Umberto I, (born March 14, 1844, Turin, Piedmont, Kingdom of Sardinia [now in Italy]—died July 29, 1900, Monza, Italy), duke of Savoy and king of Italy who led his country out of its isolation and into the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany. He supported nationalistic and imperialistic policies that led to disaster for Italy and helped create the atmosphere in which he was assassinated.
Umberto II (Italian: Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia; 15 September 1904 – 18 March 1983) was the last King of Italy. He reigned for 34 days, from 9 May 1946 to 12 June 1946, although he had been de facto head of state since 1944, and was nicknamed the May King (Italian: Re di Maggio).
Umberto always does a great job describing much of what the subject is to be---below we see the HISTORY of discovery surrounding determining LONGITUDE. Longitude is critical in REAL ESTATE ownership, whether it be a global 1% OLD WORLD KING wanting to own the entire continent----our our 99% WE THE PEOPLE wanting to own that 5 acres and a mule.
Island of Day Before weaves a story around that discovery of how to measure LONGITUDE. This was back in medieval era tied to exploring and colonizing THE AMERICAS and south sea islands.
'The Island of the Day Before
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Island of the Day Before (Italian: L'isola del giorno prima) is a 1994 historical fiction novel by Umberto Eco set in the 17th-century during the historical search for the secret of longitude. The central character is Roberto della Griva, an Italian nobleman marooned on a deserted ship in the Pacific Ocean, and his slowly decaying mental state, in a backdrop of Baroque-era science, metaphysics, and cosmology'.
Hmmmm. seems a novel from 1990s has a return in 2018 in EASTERN HEMISPHERE 3000BC Hindi-Brahmins.
The Island of the Day Before by Zuni Chopra
Posted on August 10, 2018 by Harper Broadcast
Please remember, these global banking 1% SUMMARIES are written by 5% freemason/Greek players paid to keep the LYING AND HIDING quiet-----providing a summary as written. ECO released this in 1995----REAL LEFT social progressive academics KNEW the 5Ws of global banking 1% goals for PRIME MERIDIAN.
Is the marvellous Umberto all washed up? Will Self tries (very hard) to read his novel
The Island of the Day Before by Umberto Eco
Seeker & Warburg £16.99Sun 15 Oct 1995 11.54 EDT First published on Sun 15 Oct 1995 11.54 EDT
Reading and thinking about this novel has proved to be a genuinely strange experience for me. I can safely say that I have seldom encountered a text with more built-in sopor than The Island of the Day Before. It is a commonplace in the life of the book reviewer that what would, in a leisure context, be an acceptable, if not an altogether enjoyable read, becomes in a working context something of a drag. But Umberto Eco's latest novel has not just dragged on me, it has been a positive sea anchor, threatening to pull me beneath the waves.
For night after night I've climbed into bed, dutifully intending to tackle a decent-sized gobbet, only to find myself nodding off within a few pages. It has intrigued me to analyse why it is that this book, replete as it is with apparently diverting ideas, putatively amusing conceits and at least the semblance of a genuine integrity ' a desire to rootle out the hermeneutics of European culture ' has revolted and enervated me quite so much.
The answer comes on the last page, when the narrator (an 'unreliable' Eco ' but more of that later), sums up the structure of the book in the following terms: 'Finally, if from this story I wanted to produce a novel, I would demonstrate once again that it is impossible to write except by making a palimpsest of a rediscovered manuscript ' without ever succeeding in eluding The Anxiety of Influence.' The use of the word 'impossible' is what gives the game away here. It may well be 'impossible' for Eco to do other than this, but he has no right to speak for anyone but himself in this matter. He has come to occupy a perverse and tendentious position as a novelist, writing as he does the kind of superficially 'intellectual' books that somehow manage to convince a great number of people that they are reading something with a certain cachet. This is a loathsome confidence trick, one that Eco pulls off by labouring to create a sense of authenticity that is ersatz in the extreme.
WE THINK WILL SELF IS MAD BECAUSE ECO FILLS HIS BOOKS WITH ALL THAT SECRET SOCIETY----SECRET HAND SHAKE SYMBOLOGY WHICH IS THE REASON EVERYONE READS ECO'S NOVELS.
Set in the first half of the sixteenth century, the action of the novel concerns Roberto della Griva, scion of a minor noble house from the duchy of Milan. Roberto moves from home ' for the first time ' to the siege of Casale, where he sees his father die, falls in love, and encounters a French nobleman, Saint-Sauvin. This proto-libertine manages ' God only knows how ' to inculcate him with various rather far-sighted ideas, such as the Freudian unconscious, and hard empiricism.
Saint-Sauvin isn't the only one to take an interest in Roberto. There's also Padre Emanuele, a Jesuit who has constructed a machine that can generate infinite metaphors. This is the first of a number of odd machines and bizarre techniques, the descriptions of which blight the pages of the book. I understand Eco's curiosity about the hinterland between natural philosophy and magic, but, put bluntly, minus his interminable listings of such esoterica as 'a Combinatory lamp, Mensa Isaica, Metametricon, Synopsis Anthropoglottogonica, Basilica Cryptographica' this novel would be asinine but bearable. With them, it is a load of anachronistic cobblers. The machine I began to long for was one that would automatically read the novels of Umberto Eco, leaving me free to get on with my life.
