NO TIME ZONES FOR YOU.
This is why looking at public policy across all categories of policy is critical. We KNOW SUPER-DUPER BIG DEAD HEAD computers tied to ONE WORLD ONE TECHNOLOGY/ENERGY GRID are building infrastructure that will be SELF-SUSTAINING. Just as someone in Nevada USA can operate a drone flying over Afghanistan----so too will all that SMART CITY as US FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES be operated from a distance----the new Eastern Hemisphere---with robotics and artificial intelligence being those supervisors and managers in massive global corporate COMPLEXES.
We KNOW US FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES have a goal of EXPORT ONLY. So, global foreign manufacturing FACTORIES where workers live, eat, work, are schooled will control all economic activity----all geared toward EXPORTED goods and services.
Any region around the world not having its own sovereign economic activity will not need a TIME ZONE. Only the Eastern Hemisphere from Himalayas to International Date Line where global 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS will have their financial/economic dealings will have TIME ZONES.
'Time Zones & How They Work
Published on Apr 13, 2009
NASA Kids Science News segment explaining time zones and how they work'.
OH, YEAH!!! This is so NOT RADICAL OR NEW and yes, global hedge fund corporation JOHNS HOPKINS is of course pushing it. We have known throughout CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA that the US was to be made a colonial set of independent foreign economic zones controlled from overseas. We don't want to discuss the change in CALENDAR this week.
It's the same all over the world---for just the reasons we are discussing this week-----
The radical plan to destroy time zones
By Adam Taylor
February 12, 2016
Source: CIA (Laris Karklis / The Washington Post)
Last Summer, North Korea did something a little odd. On the 70th anniversary of Korea's liberation from Japanese occupation, the closed and authoritarian state announced it was permanently turning its clocks back half an hour. The country was creating its own time zone: Pyongyang time.
As a plan, it didn't make a lot of sense. Many, understandably, interpreted it as just another example of Pyongyang's characteristically illogical policy logic. Yet Pyongyang time also highlighted something else. All around the world, time zones make little sense. Russia currently has 11 time zones, while China just has one. Spanish people are said to be constantly tired because they are in the wrong time zone. Nepal is –inexplicably – the only country in the world to have a time zone that is set to 45 minutes past the hour.
Looking over this chaotic landscape, it's reasonable to ask: Are time zones inherently flawed? That's what Steve Hanke and Dick Henry think.
A few years back Hanke, a prominent economist with Johns Hopkins University and a senior fellow with the CATO Institute think tank, and Henry, a professor of physics and astronomy at Johns Hopkins, teamed up to propose a new calendar designed to fix the inefficiencies of the current one. The plan was dubbed the "Hanke-Henry Permanent Calendar." Last month, after reading a WorldViews story about Pyongyang time, Hanke reached out to us to detail another idea that he and Henry had devised to fix the chaos caused by time zones.
The plan was strikingly simple. Rather than try to regulate a variety of time zones all around the world, we should instead opt for something far easier: Let's destroy all these time zones and instead stick with one big "Universal Time."
Does that sound extreme? Perhaps, but perhaps not. This map at the top of this post gives you an idea of what the world looks like now, and what it would like if we instead stuck to single system of Universal Time. The logic of Universal Time is strikingly simple: If it's 7 in the morning in Washington D.C., it's 7 everywhere else in the world too. There are no time zones. Wherever you are, the time is the same.
While it may ultimately simplify our lives, the concept would require some big changes to the way we think about time. As the clocks would still be based around the Coordinated Universal Time (the successor to Greenwich Mean Time that runs through Southeast London) most people in the world would have to change the way they consider their schedules. In Washington, for example, that means we'd have to get used to rising around noon and eating dinner at 1 in the morning. (Okay, perhaps that's not that big a change for some people.)
But in many other ways, Hanke and Henry argue, the new system would make communication, travel and trade across international borders far, far easier.
WorldViews recently conducted an interview over email with Hanke and Henry in which they explained why time zones had to go, why Universal Time was a better system, and why the time has also come for their proposed calendar reform. The exchange, lightly edited for clarity, is below (Hanke and Henry gave joint responses to the questions).
WorldViews: It was mentioned in a previous email that there were around five countries who changed their time zones last year. Is this a large number for one year?
Hanke and Henry: It is about par for the course. It remains a political football, which would disappear if our ideas were adopted.
WV: So why do countries change their time zones?
HH: Usually for political reasons, but sometimes for economic reasons. We are on the right side of history: Look at the U.S., where local time in each city was the norm until the railroads came, and time zones were created. Sandford Flemming, a Scottish-Canadian railway engineer, was the first to propose a system of world-wide time zones in 1889: “the twin agencies steam and electricity” annihilated distances and made reform necessary. Today the agency of the Internet has annihilated time and space completely, and has set us up for adoption of world-wide time.
WV: What problems have time zones created around the world?
HH: [Former President Dmitry] Medvedev consolidated Russian time to some extent in 2010, but these reforms have been undone by the Duma in July 2014. Bungled implementation of a good idea. Now North Korea has adopted a half-hour difference between Chinese time and Japanese time. Confusion abounds! Indonesia, where one of us (Hanke) was [former President] Suharto’s chief economic advisor during the Asian financial crisis of 1998, is a large country that you should keep your eye on, as they have proposed to abolish two of their three time zones for economic reasons. That would put Indonesia in the same time zone as Singapore.
