The bottom line with broadband, internet, including digital GPS/TELESCOPING is -----there is not enough BROADBAND AIR SPACE for even what MOVING FORWARD US FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONE development has planned. We already know there will be WARS over BROADBAND AIR SPACE access.
This article published by far-right wing global banking 1% neo-liberal BROOKINGS is of course LYING AND HIDING in order to CHEAT AND STEAL ----it pretends there is a chance rural America will even have access to broadband----and does not explain that the broadband air waves over our rural America are already taken by OBAMA'S FIRE SALE.
'The city is the subject of a photo essay published late last month by the Brookings Institution that examines the impact of broadband accessibility – or inaccessibility – on residents'.
So, there is no intention of building infrastructure for internet or broadband outside those COASTAL US FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES----GLOBAL FACTORIES the size of US cities.
We must have broadband access to have GPS. Here we have that captured global banking FAKE NEWS 'Staunton News Leader' ---just as Baltimore Sun. Look for the LYING AND HIDING.
National essay highlights Staunton's high-speed internet needs
Staunton News Leader Published 3:55 p.m. ET Sept. 7, 2018 | Updated 4:38 p.m. ET Sept. 7, 2018
Buy Photo(Photo: Mike Tripp/The News Leader)
For one national expert, Staunton is a case study in the importance of high-speed broadband access.
The city is the subject of a photo essay published late last month by the Brookings Institution that examines the impact of broadband accessibility – or inaccessibility – on residents. Staunton was author Nicol Turner-Lee’s first stop in a 10-city tour analyzing the “effects of being digitally invisible in a highly connected, global society.”
“Broadband is the critical link for this space and city to be successful … More people will come to this community if we had better access to high-speed broadband,” Staunton Innovation Hub founder and resident Chris Cain told Turner-Lee.
Bringing broadband to rural areas is expensive, Turner-Lee reports, and the private sector “has not been fully incentivized to accelerate deployment.” In the essay, local business owners and residents describe how restrictive the lack of high-speed broadband can be.
“Usually, by the middle of the month, I’ve run out of minutes, making it more difficult to do just about anything to help my fiancé and children … I can’t even look for work. This [phone] just becomes a box,” resident Joseph Mulgrave told Turner-Lee.
Turner-Lee writes that Americans need to recognize the complexity of the digital divide and move beyond discussing digital access as an issue of “the haves and the have nots.”
“It behooves the nation to not only rethink public policies and programs on this issue, but also to reconsider what value we put on how access to technology helps or hinders citizens in achieving their part of the American Dream, or at least what’s left of it,” she concludes.
The policies of broadband and CYBER CITIES is indeed replacing what was the best in world history source of national energy---ELECTRICITY. There is nothing environmentally wrong with electricity outside the DAMMING which never needed to be done. It is the 99% energy sustainability and as we see below the INFRASTRUCTURE for electricity is being NEGLECTED ----with all infrastructure development centered on BROADBAND SMART CITIES.
This article simply describes how all of our industries will be tied to GLOBAL ONE WORLD ONE TECHNOLOGY GRID----completely out of the hands of US 99% WE THE PEOPLE and global 99% of citizens.
Not only is this bad infrastructure development ---it is BAD ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT-----but then, 350 million Americans are allowing a SHIP OF FOOLS control our US future.
PENNY PRITZKER IS A BAD GIRL-----SHE NEEDS TO TAKE A LONG TIME OUT.
Obama was Pritzker's tool------Pritzker being her own TOOL.
So, there is nothing GOOD in the future for US 99% WE THE PEOPLE with these CYBER WORLD policies and we are allowing a 5% freemason/Greek player who DOES NOT CARE----to MOVE FORWARD these 3000BC DARK AGES policies.
So, all of this is MOVING FORWARD even as we already KNOW the limited air wave space will create mass injustice.
'Broadband: The Electricity of the 21st Century
January 15, 2015 at 10:20 AM ET by Secretary Tom Vilsack, Secretary Penny Pritzker
Broadband brings with it new access to health care, education, and economic opportunities that have not been available in the past. But there are still many for whom this is not yet a reality'.
Editor's note: The Digital Communities Special Report, which appears twice a year in Government Technology magazine, offers in-depth coverage for local government leaders and technology professionals. View all sections of the special report.
Iowa City, Iowa, is a modest-sized city, with a population of just over 73,000. But what makes it stand out is the fact that it ranks fifth in the nation overall when it comes to the percentage of households that subscribe to broadband. With 86 percent of its homes connected to high-speed Internet, Iowa City outranks San Diego, Seattle and Washington, D.C., to name just a few of the best-connected cities in the country, according to a survey by the Brookings Institution. Cities that have high levels of fast Internet connectivity to households reap more economic and educational benefits, according to Brookings: “There is no question that the Internet is a huge boon to the economy and society, but maximizing its potential is only possible if all individuals are online.”
What makes Iowa City so special?
It has an educated workforce that has a relatively high average household income and large numbers of technology workers, as well as people who work from home; it’s also a university town (University of Iowa); and it has fewer senior citizens compared to other cities of its size. Most importantly, it’s a city where broadband is seen as a necessity, not a choice.
For decades, when it came to infrastructure and potential, the cities with a well developed network of roads, bridges, rail and subway lines, as well as good electrical and water utilities, were considered world leaders. Now, local governments are expected to have a digital infrastructure consisting of cable and fiber with deep penetration into every neighborhood, if they are to compete regionally, nationally and even globally. Broadband is now essential for 21st-century communications and commerce.