Having had meetings with unremarkable men at the siege of Casale, Roberto moves on to Aix-en-Provence, where he meets both Lilia, the courtly love who will dog him ' and us ' for the next three hundred pages, and an Englishman called d'Igby, who introduces to him the notion of the 'Powder of Sympathy'. This concept comes to be involved in a time-keeping method that is essential for the next phase of Roberto's odyssey: the search for a reliable means of assessing longitude.
This quest takes Roberto, as an agent of Cardinal Richelieu, on his final journey into the Pacific, where he becomes marooned on a Marie-Celeste-type ship, the Daphne, which is stranded near the assumed location of the Antipodal meridian - what we term today the International Date Line.
Eco makes much play in the closing sections of the book of the conundrum that the Antipodal meridian presents: cross it and in some sense you have travelled back in time. But then Eco makes much play of everything in this book. Cosmology, theology, philosophy, geography, engineering. Eco has suffered for his scholarship ' and now it's our turn.
YES, ISLAND OF DAY BEFORE DOES INCLUDE ALL THAT --THEOLOGY, PHILOSOPHY, GEOGRAPHY, AND ENGINEERING---AND YET WILL SELF DOES NOT ANALYZE ANY OF THAT---WHY DOES HE GET PAID AS A REVIEWER?
In the past, it has been said of Eco's novels that they combine exhaustive polymathism with thriller-style narrative drive. Personally I've never seen it, and in The Island of the Day Before, his remorseless application of the by-now hoary old chestnut 'the unreliable narrator' makes for a low geared trip all the way. When you don't care what a narrator says, his unreliable status becomes frankly irrelevant.
And, in truth, there is little plot to be had in this novel. The device of the doppelganger that Eco employs (Roberto may or may not have a natural brother Ferrante, who torments him from a distance) has, to my mind, no real significance, except to underscore what a rag-bag affair it is; and despite the lapidary feel of the prose itself, such is the sheer density of neologism and wilfully obscure locution that he employs the sense is of being forced to stare at unpleasant flock wallpaper.
By the time you get to all the guff about the Anxiety of Influence, and the questioning of the very ground of the 'fiction' itself, you know that you are as far from being in the presence of a storyteller as it is possible to be. On the marooned ship Daphne, Father Caspar and Roberto debate ad nauseam the implications of parallel worlds. There appears to be a world in which Eco is regarded as a significant and influential writer. If it is this one, I'd like to relocate.
ECO ended his novel ISLAND OF DAY BEFORE with the ship reaching that MAGICAL POINT of suddenly being able to find the correct blend of astronomical stellar measurements to provide just that correct coordinate thought to be the PRIME MERIDIAN of longitude. The ship was of course in the south PACIFIC sailing past one island and another before the ship's captain had his EUREKA moment in using ASTRONOMICAL TOOLS to determine LONGITUDE. Now, after this story was published the question became-----why was the PRIME MERIDIAN falling through LONDON and THE VATICAN ------and not where early inventions measured the REAL WEST BECOMES EAST?
So, today all the intrigue over where a new PRIME MERIDIAN would be------some think since global banking 1% OLD WORLD KNIGHTS OF MALTA TRIBE OF JUDAH see the KIEVAN KINGDOM as the new center of global economic axis------it may be 30 degree longitude. That of course would bring the Prime Meridian through the eastern nations of Western Europe, Middle East, and Africa hitting the Island of
Geographic coordinates of Kiev, Ukraine Latitude: 50°27′16″ N
Longitude: 30°31′25″ E
But that was the global banking 1% economic zone of these few decades of CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA-----not the FINAL SOLUTION PRIME MERIDIAN-----which is of course SIBERIA-----at 80 degree east------basically following the HIMALAYAN MOUNTAIN range----there's NEPAL.
Basically, global banking 1% NEW WORLD ORDER flipping Earth's Hemisphere from Western to Eastern will bring back days of HANNIBAL crossing the HIMALAYAN mountains on elephants to conquer those Western European civil societies.
Nepal, the Himalayan country of Asia has its border with China on the North and India on South, East & West. It is located between latitude 26 degree 22 minutes North to 30 degree 27 minutes North and longitude 80 degree 4 minutes East to 88 degree 12 minutes East. Being land locked country the sea access is about 1150 Km. from the border.
This is why global banking 1% are STILL 1000BC barbarians-----
So, moving the PRIME MERIDIAN to 30 degree east was soooooo CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA -------MOVING FORWARD ONE WORLD for only the global 1% FINAL SOLUTION sees the 80 degree east longitude as the END GAME of EAST WEST PRIME MERIDIAN.
80th meridian east
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Longitude 80 degrees E)
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80th meridian east
Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap
Download coordinates as: KML · GPXThe meridian 80° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 80th meridian east forms a great circle with the 100th meridian west.