WV: Do any time zone policies strike you as particularly egregious?
HH: You are asking if some strands of spaghetti are worse than others: they are all bad.
WV: So, the Universal Time Zone system. What lead you to argue so strongly for that option?
HH: Because from a physics point of view, there IS only one time! And this principle of physics lines up perfectly with the principles of economics. That is precisely why Hanke and Henry addressed this topic in a segment of a Johns Hopkins course on problems in applied economics.
WV: But why would it work better than, say, regulating time zones so they tie in better with the local solar time?
HH: Local solar time was fine, when almost all activity was local! Today, much activity is global, and ONE time is called for. You’d quickly get used to the new reading on your watch and your clock. I (Henry) recall when my elderly mother in Canada said to me, oh, it was hot today, 30 degrees! If she could change [from measuring temperature in Fahrenheit to measuring it in Celsius], everyone can change!
WV: What would be the major positive points of a Universal Time system?
HH: The reason all the airlines in the world use, today, now, Universal Time (Greenwich time), is so that planes don’t crash into each other. Every pilot and navigator knows what time it is. As it stands now, we passengers don’t have what the pilots do have and we miss flights because of clock issues and time zones and daylight savings time … and it's not just airline flights, it is conference calls as well.
WV: Are there any drawbacks that you could see?
HH: Not really. Except that the tricky part of implementation is the setting up of hours-of-work around the world. This is where even China, with its single time, has not fully succeeded: there must be local regional “opening and closing” hours for government offices and for businesses. No one wants people having to work without the sun being up.
WV: But isn't China's system – in effect, having a local time and Beijing time – in some way inefficient?
HH: No it is NOT inefficient. It combines the best of both systems: One universal time, combined with local work time connected with the sun being up. This is not rocket science!
WV: People have been suggesting variations on the idea of a worldwide time zone for at least a century. Why has a system based on local political decision prevailed?
HH: Everything based on local political decisions always prevails: We need to get the politicians on board! In fact, with our scheme, local political influence on hours of work would be local to the city or the state. You preserve local control of hours of work! Having said that, hours of work based on the boundaries of the present “time zones” likely would prevail as “hours of work” zones.
WV: You’ve also written extensively above calendar reform. Do you see this as part of the same problem, or a separate issue?
HH: We propose worldwide adoption of the Hanke-Henry calendar on 2018 January 1 Monday, and adoption of world wide use of Universal Time at that moment. It is ONE issue, and should be implemented world wide, all at once, on 2018 January 1 Monday. One common standard, world wide, overlaid with local and religious calendars as people want, no problem! Please see (and publish if you wish) the attached Hanke-Henry Permanent Calendar!
[Note: The Washington Post's Laris Karklis actually made a clearer version of the calendar, which we've included below]
WV: Do you think a move toward a Universal Time Zone and a new calendar system is possible without some sort of supranational body taking charge?
HH: For now, at least, we are relying on social media to start the ball rolling. 2018 January 1 is only two years away! Spread the word! Let’s go viral!
When far-right wing global fascist HOPKINS meets CATO------watch out 99% of US AND GLOBAL CITIZENS black, white, and brown citizens.
'A few years back Hanke, a prominent economist with Johns Hopkins University and a senior fellow with the CATO Institute think tank, and Henry, a professor of physics and astronomy at Johns Hopkins'
Let's just look at US TIME ZONES since we are stopping MOVING FORWARD and rebuilding our last century's domestic AMERICAN economy in all US cities-----the US has four time zones tied to east coast NYC driving west coast LA/SAN FRAN crazy because they are 3 hours behind in the BUSINESS WORLD of communications.
If we rebuild our US cities with local, domestic, small/regional businesses keeping global banking 1% corporations away then the choice in TIME ZONE policies is this:
DO WE CONTINUE TO KEEP FOUR TIME ZONES OR DO WE NOT NEED ANY?
This is the ONLY question for our US 99% WE THE PEOPLE and in rebuilding a sovereign domestic economy.
This question can be easy----if we are starting with small/regional businesses creating products and services for our 99% of citizens within a single city----a single state, or simply crossing borders to a region
WE DON'T NEED 4 TIME ZONES INSIDE US. WHAT WE NEED IS PATIENCE FROM THOSE WANTING LARGE CORPORATIONS IN WAITING FOR THESE AMERICAN BUSINESSES TO GROW.
If we are rebuilding regional US SOVEREIGN businesses then let's get rid of TIME ZONES----but not for the reasons global banking 1% captured media outlets and 5% freemason/Greek players are paid to sell.
It’s Time To Get Rid Of Time Zones
By Andrew Syrios, April 16th 2015
Time zones are antiquated nuisance and we don’t need them anymore. Yes, at one time they made sense. Back when people didn’t move around much and we lacked mass-communication, time zones made it so there was a consistency to what times corresponded to morning, noon and night. They made things just a tiny bit better.
Now days, though, time zones just make scheduling meetings with people across the country annoying and prone to error. “Wait, are we meeting at 2:00 your time or my time?” And then add a third or fourth person from a third or fourth time zone and the mess just compounds upon itself in an admittedly trivial, but annoying way nonetheless.
