing commercial advantages for their members and obtaining the monopoly of the trade of some country or some particular class of goods. Not alone in the German cities, but also in all foreign countries where German commerce prevailed, corporations of this sort, guilds, or Hansa (the word Hansa has the same signification as guild), had existed from an early date and had obtained recognition, privileges, and rights from the foreign rulers and communities. By degrees these Hansa in foreign countries became banded together in one large association forming an important and rival commercial body in the midst of the native merchants and traders. Such was the case in London, where the merchants who had come from Cologne, Lübeck, Hamburg, and other cities formed an association of German merchants.
To further strengthen their position, the guilds belonging to different foreign cities decided to join in one common association. In England, those of Bristol, York, Ipswich, Norwich, Hull, and other cities were affiliated with the London Hansa, and were each represented there. On the same plan were organized the associations of Novgorod in Russia, of Wisby in the island of Gothland, and the so-called Komtoor of Bruges. The last-named was divided into three branches: one comprising with Lübeck the cities of the Slavonic country and of Saxony; the second, those of Prussia and Westphalia; and the third, those of Gothland, Livonia, and Sweden. This vast corporation, calling itself the Society of German Merchants of the Holy Roman Empire, was the foundation of the general German Hansa, or Hanseatic League, which by degrees embraced all the cities (at one time more than ninety) of Lower Germany, from Riga to the Flemish boundaries, and those in the South as far as the Thuringian forests. This league attained the summit of its power in the fifteenth century, and Dantzic was then universally acknowledged as its most important city; in the year 1481, more than 1100 ships had gone from its harbour to Holland. The ships were divided into flotillas of from thirty to forty craft, each flotilla having armed ships, called Orlogschiffe or Friedenskoggen, attached to it for its protection.
After a time, the Hanseatic League was broken up into separate sections whose centres were Lübeck for the Slavonic country, Cologne for the Rhenish, Brunswick for Saxony, and Dantzic for Prussia and Livonia. The Hansa lasted from the thirteenth to the seventeenth century; its last meeting took place in 1669, and the cities of Lübeck, Bremen, Brunswick, Cologne, Hamburg, and Dantzic were the only ones that had sent representatives. The causes of the ruin of this once so powerful association were the growth of the commerce of Holland and England, the Wars of the League, against Denmark and Sweden in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and the Thirty Years' War, which was so detrimental to German commerce and manufactures. Lübeck, Bremen, and Hamburg are still called the Hanseatic cities.
The history of the German guilds of artists is closely connected with that of the guilds of artisans. For a long time the artists were incorporated in the trade associations, and their organization into independent corporations took place only at the close of the Middle Ages. The architects were probably the first to have their own organization.
In Germany, as in the other countries of Europe, the guilds were compulsory bodies, having the right to regulate trade, under the supervision of the civil authorities; but the system was not injurious in the Middle Ages. It was so only at the close of the sixteenth century, when the guilds became narrowly exclusive with regard to the admission of new members, and were nothing but a mere benefit society for a small number of masters and their associates. The abuses of the German corporations were brought to the attention of the Imperial Government in the diets of 1548, 1577, and 1654, but it was only in the course of the nineteenth century that the guilds were successively abolished in the different States of Germany. In the last twenty-five years, there were enacted in that country a number of laws whose aim was not the re-establishment of the old corporations, which had each its special domain and privileges, but the protection of the labourers, who had been left without organization and defence by the abolition of the guilds.
In Italy"Of all the establishments of Numa", says Plutarch, "no one is more highly prized than his distribution of the people into colleges according to trade and craft. "From these words we should infer that the first well-known Italian corporations date from the seventh century B. C., but some authors, whose contention is founded on a text of Florus, have claimed that Servius Tullius, and not Numa, was the founder of the Roman colleges of artisans (e.g., Heineccius, "De collegiis et corporibus opificum", 138). Whatever may be the truth on this point, it is certain that the collegia opificum existed in the sixth century B. C., because they were incorporated in the constitution of Servius Tullius which remained in force until 241 B.C. There were but few of these corporations in the Republic, but their numbers increased under the emperors; in Rome alone there were in the third century more than thirty colleges, private and public (Theodosian Code, XIII and XIV). The latter were four in number: the navicularii, who supplied Rome with provisions, the bakers, the pork butchers, and the calcis coctores et vectores, who supplied Rome with lime for building. The members of these corporations received a fixed salary from the State.
Among the private colleges were numbered the argentarii, or bankers, the negotiatores vini, or wine merchants, the medici, or physicians, and the professores, or teachers. On the whole it might be said that the collegia were prosperous until the end of the third century B. C., but in the course of the next century they began to show signs of decline. The few privileges they enjoyed had ceased to be a compensation for their responsibilities to the State, and it was only by the most drastic measures that the last emperors succeeded in keeping the artisans in their collegia.