From Pole to Pole
Starting at the North Pole and heading south to the South Pole, the 80th meridian east passes through:
Co-ordinatesCountry, territory or sea
90°0′N 80°0′EArctic Ocean
81°7′N 80°0′EKara Sea
80°58′N 80°0′E RussiaUshakov Island
80°50′N 80°0′EKara SeaPassing just west of Dikson Island, Russia
72°11′N 80°0′E Russia
50°51′N 80°0′E Kazakhstan
44°58′N 80°0′E People's Republic of ChinaXinjiang – for about 18 km
44°48′N 80°0′E Kazakhstan
42°22′N 80°0′E Kyrgyzstan
42°2′N 80°0′E People's Republic of ChinaXinjiang
35°27′N 80°0′EAksai ChinDisputed between India and People's Republic of China
34°39′N 80°0′E People's Republic of ChinaTibet
30°52′N 80°0′EAksai ChinDisputed between India and People's Republic of China – for about 4 km
30°50′N 80°0′E IndiaUttarakhand
12°14′N 80°0′EIndian OceanBay of Bengal
9°48′N 80°0′E Sri LankaJaffna Peninsula
9°36′N 80°0′EIndian OceanPalk Strait
9°0′N 80°0′E Sri Lanka
6°24′N 80°0′EIndian Ocean
60°0′S 80°0′ESouthern Ocean
68°2′S 80°0′EAntarcticaAustralian Antarctic Territory, claimed by Australia
THE ISLAND OF THE DAY BEFORE a novel by Umberto Eco in 1995 had that magical moment---that EUREKA MOMENT of discovering LONGITUDE using the latest astronomical inventions after sailing West it seems at LONGITUDE 80 DEGREES EAST-----just as SRI LANKA was about to be taken in CONTINUOUS WARS global banking 1% southeast Asia ----one of the earliest FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES sitting on what was MOVING FORWARD to being the location of ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE ----PRIME MERIDIAN.
So, 30 degree east Prime Meridian so CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA------the goals of global banking 1% ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE FINAL SOLUTION is a PRIME MERIDIAN OF EAST AND WEST at 80 degree east.......
Of course this is not exact science geo-politically. It simply shows our US 99% WE THE PEOPLE and global 99% of citizens that FLIPPING THE EARTH'S ECONOMIC AXIS we knew from reading ALICE IN WONDERLAND in early 1900s always had the goal of SIBERIA TO SRI LANKA TO ANTARCTICA.
ECO'S ISLAND OF DAY BEFORE from 1990s let us know the PRIME MERIDIAN was shifting------his historical fiction identifying the NEW LOCATION.
Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule as Ceylon (/sɪˈlɒn/, US also /seɪ-/). A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century to obtain political independence, which was granted in 1948; the country became a republic and adopted its current name in 1972. Sri Lanka's recent history has been marred by a 30-year civil war, which decisively ended when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in 2009.
The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka. Beginning on 23 July 1983, there was an intermittent insurgency against the government by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers), which fought to create an independent Tamil state called Tamil Eelam in the north and the east of the island. After a 26-year military campaign, the Sri Lankan military defeated the Tamil Tigers in May 2009, bringing the civil war to an end.
For over 25 years, the war caused significant hardships for the population, environment and the economy of the country
See why our REAL left social progressives KNEW MOVING FORWARD ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE was going 3000BC HINDI-BRAHMIN.
You mean HANNIBAL THE CANNIBAL was global banking 1% movie about moving the PRIME MERIDIAN to 80 degrees east--------home of HANNIBAL THE BARBARIAN?
Name: himalayas, nyingchi, himachal pradesh, india Type: State Country: World State: Himachal Pradesh District: NA Locality: NA Sub-Locality: NA Closest Address: Himalaya
This is what these few decades of CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA had as a goal of MOVING FORWARD flipping the EARTH'S economic axis to FINAL SOLUTION----where the only economies functioning are EAST WEST of 80 degree east MERIDIAN
This is what these few decades of CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA had as a goal of MOVING FORWARD flipping the EARTH'S economic axis to FINAL SOLUTION----where the only economies functioning are EAST WEST of 80 degree east MERIDIAN
This was global banking 1% back in REAGAN era telling us where the PRIME MERIDIAN would be in FINAL SOLUTION killing of Western Hemisphere economic axis
'Dr. Hannibal Lecter is a character in a series of suspense novels by Thomas Harris.
Lecter was introduced in the 1981 thriller novel Red Dragon as a forensic psychiatrist and cannibalistic serial killer. The novel and its sequel, The Silence of the Lambs, feature Lecter as one of the primary antagonists after the two serial killers in both novels. In the third novel, Hannibal, Lecter becomes a protagonist. His role as the antihero occurs in the fourth novel, Hannibal Rising, which explores his childhood and development into a serial killer.
The first film adapted from the Harris novels was Manhunter (based on Red Dragon) which features Brian Cox as Lecter, spelled "Lecktor". In 1991, Anthony Hopkins won an Academy Award for his portrayal of the character in The Silence of the Lambs. He would reprise the role in Hannibal in 2001 and in a second adaptation of Red Dragon made in 2002 under the original title'.
We are speaking very figuratively in setting an 80 degree east as a PRIME MERIDIAN------it simply identifies where FINAL SOLUTION eastern axis economics will be centered --away from the NYC----LONDON/ROME axis.
What is THE GORILLA IN ROOM issue for our US 99% WE THE PEOPLE is not only ECONOMIC public policy----but it is the killing of any ability of humans on EARTH to measure LONGITUDE. LONGITUDE via ISLAND OF DAY BEFORE required instruments able to measure by STANDING ON EARTH.