The history of time zones sounds like some quaint artifact of the British Empire. In short, Greenwich Mean Time was developed in Britain in 1675 to help mariners and then in 1879, some Knighted Canadian dude by the name of Sanford Fleming proposed a worldwide system of time zones and by 1929 every major country had adopted them. It’s quite boring, so if you’re a weirdo and interested in such things, see here for more detail.
Regardless, Sanford Fleming has made a mess of conference calls. And he made traveling even worse. A two hour flight sets me ahead four hours. My cell phone automatically updates, my alarm clock doesn’t, my new computer does, my old computer doesn’t. These trivial headaches add up to one giant, trivial migraine.
And let’s not forget Daylights Savings. Yes it saves some daylight, but you would think we can find another way to save daylight and adjust our schedules without artificially changing the time. Furthermore, it adds even more temporal confusion. For example, Arizona has decided to just go ahead and not observe it. So basically, half of the year Arizona is on Mountain Time and half of the year it’s on Pacific Time. “When is our conference call again?”
Indeed, the actual borders of time zones themselves are a zig-zaggish, jagged mess and not the purely straight, latitudesque lines that the propagandists of time zones want you to believe they are. For example, howderfamily.com points out one such example of this inconsequential madness,
“Follow Interstate 64 out of Louisville, Kentucky, heading west. A fictional driver replicating this route would do fine up to now, motoring down a highway happily on Eastern Time. He would cross the Ohio River at Louisville, enter Indiana, and then proceeds another 44 miles (71 km) to the border between Crawford Co. and Perry Co. This point would mark a transition between Eastern Time and Central Time. No worries. Our driver would make a mental adjustment and be on his way. However in quick succession — over the next 15 minutes — he would travel back into Eastern Time (Dubois Co.) then into Central Time (Spencer Co.) then into Eastern Time (Dubois Co.) and finally back into Central Time (Spencer Co.) due to a series of I-64 undulations.”
I remind you, this driver is going east to west, not north or south.
Now, does this all border on the irrelevant? Of course it does. But hey, some guy overslept, another gal almost missed her last final in college, some guy had to deal with a computer full of hundreds of appointments scheduled two hours off and the real problems of the world are just so much more challenging to solve.
So yes, it’s nice to have the same hours everywhere you go so you can wake up between 6:00 to 8:00 am and go to sleep between 10:00 and 12:00 pm. But even those advantages are questionable. Why, after all, aren’t the hours it’s dark set for either am or pm and the hours it’s light set for the other? Why don’t we wake up around the beginning of the day and change 6:00 to 12:00? You know what, why the Hell do we have am and pm anyways? It goes to 12:00 and then starts over, goes to 12:00 again and that’s all in one day? That’s almost as stupid as me taking the time to write this article in first place!
Regardless, the trivial gains of time zones are not worth the trivial costs. The world would be an infinitesimally little bit better of a place to live without them, so let’s just go ahead and get rid of time zones.
As we shout over and over----yes, the ONE WORLD ONE TECHNOLOGY/ENERGY GRID is behind these discussions on TIME ZONES and PRIME MERIDIANS. Of course global banking 1% is sending our FAKE NEWS and DATA selling these goals as
NO BIG DEAL FOR 99% OF US OR GLOBAL CITIZENS---DON'T WORRY BE HAPPY
Again, the goals of ONE WORLD ONE TECHNOLOGY GRID is having ONLY global corporate campuses accessing THE INTERNET. All internet space will be needed for the massive size of these global technology businesses and add to that SMART CITIES and 99% of citizens will not be accessing the internet in any way not tied to doing a job. Forget the idea you will have a START UP TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS needing these NO TIME ZONE policies----it is LYING AND HIDING from global banking 1% whose only talent is LYING, CHEATING, AND STEALING.
So, yes the new EASTERN HEMISPHERE economy will still have its time zones. There is a vast space between HIMALAYAS and INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE.
The second concern for 99% of US and global citizens who will no longer be able to access the internet----we will not have access to all that COOL GPS.
Everyone can see why here in Baltimore our 99% of WE THE BALTIMORE CITIZENS black, white, and brown citizens are going to FIX BALTIMORE by getting global banking hedge fund corporation JOHNS HOPKINS out of our people's city agencies. People should do the same across America.
Has the Internet really made time zones obsolete?
Not by a long shot.
By Michael Hiltzik
Feb 16, 2016 | 2:59 PM
A proposal by a couple of professors at Johns Hopkins University to eliminate the world's time zones has been getting some new attention in the press lately. Let's take a look.
The idea put forth by Richard Henry of the physics and astronomy faculty and economist Steve Hanke is that, since the "the Internet has annihilated time and space completely" (as they told the Washington Post), "and has set us up for adoption of world-wide time." In other words, the time is right to blow up the very notion of time zones completely.
Under their proposal, clocks everywhere in the world would be set to the same hour. While people wouldn't necessarily change their normal routines, 7 a.m. might mark the waking hour in London, but local clocks near the Johns Hopkins campus in Baltimore would be reading 2 a.m. when the sun came up and the working day began. To put it another way, when clocks read 7 a.m. on the East Coast of the United States, most people would be deep into REM sleep, since that would be the same as 2 a.m. today.