And now arise the questions: What remained of these corporations after the invasions? Is there any connexion between them and the Italian guilds of the thirteenth century? We can only answer this query by conjecture. The period extending from the fifth to the eleventh century is extremely poor in documents; the few annalists of those days have limited their work to a bare enumeration of events and a dry list of dates. Mention is made here and there of the existence of a guild, but we are not told whether these guilds are new associations or the development of an older organization. Since we know, however, that the Roman law was to a large extent incorporated in the codes of the Goths and Lombards, we have good ground to believe that many of the municipal institutions survived the fall of Rome. In support of this view, we have the well-known fact that the Barbarians usually dwelt in the country and left the government of the cities in the hands of the clergy, most of whom, being Italians, were naturally inclined to retain the Roman institutions, all the more readily as a better education enabled them to appreciate their value. All this leads to the conclusion that, in most cities, enough of the old Roman corporation must have been preserved to form the nucleus of a new organization which slowly but steadily developed into the guild of the Middle Ages.
The mercanzia, the earliest well-known type of these guilds, existed in Venice, Genoa, Milan, Verona, Pisa, and elsewhere in the tenth century; it somewhat resembled the merchant guild of Northern Europe, being an association of all the mercantile interests of the community without any professional distinction, but, as the increase of trade which followed the First Crusade brought about an increase of industrial activity, the arts found it more convenient to have an association of their own, and the mercanzia was split into craft guilds. As an example of this evolution, we may take the Roman mercanzia. Although it had been in existence at least since the beginning of the eleventh century, it received its final constitution only in 1285. At that time it was composed of thirteen arts, all united into one common association, but in the course of the following century we see these arts withdrawing successively from the mother guild and forming independent corporations until finally the mercanzia was merely a merchant guild.
The Italian arts were not all placed on the same footing. Some, being more important, had a right of precedence over the others and a larger share of the political rights. This hierarchy varied, of course, from one city to another; in Rome the farmers and drapers came first; in Venice and Genoa, the merchants. In Florence we find the most striking illustration of this type of organization. The arts were divided into major and minor. The former were, in the order of importance, the judges and notaries, the drapers, the bankers, the wool-manufacturers, the physicians and apothecaries, the silk-manufacturers, and the skin-dressers. They formed the popolo grosso, or burgesses, and governed the city with the old feudal families; but in 1282 the latter were deprived of their political rights, and the burgesses were compelled to share the government of Florence with the popolo minuto, or minor arts — the blacksmiths, the bakers, the shoemakers, the carpenters, and the retailers of wine.
In its main lines, the organization of the Italian guilds resembled that of the French guilds. Their members were divided into apprentices, journeymen, and employers. Their life was regulated by an elaborate system of statutes bearing on the professional and religious duties of the brethren, the relations of the corporations as a body with the local government, competition, monopoly, care of the sick, of the orphans, etc. The officers were all elected usually for a term not exceeding six months. At first they were few, but their number increased rapidly with the importance of the guild. One of the most remarkable illustrations of guild government is given us by the Roman corporations. At the head of each one was a cardinal protector, but the real managers were the consuls (sometimes called priori, capitudini). Until the beginning of the fifteenth century they were invested with great judicial power, but after the return of the popes to Rome their functions became merely administrative and their authority was limited by a number of other officers-assessors, procurators, delegates, defensors, secretaries, archivists. The second great officer of the corporation was the camerlingo, or treasurer; at one time his office was even more important than that of the consul, but little by little a large part of his powers went to computors, exactors, taxators, depositors. The proveditor had the custody of the guild's furniture and was to preserve good order in the assemblies; the syndics examined the administration of the officers at the end of their term; the physician and nurses attended the sick members free of charge, and the visitor had to call on those who were in prison. Besides, there were many officers attached to the chapel: vestrymen, churchwardens, chaplains.
Guilds of artists appeared very early in Italy. Sienna, Pisa, Venice seem to have been in the lead. The first of these cities had a corporation of architects and sculptors in 1212; the statutes of the sculptors and stone-cutters of Venice date from 1307; those of the carpenters and cabinet-makers in the same city from 1385. In Rome the guilds of artists were formed relatively late; the sculptors in 1406, the painters in 1478, the goldsmiths in 1509, the masons in 1527. On the whole it is seen that the arts connected with construction were the first to have their own association, then came the goldsmiths, and finally the painters. It often happened that artists were incorporated into trade guilds, as, for instance, the painters of Florence, who still belonged to the grocers' guild in the sixteenth century. The famous "Accademia del Desegno" of that city, one of the first academies of fine arts in Europe, grew out of the "Compagnia di San Luca", a semi-religious, semi-artistic guild. The decline of the Italian guilds began in the sixteenth century and was brought about by the decay of the commerce of the country. They were abolished in Rome by Pius VII in 1807, and by the end of the first half of the nineteenth century they had become a thing of the past in all Italian cities.
In SpainWhat has been said of the origin of the guilds in Italy applies to Spain. In no other province (except, perhaps, Southern Gaul) had the inhabitants been influenced more deeply by Roman civilization, and the Visigoths, who settled there in the fifth century, were, of all the Barbarians, those who showed the strongest tendency to retain Roman institutions and customs. Unfortunately, the growth of this neo-Roman civilization was stopped by the Arabian invasion in the eighth century, and in the following 700 years the Christians of Spain, who were bent on the task of wresting their country from the infidels, turned their energies to warfare. Domestic trade fell into the hands of the Jews, foreign trade into those of the Italians, and manufactures existed mostly in cities under Moorish dominion. Religious and military associations were many and powerful, but merchant and craft guilds could not grow on this battlefield.