Today, GPS---------those satellites in the sky -----are measuring LONGITUDE from ABOVE EARTH-------so there is no need to set a PRIME MERIDIAN as a physical location to start mapping degrees of longitude.
Our 99% OF US and global citizens will have no access to GPS TECHNOLOGY and information in MOVING FORWARD----that is being enfolded into THE BIG DEAD HEAD ONE WORLD ONE TECHNOLOGY GRID with only the global 1% having the capability of determining and knowing LONGITUDE.....ergo, being able to establish REAL ESTATE OWNERSHIP.
THE TWO GORILLA IN ROOM GEO-POLITICAL PUBLIC POLICIES FOR OUR US 99% WE THE PEOPLE ----NOT ONLY THE FLIPPING OF EARTH'S ECONOMIC AXIS FROM WEST TO EAST----BUT THE COMPLETE INABILITY TO CALCULATE LONGITUDE NEEDED IN TRAVEL AND PROPERTY OWNERSHIP.
Astro Navigation Demystified
Navigate Without GPS
Calculating Changes in Longitude and Time Along a Parallel of Latitude.If two ships are both positioned exactly on the Equator but are separated by 900 nautical miles in an east/west direction, then in terms of longitude, they will be 15o apart and in terms of Greenwich Mean Time, they will be 1 hour apart. If however, they both move to latitude 50oN maintaining a distance of 900 nautical miles between them, they will find that their difference in longitude has increased to 23o.36. and their difference in GMT has increased to 1.5 hours.
What are the reasons for these differences?
Longitude and Distance at the Equator.
The Earth’s equatorial circumference is 21639 n.m. Since the Equator is a great circle, 1o will subtend an arc of: 21639 ÷ 360 = 60.1 » 60 n.m. There are 360 meridians of Longitude so it follows that, measuring from the Earth’s centre, the angular distance between adjacent meridians at the Equator is 1o. Since, as calculated above, 1o subtends an arc of 60 n.m. it follows that the distance between adjacent meridians of longitude at the Equator is 60 n.m.
Returning to the original question, the distance between the ships when measuring along the Equator, is 900 nautical miles. Since, as explained above, the distance between adjacent meridians of longitude at the Equator is 60 n.m, the difference in longitude between the ships must be 900 ÷ 60 = 15o.
Longitude and Mean Time.
The Mean Sun completes its 360o revolution of the Earth in 24 hours. So, in 1 hour, the Mean Sun moves 15o,
in 4 minutes, it moves 1o,
in 1 minute it moves 15′,
in 4 seconds it moves 1′.
From this, it becomes obvious that there is a direct relationship between arc and mean time such that 1 minute of time equals 15 minutes of arc. We know that the angular distance between meridians of longitude at the Equator is 1o and that 1o equates to 4 minutes of time so we can conclude that the mean time difference between adjacent meridians of longitude is 4 minutes.
Why Greenwich Mean Time.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the local mean time anywhere on the meridian of Greenwich. Since the Greenwich meridian is used as the base meridian from which the longitude of all places on Earth are identified, it follows from the discussion above, that GMT provides the link between the longitude of a place and the longitude of Greenwich. Therefore, if we know the longitude of a position on the Earth’s surface, we can easily calculate the GMT at that position since 1o of longitude equates to 4 minutes of GMT. Alternatively, we can calculate the longitude of a place if we know the GMT there.
Returning to the original question again, we have calculated that the ships are separated by 15o of longitude which in terms of GMT, equates to a time difference of one hour.
Note. Universal Time (UT).
The term Universal Time was adopted internationally in 1928 as a more precise term than Greenwich Mean Time, because GMT can refer to either an astronomical or a civil day. However, the term Greenwich Mean Time persists in common usage to this day and is generally considered to be synonymous with the term Universal Time. It should be noted that the Nautical Almanac and other tables of astronomical data usually refer to UT instead of GMT.
Longitude and Distance Along a Parallel of Latitude.
The diagram below shows that, as the meridians of longitude move away from the Equator, they draw closer together until they eventually converge at the poles.
In the next diagram, the arcs AC and BD lie on different meridians of longitude. The arc AB is the distance between these meridians measured along the surface of latitude 50oN and the arc CD is the distance between the same meridians measured along the Equator. Clearly, the distance CD is much greater than the distance AB.
To Calculate The Distance Between Two Meridians Along A Parallel Of Latitude.
The following formulae are used for calculating the difference in distance along a parallel of latitude (Ddist) corresponding to a difference in longitude (Dlong) and vice versa. The formulae are simply stated below without explanation but if you wish to see a full explanation of their derivation then click here).
Ddist = Dlong x Cos Lat. and Dlong = Ddist ÷ Cos Lat.
We will take this week to discuss in detail all these public policy issues surrounding PRIME MERIDIAN-----TIME ZONES-----measuring LATITUDE/LONGITUDE ----but remember our basic high school science.
LATITUDE has ATTITUDE because it is easily measured with the EARTH's widest measure at the EQUATOR. The only tool needed to measure LATITUDE is any basic measuring tape-----the first scientists mapping the globe actually walked these measurements----so our 99% WE THE PEOPLE can keep that ability to know LATITUDE.
LONGITUDE is more complicated.
What Is the Equator's Latitude?