Does this sound like a simplification to you, or the very definition of an idea that's not worth the effort? We ask because the Post's interview with Henry and Hanke appeared within a few days of a piece by columnist John Kay of the Financial Times, reminding readers that time had a lot to do with the historic rise of London as a worldwide financial center.
That wasn't because the British imposed Greenwich Mean Time as the world standard during the era when the sun never set on their empire, as is commonly supposed. Kay asserts that it's because London happens to be situated so that its business day overlaps with those of major markets around the globe. When it's 9 a.m. in London, he observes, it's 5 p.m. in Singapore and Hong Kong and 6 p.m. in Tokyo. At 5 p.m. London time, it's noon in New York and 9 a.m. in Los Angeles and San Francisco.
"The maximum time difference easily managed," Kay writes, "is between eight and nine hours, so for every location there are about seven time zones difficult to access. In the case of London, to the city's good fortune, these time zones span the Pacific Ocean, where not many people live."
This is something of a Brit-centered view of the world, as one might expect from the FT. In most world centers, some financial managers are blessed with alluring work hours and others are cursed to live sleep-deprived or socially isolated existences.
In Los Angeles and San Francisco, brokers and traders pegging their business to the New York markets have to be up and ready in time for the markets' opening at 6:30 a.m. Pacific time, but they can knock off after the U.S. markets close at 1 p.m. by their clocks. They're more out of sync with their important trading partners across the Pacific Rim: When Shanghai opens at 9:30 a.m. local time, it's already 5:30 p.m. in Los Angeles (6:30 p.m. after daylight saving time starts in the spring). Tokyo starts trading at 9 a.m. local time, or 4 p.m. on the U.S. West Coast.
The arrival of the Internet didn't actually eliminate these time differences, of course; by encouraging more global transactions, it just increased the ability of financial company bosses to force more of their employees to sync up to the workday rhythms of places halfway across the world.
That points to a major flaw in the Henry-Hanke proposal to eliminate time zones: it won't actually change anything. Workdays everywhere typically follow the sun on its local journey across the heavens, for the simple reason that human beings are hard-wired to sleep at night. For much of the day, one often doesn't even have to look at a clock on the wall, a wrist or a smartphone to sense within a half-hour or so what time it is. The body keeps its own clock, and sets it to the sun. (The best way to beat jet lag while traveling? Take a long walk outside in the sunshine to reset your internal timer.)
Add to that the simple fact that time zones are largely a political construct. Henry and Hanke think that's a flaw in the system, but, in truth, it's a reality to be meekly accepted. Every year a few countries change their time zones for their own reasons; last year North Korea, ever the would-be trend-setter, established a new time zone it dubbed Pyongyang time, setting its clocks 30 minutes earlier than South Korea and Japan and 30 minutes ahead of China.
Every region has its outliers. Arizona has long been a holdout against daylight saving time, possibly out of sheer cussedness. So although the state is located in the Mountain time zone, for part of the year its clocks are set an hour ahead of the West Coast, and for part of the year they show the same time. The state's Navajo lands, however, follow daylight time, so they're out of sync with the rest of the state for several months too.
In the sprawling United States and Canada, time was a crazy quilt of local traditions until the railroads began to bind the nations together coast to coast. The railroads' need to coordinate with one another prompted several visionaries to propose systems of time zones; the one that ultimately prevailed was developed by the Canadian Sandford Fleming, who proposed in 1870 a system of five zones across North America, all an hour off from one another, all pegged to Greenwich Mean Time, which was set at the Royal Observatory in London.
But Fleming's plan wasn't implemented until more than three years later, on Nov. 18, 1883, when North America's railroads all synchronized their clocks. Many communities across the United States still balked, however, and the system wasn't codified in U.S. law until 1918.
Think it would be easy or efficient to remake this system on a global scale? Or is it more likely to be a plan that not all the time in the world can make happen?
The public policy surrounding DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME tied to TIME ZONES is a different issue. As this article suggests the origin was tied to businesses saving energy by slight changes in
when employees arrived to work. The other issue was helping to keep our children going to school from having to walk early mornings in dark. Back then, most children were walking to school. Business hours in US have been mostly 8-5PM.
If US FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES with all those GLOBAL FACTORIES are going to operate 24/7====then DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME has no effect in saving businesses money. This is why FALLING FORWARD AND BACK is an issue today.
Some people are morning people and like DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME brightening mornings earlier. People who are not morning people could care less.
So, the issue of DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME itself is not a big issue for our US 99% WE THE PEOPLE. It's the reason global banking 1% is changing these policies that should be a GORILLA-IN-ROOM for our US citizens. Having global corporations operating 24/7 means 18 hour days and no one will see THE LIGHT OF DAY.
No need for DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME because 24/7 eliminates any energy savings a business used to attain.
History of Daylight Saving Time (DST)
Daylight Saving Time (DST) is used to save energy and make better use of daylight. It was first used in 1908 in Thunder Bay, Canada.
DST makes for longer evenings.
What Is Daylight Saving Time?
DST is a seasonal time change measure where clocks are set ahead of standard time during part of the year, usually by 1 hour. As DST starts, the Sun rises and sets later, on the clock, than the day before.
Today, about 40% of countries worldwide use it to make better use of daylight and to conserve energy.
Does DST really save energy?