By Nikki Saint Bautista
Updated April 25, 2017
World map background image by Stasys Eidiejus from Fotolia.com
A standard geographic coordinate system was invented to make navigating around the world easier. Horizontal lines of latitude and vertical lines of longitude make up this grid system, slicing up the Earth in quadrants and angles. By using the center of the Earth as a starting point, an angular distance, measured in degrees, can be calculated and then used to pinpoint the location of a place on Earth’s surface.
Latitude Lines and the Equator
Latitude lines, by definition, mark the angular distance between the equator and either the north or south poles, in reference to the center of the Earth. The equator is used as the origin for the measurement of latitude because it is the line that encircles the Earth’s diameter. Because the equator is equidistant from the geographic north and south poles, it divides the northern hemisphere from the southern hemisphere.
How Latitude Is Measured
Standort Erde als Icon image by Marem from
Lines of latitude are parallel to each other. Therefore, any line of latitude above the equator is measured as X degrees north latitude; any below the equator is measured in X degrees south latitude (X is variable, e.g. 10 degrees, 2 degrees, and so on; the abbreviations N for north and S for south are also used).
Sciencing Video Vault
Latitude of the Equator
palm tree image by Benjamin Jefferson from Fotolia.com
A line drawn from the center of the Earth to the equator would yield an angle of 0 degrees, and therefore, the equator’s location is said to be at 0 degrees latitude. Because the equator spans the diameter of the Earth, no N or S is needed to indicate which latitudinal section of Earth is being referenced.
globe image by danimages from Fotolia.com
Whereas lines of latitude run from east to west (horizontally), lines that run north to south (vertically) are known as lines of longitude.
By definition, lines of longitude respectively begin and end at the geographic north and south poles—the horizontal spacing between the lines of longitude narrow to 0 degrees at each of the poles, and widen as they approach the equator. In other words, lines of longitude converge at the poles and, therefore, are not parallel to each other. But longitudinal lines perpendicularly intersect lines of latitude. For instance, a line running from the north (or south) pole to the equator yields an angle of 90 degrees, geologist Steven Okulewicz explains.
Also known as meridians, lines of longitude range from 0 degrees to 180 degrees from the Prime Meridian (0 degrees) in England to the International Date Line (180 degrees). Geographic coordinates are determined when lines of longitude intersect with lines of latitude. These coordinates determine the location of a place on Earth, such as the equator.
This is the REAL location of an ISLAND OF DAY BEFORE-------remember, ECO is historical FICTION.
'The International Date Line (IDL)
is an imaginary line of demarcation on the surface of Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude but deviating to pass around some territories and island groups'.
We understand that the ISLAND OF DAY BEFORE identified THE INTERNATIONAL DATELINE which is 180 degrees EAST. It breaks the PACIFIC divide and no doubt will be that EASTERN BORDER of FLAT EARTH where Himalaya's will be that WESTERN BORDER -----
A PRIME MERIDIAN is simply a global banking 1% FINANCIAL demarcation.
If MOVING FORWARD ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE is the FINAL SOLUTION----there is no need for a PRIME MERIDIAN---or TIME ZONES.
Why did we see 80 degree EAST in reading ISLAND OF DAY BEFORE?
How the International Date Line Works
Published on Dec 19, 2009 You Tube
How the international date line works.
If we watch all that global banking 1% continuous wars MOVING FORWARD throughout BUSH/OBAMA/TRUMP with all that CHEST-THUMPING BEOWULFING======we will see how EXPLOSIVE ====how WW3ish======that entire region is today. All of this could be seen as a goal way back in 1980s-90s MASTER PLAN OF NEW WORLD ORDER. We were shouting all this back in 1980-90s.
We watch our national and international FAKE global banking 1% creating geo-political tensions with RUSSIA RUSSIA RUSSIA CHINA CHINA CHINA because this is the theater for the start of WW3.
Just follow the 80 degree east longitude to find where the WESTERN BORDER of EASTERN HEMISPHERE ECONOMIC AXIS will be----and then we KNOW the INTERNATIONAL DATELINE----where EAST ends.
OH, WE SEE! This is why global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS KNIGHTS OF MALTA TRIBE OF JUDAH have all that problem with global banking 5% freemason/Greek FAKE civil unrest civil war ISIS as terrorists up and down that 80 degree east longitude.
U.S. Wars in Iraq, Syria, Libya and Yemen:
What Are The Endstates?
August 15, 2016
It is one of the many ironies of the 2016 presidential campaign that the United States is at war in varying degrees in four different countries in the Middle East and North Africa—Iraq, Syria, Libya, and Yemen—as well as continuing its “longest war” in Afghanistan. All five of these wars now involve ISIS to some degree—ISIS is the central focus of the wars in Iraq, Syria, and Libya—and probably to a degree that seriously threatens the future stability of the MENA region and U.S. strategic interests.
Neither Trump nor Clinton have seriously addressed U.S. policy for any of these five wars, and the Obama Administration has not publically stated its grand strategy for any conflict. For the first time in its national history, the United States may get through a Presidential campaign amidst multiple wars without seriously debating or discussing where any of its wars are going, or what their longer-term impact will be.
If anything, both American politics and the media seem to focus far more on whether or not President Obama failed to keep his 2008 campaign promises to end very different wars. This focus disregards whether or not his legacy involves the ability to actually win any of what are now very different conflicts in a form that will have an outcome that serves U.S. interests and those of our allies.
This lack of attention to America’s wars is dangerous in the case of all its wars, but it is particularly dangerous in the case of Iraq, Syria, Libya, and Yemen. The United States is supporting a very different mix of forces in each country in different ways with what seems to be one narrow goal: denying ISIS the ability to control territory or the ability to establish some form of government and sanctuary. The key U.S. tools in each war zone mix air power and with U.S. train and assist efforts and arms transfers to local factions. The United States also provides some limited ground artillery and Special Forces support in Iraq, and a mix of more limited U.S. and allied support for very different types of factions in Syria and Libya.
In each case, the United States may be succeeding to the point where it is tipping the balance enough to achieve the narrow strategic goal of “defeating” ISIS to the point where ISIS no longer controls major cities or blocs of territory. Moreover, the United States may largely achieve this goal before a new President comes to office and can put his or her national security team fully in place. This may well be a “victory” in a narrow sense, and no one can deny that ISIS’s ability to control population centers, blocs of territory, and sanctuaries for fundraising, training terrorists and fighters, and for carrying out its indoctrination efforts made it a far more serious threat.
There is no prospect in any such war, however, that the United States will win a near term victory in either the broader strategic sense of fully defeating ISIS, or in the grand strategic sense of ending a war with a stable and desirable outcome.
Once again, the United States does not seem to be learning from its past. The real test of victory is never tactical success or even ending a war on favorable military terms, it is what comes next. World War I was a military victory that became a grand strategic disaster. World War II led to nearly half a century of Cold War, the creation of an existential nuclear threat to the United States, and a “peace” that still has not created a stable relationship with Russia. Korea has been locked into more than half a century of unstable stalemate that is now going nuclear. Vietnam has produced the irony of a long chain of U.S. tactical victories that have ended in a major strategic defeat, but have gradually been followed by steadily closer U.S. strategic relations with its former enemy.
ISIS Cannot Be Defeated Quickly and No Credible Form of Eventual Defeat of ISIS Will Defeat the Threat of Terrorism
Moreover, America’s political leaders seem to be ignoring warnings from senior U.S. officials like the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, Director of National Intelligence, and experts in its National Counterterrorism Center that any victory which deprives ISIS of control over cities and major blocs of territory in Iraq, Syria, and Libya will be limited at best. U.S. military planners—like their Iraqi counterparts—are deeply concerned that “liberating” Mosul will trigger at least a year of constant ISIS attacks from the fighters that disperse or hide in Western Iraq, and no one seems to openly address how Western Iraq can be secured until IISS is defeated in Syria as well.
This, however, raises the broader issue of what will happen to tens of thousands of ISIS fighters if ISIS loses its major population centers in Iraq and Syria like Mosul and Raqqa, as well as control over the coastal strip in Libya around Sirte (Surt). Many will head back to their country of origin, others will go to a new front somewhere in the region or South and Central Asia, and some will stay. The organizations they join may or may not keep the name ISIS, but they are likely to stay violent Islam extremists whose terrorism in the United States and Europe continues to try to divide the true path of Islam from the rest of world, and threaten every moderate regime in the Muslim world.
A terrorist by any other name is not a “rose,” and the threat both ISIS fighters and other such extremists pose will continue to be a threat indefinitely into the future. Moreover, all of the political, economic, social, and demographics forces that triggered the rise of such extremism and the massive upheaval that begin in 2011 have grown worse over the last half-decade – as have the tensions Muslims living in the West face as the result of the terrorism committed by a small minority.
The effort to counter the extremist message seems to be improving, but there is no similar success in addressing the complex mix of other underlying causes. Civil upheavals, civil war, sectarian and ethnic violence, a loss of investment and capital flight, massive refugee and IDP problems, a loss of tourist income, and a 40-60% drop in petroleum revenues do not alone produce some predictable increase in extremism or terrorism. Neither does fear of Muslims by non-Muslims, and discrimination against Muslims in the West and other areas outside largely Muslim states. These forces, however, are almost certain to make things worse.
Here, it is critical to look beyond the current U.S. obsession with ISIS and look at the broader threat. If one looks at the most recent START statistics on terrorism in the State Department annual report on terrorism, and only considers the top five threats, three are clearly Islamist extremist: ISIS (in Syria and Iraq), the Taliban, and Boko Harum. There are more than 40 Islamist extremist groups listed in the START database, but if one looks only at these top three, ISIS was responsible for only 37% of the attacks and 38% of the deaths.
There is no clear way to assess the role of ISIS role in terms of all Islamist extremist attacks, but if one looks at the total numbers of attacks in the countries with the highest rates of terrorism in the MENA region (Egypt, Iraq, Libya, and Syria), ISIS was responsible for 29% of the attacks in 2015, and 56% of the deaths.
Islamic extremism does dominate global terrorism, but ISIS was only responsible for 9% of the attacks in the entire world in 2015, and 21% of the deaths. Depriving ISIS of control over population centers and sanctuary to raise funds and train fighters, and breaking it up as key organization, matters. Defeating it in any practical sense, however, will not begin to deal with the lasting threat.