DST can cause health problems
First Used in Canada in 1908While Germany and Austria were the first countries to use DST in 1916, it is a little-known fact that a few hundred Canadians beat the German Empire by 8 years. On July 1, 1908, the residents of Port Arthur, Ontario, today's Thunder Bay, turned their clocks forward by 1 hour to start the world's first DST period.
The world's first clock change in detail
Other locations in Canada soon followed suit. On April 23, 1914, Regina in Saskatchewan implemented DST. The cities of Winnipeg and Brandon in Manitoba did so on April 24, 1916. According to the April 3, 1916, edition of the Manitoba Free Press, Daylight Saving Time in Regina “proved so popular that bylaw now brings it into effect automatically”.
Germany's 1916 DST law.
Germany Popularized DST
However, the idea did not catch on globally until Germany introduced DST in 1916. Clocks in the German Empire, and its ally Austria, were turned ahead by 1 hour on April 30, 1916—2 years into World War I. The rationale was to minimize the use of artificial lighting to save fuel for the war effort.
Within a few weeks, the idea was followed by the United Kingdom, France, and many other countries. Most of them reverted to standard time after World War I, and it wasn’t until the next World War that DST made its return in most of Europe.
Who Invented DST?
If you think Daylight Saving Time is a good idea, thank New Zealand scientist George Vernon Hudson and British builder William Willett. In 1895, Hudson presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society, proposing a 2-hour shift forward in October and a 2-hour shift back in March. There was interest in the idea, but it was never followed through.
In 1905, independently from Hudson, British builder William Willett suggested setting the clocks ahead 20 minutes on each of the 4 Sundays in April, and switching them back by the same amount on each of the 4 Sundays in September, a total of 8 time switches per year.
First Daylight Saving Bill
Willett’s Daylight Saving plan caught the attention of the British Member of Parliament Robert Pearce who introduced a bill to the House of Commons in February 1908. The first Daylight Saving Bill was drafted in 1909, presented to Parliament several times and examined by a select committee. However, the idea was opposed by many, especially farmers, so the bill was never made into a law.
Willett died in 1915, the year before the United Kingdom started using DST in May 1916. It is not known if he was aware that his idea had become a reality 7 years prior to his death in a small town in Ontario.
Benjamin Franklin, the Father of DST?
Many sources also credit Benjamin Franklin with being the first to suggest seasonal time change. However, the idea voiced by the American inventor and politician in 1784 can hardly be described as fundamental for the development of modern DST. After all, it did not even involve turning the clocks. In a letter to the editor of the Journal of Paris, which was entitled “An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light”, Franklin simply suggested that Parisians could economize candle usage by getting people out of bed earlier in the morning. What's more: Franklin meant it as a joke.
An Ancient Idea
Although modern DST has only been used for about 100 years, ancient civilizations are known to have engaged in comparable practices thousands of years ago. For example, the Roman water clocks used different scales for different months of the year to adjust the daily schedules to the solar time.
Daylight Saving Today
Daylight Saving Time is now used in over 70 countries worldwide and affects over 1 billion people every year. The beginning and end dates vary from one country to another.
REAL LEFT social progressives want our new to US immigrants from ASIA ---between that HIMALAYA and INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE to understand---we are not JEALOUS ----no ENVY over this loss of TIME ZONES for all nations west of 80 degree east longitude. The issues for our US 99% WE THE PEOPLE are the same for our 99% of citizens globally---yes, even inside the new EASTERN HEMISPHERE.
Below we see discussion on problems with TIME ZONES globally. Again, we will state for a nation like NEWFOUNDLAND/GREEENLAND once global banking 1% sucks away all energy sources----you will be LOST IN SPACE.
These TIME ZONE issues for INDIA/CHINA/AUSTRALIA are real issues. In creating a united EASTERN HEMISPHERE economic zone from nations having been separate sovereignties then standardization does indeed have to occur just as it did for US REGIONS as our US DOMESTIC businesses grew from regional to national.
Again, we want our Eastern Hemisphere to have its REGIONAL ECONOMY-----we simply want to assure we maintain our WESTERN ECONOMIES as well.
GEO-politically, yes there is reason to discuss changes in TIME ZONES overseas.
Maps March 9, 2017
Here are some of the world's most stupid time zones
By Jack May
As citizens in the great nation of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, the Prime Meridian, and the official designated centre of the world, we Brits can forget the bizarre ridiculousness of time zones.
Why is it that flying west from London to Madrid results in shifting the clocks one time zone eastward – an hour ahead?
And did anyone ever give a thought to the zip wire across the River Guadiana between Spain and Portugal, where your flight across the river is so fast – at 45 miles per hour – that you land in Portugal one hour earlier than you left Spain?
Or, indeed, the one international border where stepping one foot over the mountains means you step three and a half hours back in time?
Time zones have brought strange quirks to the world ever since 26 countries – including the then independent kingdom of Hawaii – gathered in Washington D.C. in 1884 for the Meridian Conference. In the 1940s, Hitler’s sweep through Europe stopped France using GMT, and put an end to ‘Amsterdam time’, which had the Netherlands running twenty minutes ahead of London. At one point, a tiny Pacific archipelago gave the US the ultimate cold shoulder by literally moving to a different day to get away from them.