Looking Beyond ISIS: What Comes Next in Libya
The problems of what comes next in the wars the United States is now fighting also goes far beyond ISIS. The issue is simplest in Libya. Defeating ISIS may or may not ease the tensions between Libya’s two de facto governments in its west and its East. They have cooperated to some degree in fighting ISIS. It may or may not ease the internal tensions within each area that have sharply reduced Libya’s petroleum exports and income. Other tribal and regional fighting may or may not emerge as more serious problems.
What is clear is that these divisions and low-level civil war have made Qaddafi’s terrible legacy in terms of poor governance and failed economic development even worse. Libya will need a decade of rebuilding and reform to produce true stability and raise its per capita income and income distribution to acceptable levels. This requires both stable internal politics and leadership, and serious international aid.
Once again, the civil dimension both in war and post-conflict is critical to any form of lasting successful outcome. Some form of “nation-building” is even more difficult than winning actual conflict, but is no less necessary. No real grand strategy is possible without it, and Libya faces critical challenges.
• Population 6.4 million; Median age 28
• Youth unemployment 48.7%; overall unemployment 30% (?)
• 79.7% urbanized
• GDP drops from $130.2B in 2013 to $92.6B in 2015
• Per capita income drops from $20,800 in 2013 to $14,600 in 2015
• 33% below poverty line in 2014.
• As of 2015, 434,869 IDPs, 471,653 people of concern.
• Libya's economy, almost entirely dependent on oil and gas exports, struggled during 2015 as the country plunged into civil war and world oil prices dropped to seven-year lows.
• In early 2015, armed conflict between rival forces for control of the country’s largest oil terminals caused a decline in Libyan crude oil production, which never recovered to more than one-third of the average pre-Revolution highs of 1.6 million barrels per day.
• The Central Bank of Libya continued to pay government salaries to a majority of the Libyan workforce and to fund subsidies for fuel and food, resulting in an estimated budget deficit of about 49% of GDP.
• Libya’s economic transition away from Qaddafi’s notionally socialist model has completely stalled
• Libya’s leaders have hindered economic development by failing to use its financial resources to invest in national infrastructure. The country suffers from widespread power outages in its largest cities, caused by shortages of fuel for power generation. Living conditions, including access to clean drinking water, medical services, and safe housing, have all declined as the civil war has caused more people to become internally displaced, further straining local resources.
• Extremists affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) attacked Libyan oilfields in the first half of 2015; ISIL has a presence in many cities across Libya including near oil infrastructure, threatening future government revenues from oil and gas.
This does not mean the United States needs a major aid mission or even has to take the lead. The United States does, however, need a clear strategy that looks beyond ISIS, does not simply hope for action by other countries, or simply leave a vacuum in its broader efforts while it bombs ISIS. It can lever limited civil and military aid, seek some kind of common effort with Europe, and develop an integrated civil-military approach to strategic partnership.
Past experience also shows that such efforts have to be public and transparent enough to put real pressure on State, USAID, and Defense to act. The past efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan simply papered over a lack of real planning, interagency coordination, and effective effort. It also papered over a lack of coordination with other countries, tolerance of failed efforts by key groups like UNAMA, and unwillingness to press coordination with the World Bank and IMF.
Whether the next President choses to use more force, rely on strategic partnerships, or do both, the U.S. has got to look beyond ISIS in dealing with Libya, and look beyond the threat alone, as well as look beyond the partisan domestic politics in the United States of the tragedy in Benghazi.
Yemen: Some States Stay Failed
This need to look beyond ISIS and the threat of Islamist extremism is equally true in the case of Yemen, although for very different reasons. The U.S. backing of the Saudi-UAE led coalition in Yemen is limited largely to support of air operations, intelligence, and targeting data, and is the lowest level of U.S. involvement in its current wars – although a U.S. Marine amphibious force did prevent Iranian convoys from coming to Yemen at one point in the war. Yemen, however, is a military and civil strategic nightmare.
Yemen’s elected (one candidate) government, the remnants of the Saleh regime, the Houthi Shiite rebels, the separatist factions in the south, Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, and various tribal factions have no clear reason to reconcile or stop fighting. Any peace is almost certain to be temporary and unstable. Worse, Yemen is so poor, so limited in water, lacking in economic development, so tied to a narco-economy, and so highly populated that it has no clear path towards nation building its various factions can agree upon.
Even if one ignores immediate issues like casualties, food shortages and people at risk from the war; Yemen faces a host of longer-term challenges like sharp population growth, critically low rate of development and critical water problems, and the following mix of immediate challenges:
• Population 27 million; Median age 19
• 40% of children underweight before war.
• Youth unemployment 37%; overall unemployment 27%
• GDP dropped from $105B in 2013 to $75.5 in 2015
• Per capita income drops from $3,900 in 2013 to $2,700 in 2015
• 54% below poverty line in 2014.
• As of 2015, 2.5 million IDPs, 267,000 refugees, 2.8 million people of concern.
• Ongoing war has halted Yemen’s exports, pressured the currency’s exchange rate, accelerated inflation, severely limited food and fuel imports, and caused widespread damage to infrastructure. At least 82% of the population is in need of humanitarian assistance.
• Rebel Huthi groups have interfered with Ministry of Finance and Central Bank operations and diverted funds for their own use. Yemen’s Central Bank reserves, which stood at $5.2 billion prior to the conflict, currently stand at $1.5 billion.