And even though it’s probably better than the alternative system, where once upon a time every town set its clock to noon when the sun was at its highest and integration be damned, the standardisation of time zones has resulted in some very strange side-effects.
China's one-time state
The third largest country in the world, China sprawls across the Asian continent, spanning a sixth of the world’s breadth from the 75 degrees to almost 135 degrees west, by longitude. When the sun rises on the longest day in the far eastern city of Jiamusi, it’s 7:24pm in the UK, but when it rises in the far west, in Kashgar, it’s 11:29pm.
And yet the entire country only has one time zone. I mean, I get it, you want a totalitarian state and all that, but having one part of the country where a winter’s day doesn’t start until nearly 10am seems a little illogical.
In fact, it’s so illogical that half of the city of Urumqi, in eastern China, uses its own unofficial time zone, while the other runs a working day from 11pm-7pm to account for out of kilter day inflicted by Beijing. Which is incredibly complicated – as Apple learnt when a iOS update silently put all users onto the local unofficial time zone, meaning many people’s alarms went off two hours later than they were expecting.
Pleasingly, though, the uniform time zone means that if you can negotiate the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas, you can cross over into Afghanistan and set your clock back three and a half hours – the biggest land border time-zone change on the planet. More on that later.
But in conclusion, sort it out, China.
Greenland is another fairly big place (though its position in the far north of most map projections makes it look bigger than it really is). It's not made the same mistakes as China.
If anything, in fact, goes rather too far the other way. Almost all of Greenland runs on GMT-3, putting it four hours behind its parent nation, Denmark; but a few tiny corners insist on having things their own way.
The Thule Air Base, run by the United States Air Force in the northwest of Greenland, runs on GMT-4, while the Danmarkshavn weather station (permanent population: eight) runs on GMT. For no particularly good reason.
Meanwhile, Greenland’s 18th-largest city of Ittoqqortoormiit (yes, really), runs on GMT-1 along with pretty much nobody except the Azores and Cape Verde.
Staying in a similar geographic locale, the Newfoundlanders decided to screw up the orderliness of Canada’s time zones. The bulk of the country makes things simple enough, running from GMT-4 in the east, through GMT-5 in Toronto and Québec, GMT-6 in Winnipeg, GMT-7 in Edmonton to GMT-8 in Vancouver in the west.
Newfoundland, though? “Nah,” they thought. “Let’s go with GMT-3.5, because we’re cool.”
That's basically because Newfoundland was a separate colony when time zones became a thing, so it had the right to establish its own time zone. About a hundred years later in 1963, when it had been subsumed into the independent nation of Canada, the provincial government tried to click it back into sync with the rest of the Atlantic region of Canada. The move was basically thwarted by a bunch of time NIMBYs. The state of you, Newfoundland.
Though in fairness the 6,080 people of St Pierre and Miquelon, a hang-on dribble of islands from the days of the French Empire, stubbornly sticks to GMT-3 even though the nearest functioning place that uses it is… Brazil.
The half-hour gang
Which brings us to the main cluster of countries where somebody decided it was vaguely acceptable to sit half an hour out of kilter with the rest of the world.
Iran runs on GMT+3½, Afghanistan on GMT+4 ½, India is on GMT+5 ½, and Burma uses GMT+6 ½.
The reasons for all of these aren’t entirely clear, although given the heavy involvement of the British Empire and its tendrils in the region, it’s highly likely that it’s all our fault.
Indeed, India’s standardised time zone, though half an hour short of being sane, isn’t as mad as it used to be before it became independent. During the Raj, the colony operated three main times: Bombay Time, at GMT+4:51 (yes); Madras Time, at GMT+5:21 (I know); and Calcutta Time, at GMT+5:54 (I’m not even making this up).
As for Afghanistan, if in doubt just blame Tony Blair and hope everybody stops asking questions.
Oh, and then there’s North Korea, which runs on GMT+8½, but that doesn’t particularly matter because nobody likes them anyway.
The Ne-pallingly confusing time zone
Perhaps the most screwed up entire nation in time terms is Nepal, which runs GMT+5¾. In theory, it’s because mean time in Kathmandu – aka, the approximation across the year of when the sun is at its highest at noon – is 5 hours, 41 minutes and 16 seconds ahead of GMT.
Still ridiculous, though.
Too close for comfort
Obviously, eventually you get so far round the world that the whole thing starts all over again. If you don’t know what I’m talking about, sit on the edge of your seat through any adaptation of Around The World In 80 Days and be amazed.
In essence, the International Date Line is the exact opposite side of the world to the Greenwich Prime Meridian, and is where you stop being ahead of London and start being behind it. In other words, in the far east of Russia they’re already starting tomorrow, but Alaska’s only just got going on today.
The problem is that although the Pacific Ocean is a handly empty place to dump a line where there are two days, it’s not totally empty, so the line strays a little.
The very far eastern island of Big Diomede in Russia runs on GMT+12, even though it’s just 2.4 miles away from the closest part of the USA at Diomede, Alaska, which uses GMT-9. The Aleutian Islands – basically, Alaska’s tail – stretch across the 180-degrees line that is the theoretical International Date Line, but all use GMT-10, because it’s just easier.
But there are two places where the line has shifted in recent history, giving rise to some strange goings-on.
In December 2011, Samoa jumped forward a day, and just missed out 30 December (nobody got their six geese a-laying that year). This was to get rid of an old hangover given to the country by its king in 1892, who moved the country east of the Date Line to bring it closer to America. This became impractical as Samoa grew closer to Australia and New Zealand, its much closer neighbours, and so the 2011 moved the country from being 21 hours behind Sydney – the nearest major business hub – to being three hours ahead of it, which made more sense.
Though, sadly for the Americans, it left American Samoa marooned, only 70km away but 24 hours apart (25 in summer).
And then there’s the Republic of Kiribati, which became independent in 1979 by combining three colonies – the UK’s Gilbert Islands, and the Phoenix and Line Islands from the US. But this was a problem, as the former ran on GMT+12, while the Phoenix and Line Islands ran on GMT-11 and GMT-10 respectively.
So they shoved the whole country over to the western side of the Date Line in 1995, creating the time zones GMT+13 and GMT+14, and dragging the whole line 2,000 miles eastward. When you remember that the Line Islands are further east than Hawaii and most of Alaska, this is pretty weird.
Most fun quirk of all of this means that for a brief moment every day (sort of) there are three days going on at once (wibbly-wobbly, timey-wimey… you know the drill). At 10:30am on Wednesday in London, it’s 11:30pm on Tuesday in the inhabited New Zealand-owned island of Niue, and 12:30am on Thursday in the Line Islands of the Republic of Kiribati (pronounced “Kiribas”).
What a mess.
In theory, this isn’t difficult. You take your big country, helpfully divided into states running east to west, and you give them relevant time zones.
The state of Western Australia runs on GMT+8, which is fine. Job done. The states of New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria, the Capital Territory, and Queensland run on GMT+10. Which is sort of fine.
The logical thing for the middle states of South Australia and the Northern Territory to do would be to run on GMT+9, right? Especially as they almost perfectly straddle 135 degrees west, the centre of the +9 time zone area.
But no. They run GMT+9½, because there is nothing pure left in the world.
And even that’s not enough by way of complication. The southern states of South Australia, New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria, and the Capital Territory use daylight saving time, but the other three states don’t.
So for half the year, Australia goes from having three time zones to having five. What a mess.
To make it worse, there’s Lord Howe Island, which is technically part of New South Wales, but is off halfway to New Zealand. During the southern hemisphere winter, it uses GMT+10½, just half an hour ahead of Sydney and the like, but in winter it uses a daylight saving time half an hour ahead – running at GMT+11. Which makes it the only place in the world that does not switch a full hour for daylight saving time.
Eucla, in Western Australia, likes to be difficult. Image: Yewenyi.
Specifically these Australians
Because some people just want to watch the world burn, there’s a tiny town of 86 people in the far east of Western Australia that decided to be quirky and just invent its own time zone.
Eucla, and a few poor stragglers nearby, uses GMT+8¾. Apparently with this time nonsense you can basically just do what you want.
Nobody tell Cornwall, they’ll get ideas.
Hey guys, remember that time Russia had daylight saving time in the summer and then just stayed there because they liked having light evenings? So relateable. Except then loads of people had car crashes in the morning so they switched it back.
We are SURE this new TWILIGHT ZONE will be used just as the old one. No doubt it will sell the FADS of several century's of GLOBAL TIME ZONES and PRIME MERIDIANS as WAY OLD-SCHOOL and getting the world onto ONE WORLD ONE TECHNOLOGY GRID having a UNIVERSAL TIME ZONE----is WAY COOL.
This smiling face just as ROD SERLING ------ is gearing up to be that global banking 1% freemason STAR selling FADS which will kill 99% of US and global WE THE PEOPLE.
AREN'T OUR AFRICAN AND BLACK 99% OF CITIZENS WRITTEN OUT OF NEW EASTERN HEMISPHERE?
Certainly not as global 99% slave labor pool black, white, and brown citizens.
Sept. 20, 2018 / 2:07 PM
Jordan Peele to host new 'Twilight Zone'
Actor, comedian and filmmaker Jordan Peele is to host and narrate the new "Twilight Zone" on CBS All Access. File Photo by Jim Ruymen/UPI | License PhotoSept. 20 (UPI) -- Get Out filmmaker and Key & Peele comedian Jordan Peele is set to host and narrate a new version of The Twilight Zone.
The series is to start streaming on CBS All Access next year.
Peele paid homage to Rod Serling, the original sci-fi anthology show's iconic guide.
"Rod Serling was an uncompromising visionary who not only shed light on social issues of his time, but prophesied issues of ours," Peele said in a statement Thursday. "I'm honored to carry on his legacy to a new generation of audiences as the gatekeeper of The Twilight Zone."
Every episode of the original series -- which aired 1959-64 -- is streaming on CBS All Access.
Peele confirmed in December that he had boarded the re-boot as an executive producer, but he did not say he would introduce each episode until now.
We will finish this week's discussion on public policies tied to PRIME MERIDIAN, INTERNATIONAL DATE ZONE, TIME ZONES ------by looking at what 99% of citizens around the world have no doubt already know or use----GPS
We stated that if our 99% of WE THE PEOPLE lose the ability to determine LONGITUDE-----we will have trouble with navigation ----property rights and ownership and more. No doubt humans have navigated for thousands of years by STARS and GALAXIES-----so, we will continue to have those natural sources for navigation. When global banking 1% says it is closing down the GREENWICH TELESCOPE that has measured longitude among LARGE TELESCOPES around the world----we are seeing the method ISLAND OF DAY BEFORE was testing on the voyage to DISCOVER LONGITUDE. Whether big or small, our ability to access ordinary TELESCOPES------needed for most advanced astrophysics and geo-mapping will be out of the hands of our 99% WE THE PEOPLE.