• The Central Bank is exposed to approximately $7 billion in overdraft, more than three times the legal limit, directly linked to the Houthis withdrawing $116 million on a monthly basis.
• The private sector is hemorrhaging, with almost all businesses making substantial layoffs.
• The Port of Hudaydah, which handles 60% of Yemen’s commercial traffic, was damaged in August 2015 as a result of the conflict and is only operating at 50% capacity.
• Access to food and other critical commodities such as medical equipment is limited across the country due to security issues on the ground.
• The Social Welfare Fund, a cash transfer program for Yemen’s neediest, is no longer operational and has not made any disbursements since late 2014.
Yemen’s strategic position at the gates to the Red Sea and long border with Saudi Arabia do make it a potential strategic threat. At least for the foreseeable future, however, the most that one can hope for is to limit and contain its violence and role in terrorism and in the growing tension between Iran and Saudi Arabia. Any end to conflict is likely to be temporary or illusory, and serious nation building is likely to be impossible. The United States still needs a strategy for both the military and civil side of Yemen’s fighting and instability, and it sill has to make hard choices, but the best real-world strategy is likely to be an awkward and unstable mix of containment and finding the least bad options.
The Greater Strategic Challenges and Risks in Iraq
The most serious strategic challenges and risks, however, occur in Iraq and Syria. Both have religious and ethnic factions that either want forms of federalism that give them near control over the regions they dominate, or these factions want independence. The fight against ISIS has already been secondary to the broader civil war in Syria, and it has never halted the growing levels of tension between Kurd and Arab and Sunni and Shi’ite in Iraq.
In the case of the Kurds, they now occupy areas in both Iraq and Syria that have never been Kurdish before and now include large areas dominated by Arabs, as well as major oil resources in the case of Iraq. The end result is Iraq and Syria now have separate Kurdish regions which have expanded significantly beyond the areas dominated by Kurds, and done largely because of U.S. aid and military support. Both Kurdish zones also have complex internal tensions that lead to intra-Kurdish conflicts, and tensions with Turkey as well as their Arab populations. Moreover, some of the Kurds in both Iraq and Syria have ties to the PKK in Turkey, a Turkish Kurdish movement that many see as “terrorist” and that is now at war with the Turkish state.
The fight against ISIS has to some extent led both Arab and Kurd to focus on ISIS instead of their own ethnic power struggles, and led Turkey to accept the fact that the United States is using both the Syrian and Iraqi Kurds as lead elements in its fight against ISIS. At the same time, the United States does not seem to have any clear policy that will shape a future role for the Kurds that will give them security in their present countries, reassure the Arabs and Turkey to the degree this is possible, and reduce the future risk of ethnic conflict.
The United States also does not seem to have any public strategy for dealing with the reality that ISIS’s caliphate crosses the border, any victory in one country that does not defeat ISIS in the other makes security extremely difficult for both Syria and Iraq, and defeating ISIS in Iraq, Syria, or both countries opens up new risks of sectarian conflict between Sunni and Shi’ite in Iraq and Sunni and Alawite in Syria.
These tensions cannot be isolated on national level, and will inevitably involve Iran, the other Arab states, and Turkey. In the case of Iraq, any defeat of ISIS in Iraq will raise the question of how a largely Sunni Arab rebel force in the east of Syria—in a country and region where Arab Sunnis make up the largest part of the population as well as dominate Islamic extremist factions—will interact with an Iraq where Arab Sunnis are in a distinct minority and lost control over the state with the fall of Saddam Hussein.
Here we see the NEW GLOBAL BANKING 1% financial PRIME MERIDIAN------Garcia as that global banking 1% LITERARY STAR ----is selling planetary mining slave colonies as great adventures ------LIFE, LOVE, DREAMS---of MARS. That is what lying, cheating, stealing global banking 5% freemason/Greek players do------THEY DON'T CARE. SHOW THEM THE MONEY.
This use of PRIME MERIDIAN in 2018 shows the ending of LONDON/ROME as global financial center-------and it shows how a NEW PRIME MERIDIAN MOVING FORWARD will not be needed. So, we will read how UNNECESSARY PRIME MERIDIAN is----how unnecessary all those TIME ZONES tied to PRIME MERIDIAN and global economics -----
MOVING FORWARD THE NEW PRIME MERIDIAN IS PLANETARY MINING SLAVE COLONIES---MARS. WE WILL NEED SPACE TIME ZONES FOR THAT.
It take a REAL 5% freemason/Greek HILLARY nasty lady to sell MARS as the NEW PRIME MERIDIAN.
Silvia Moreno-Garcia (Goodreads Author)
Love, life, dreams, and a world beyond reach.
Amelia dreams of Mars. The Mars of the movies and the imagination, an endless bastion of opportunities for a colonist with some guts. But she’s trapped in Mexico City, enduring the drudgery of an unkind metropolis, working as a rent-a-friend, selling her blood to old folks with money who hope to rejuvenate themselves with it, enacting a fractured love story. And yet there’s Mars, at the edge of the silver screen, of life. It awaits her.
Note: official publication date is December 2017 but only for IndieGoGo backers. Wide release for everyone else on July 2018.