Global banking 1% don't need physical telescopes anymore-----they are tied to super-duper BIG DEAD HEADS building the next PRIME MERIDIAN that is planetary mining slave colonies----first MOON, then MARS, maybe CERES, maybe that asteroid. So, all work being done by global corporations tied to GPS-----is in the sky. As always, global banking 1% create FADS and products when they are developing new industries----but MOVING FORWARD ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE ONE ENERGY/TECHNOLOGY GRID-----will not have 99% of citizens accessing the internet----not having cell phones-----not having computers --and forget about owning that VEHICLE with GPS.
THIS IS A GORILLA-IN-ROOM issue for all 99% of citizens black, white, and brown citizens and it is MOVING FORWARD tied to these policies of TIME ZONES/MAPPING/SUPER-DUPER COMPUTERS.
Academic rigor, journalistic flair
It’s a device used widely in cars, on smartphones and in fitness devices.
But what exactly is GPS, and how is it able to pinpoint our exact location anywhere on Earth?
How does it work?
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of up to 32 satellites that orbit at a height of 26,600km above Earth. The satellites are owned by the US Department of Defense, but anyone can use the signals from those satellites, provided they have a receiver.
For the receiver to work, it needs to be able to “see” four of the satellites. When you turn on your receiver, it may take a minute or so to locate these satellite signals, then to download data from the satellite before positioning can commence.
Fundamentally, two things need to happen for this to work effectively:
1) The GPS receiver measures the distance from itself to a satellite by measuring the time a signal takes to travel that distance at the speed of light.
2) When the satellite’s position is known, the GPS receiver knows it must lie on a sphere that has the radius of this measured distance with the satellite at its centre. The receiver need only intersect three such spheres, as seen in the image below.
This process, known as trilateration, is an effective means of determining absolute or relative locations.
In geometry, trilateration uses information found from the intersection of multiple spheres to calculate an exact location. Andrew Dempster
But there’s a problem. Although the GPS satellites have very expensive atomic clocks on board - and therefore know what time their signals are transmitted - the GPS receiver has a very cheap clock. That means there is uncertainty about the “receive” time. So, instead of three satellites, the GPS receiver must receive four, so it can account for what’s known as the receiver clock drift.
The GPS system was conceived in the 1970s but was not fully operational (a minimum constellation of 24 satellites) until 1995. Receivers were close to five-times as expensive to operate in the early days as now.
The cost of small-screen technology, such as light-emitting diode (LED) screens, came down due to the proliferation of mobile phone technology in the 1990s, and mapping data becoming cheaper or free in the case of Google Maps and Google Earth.
It was not until these technologies became cheaper that GPS receivers really became a consumer product.
Almost as soon as that happened, smartphones equipped with GPS came along and now most people are able to do “turn-by-turn” navigation with an app in their phone.
GPS was originally designed to provide position to the US Army, Navy and Air Force; but since its introduction, it has been used for many applications it was never designed for.
It is used to avoid collisions in shipping, with all ocean-going vessels required to report via something known as the Automatic Identification System (AIS).
YELP is one of many finder-location based applications. Flick/gumption
GPS is being used for improved landings of the most modern commercial aircraft. It has revolutionised fishing, allowing fishers to return to the exact same spot they’d fished before.
It is used in applications that allow people cheaply to keep track of others, their children, elderly relatives and pets.
GPS enables knowledge used for everyday convenience, such as when the next bus is coming, but also has exceptional capabilities for emergency operations such as for search and rescue.
By combining GPS with other technologies from robotics, self-driving cars are becoming cheap, and fully automated mines are being operated by big mining companies.
By combining GPS with mobile communications, a whole new category of industry has sprung up: location-based services. This can mean finding the nearest toilet, hooking up with a blind date, keeping track of your running and cycling times or golf shots, or getting a review for the restaurants you’re near.
Location-based gaming is also growing. This can range from chasing and hunting games to driving a simulated car on your computer against real drivers of big races in real-time.
Innovations in GPS
GPS is currently being upgraded for civilians, with two new signals which will make highly accurate position available cheaply.
The Russian GLONASS system became operational at almost the same time as GPS in late 1990s but fell into decline due to economic problems in Russia. It is fully operational again now, and is also adding new signals.
Europe (with Galileo) and China (with Beidou) are also working on similar systems. India and Japan are working on systems that are not “global”. These systems should all be fully operational by the end of the decade.
With GPS being installed in phones, computers, cars and other high-value items, it is becoming much easier to track those items if they are stolen. The downside is that you may not want to be tracked. Location privacy is becoming an increasing issue.
An illegal remedy for privacy is the “personal privacy device”, which transmits a signal that “jams” GPS.
Given some of the safety-critical applications mentioned above, it is clear that such devices – in the wrong hands – could present a threat to life.
Without doubt, the uses and potential abuses of GPS will progress in line with the technology.