Take jobs. Broadband is the catalyst for economically competitive cities. America’s 50 most research- and technology-intensive industries have added 1 million jobs since 2010, and these industries are disproportionately based in cities, Bruce Katz, a researcher with Brookings, told The Economist. Education is another big reason why broadband infrastructure is critical for the ideal digital city.
A growing number of studies point to the fact that cities that lack wide adoption of broadband will struggle when it comes to educating and graduating students with the skills needed to advance in college or for sustaining an economy that is increasingly tech-driven. Local governments also have an opportunity to cut costs by creating more online services, but only if there’s close to universal adoption of broadband in the community.
OH YEAH-----UNIVERSAL ADOPTION OF BROADBAND---
And that’s where the problem lies with urban broadband infrastructure. Nationally, 75 percent of Americans had a connection to broadband in 2014, according to Brookings. But there’s a great variation in connectivity across demographic groups and between metropolitan areas. While the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara (Silicon Valley) area has the nation’s highest rate of adoption at more than 88 percent, cities like Laredo, Texas, have adoption rates of less than 58 percent.
5GAmerica’s broadband infrastructure is considered to be overpriced and slow when compared to Internet speeds in other countries. Worse, it’s far from universal. Nationally, 75 percent of households have broadband, and 53 percent of rural Americans lack access to even moderate-speed service. Critics of the country’s broadband infrastructure say the lack of universal access to high-speed broadband is a drag on education and the economy.
“Think if we were at 75 percent for electricity or running water,” Adie Tomer, a research analyst with Brookings, told Governing earlier this year. “With 25 percent of the population without broadband, it has ramifications for students who don’t have access, for job seekers,” he said.
Laying cable or fiber in the ground or on poles and connecting homes to the Internet backbone is an expensive proposition, holding back the goal of low-cost, universal adoption. But high-speed wireless might be the answer. Already a small but growing number of households rely entirely on 4G mobile networks to provide not just phone service, but data needs as well. The network has been around since 2010, and it adopted IP technology in a way that significantly boosted broadband access to mobile devices with higher speeds and an emphasis on streaming data rather than just transmitting voice communications.
Now, the wireless industry is stirring interest in 5G networks. While far from being a global standard, there’s already growing excitement that it could take wireless broadband to a new level with speeds reaching 1 gigabit per second (and perhaps reaching 10 Gbps as the technology matures) and a latency of no more than 1 millisecond versus today’s 4G latency of about 50 milliseconds, according to The Economist.
But it could take years before standards emerge. There’s also a question of where the spectrum for 5G might come from, since today’s wireless devices operate in a crowded part of the radio frequency, leaving little room for 5G.
Then there’s the speed factor. The Federal Communications Commission defines minimum broadband speeds as 25 Mbps for downloads and 3 Mbps for uploads, but 44 million Americans are more likely to experience download speeds of 4 Mbps or less. Meanwhile, closure of the availability gap between those who have broadband and those who don’t appears to be slowing, according to the FCC. In other words, broadband progress has stalled.
To become the ideal digital city, urban areas realize their broadband infrastructure has to reach near-universal availability at speeds ranging from 100 Mbps up to 1 gigabit per second. Seattle commissioned a study on what it would take to implement a municipal broadband service for universal adoption, but balked at the $480 million to $685 million price tag. Still, other major cities continue to explore the idea of municipal broadband to make the Internet as universally available as water and electricity. Boston is considering the idea and, most recently, San Francisco studied what it would take to create gigabit Internet service for the entire city.
While San Francisco may be the largest city to contemplate this, it’s not the only one. At least 48 cities have some kind of gigabit service available at residential rates, according to Highspeedgeek.com. Chattanooga, Tenn., is perhaps the most famous and largest of the cities offering gigabit broadband as a municipal service, but others provide very fast Internet service either as a municipal utility or through a provider.
For a long time, the major broadband providers have downplayed the need for gigabit Internet service in cities. But Google Fiber has begun to change the equation. The service, launched in 2012, has brought gigabit service to a handful of cities, including Kansas City, Mo.; Provo, Utah; Austin, Texas; and Atlanta, with plans to add service in San Antonio, Nashville, Tenn., and Charlotte, N.C. As a result, cable providers that dominate the existing broadband infrastructure have begun to actively market their plans to provide gigabit service.
In February, a municipally owned electric utility in Huntsville, Ala., announced that it would lease its fiber lines to Google Fiber, which would deliver gigabit service to residents and businesses starting in 2017. Some see the partnership as a game-changer in how municipalities provide broadband. “The Huntsville model changes Google’s path to scale as it potentially decentralizes construction efforts to multiple cities,” according to Brookings. The partnership will “decouple” ownership of the fiber network from providing Internet service, speeding up the delivery of fast Internet service. It’s also expected to bring more municipalities into the world of gigabit service, as incumbent cable and telecom companies will compete to provide a similar service.
That’s good news for cities, big and small, that need abundant, affordable broadband for the next generation of economic growth and education.
This week we do not want to get into ANTI-5G discussions of broadband----we are discussing longitude, prime meridians, time zones et al. When the ability to determine LONGITUDE was discovered with telescopic instruments and math---all that STEM stuff-----we started an industry of manufacturing telescopes, LENS, AND MIRRORS -----as with glass the need for quality SILICA became the prime meridian of natural resources. We discussed in detail how SAND----especially quality silica was becoming depleted with these few decades of manufacturing super-duper telescopes----and sending a billion satellites into space as the INTERNET OF EVERYTHING MOVES FORWARD. Lots of need for LENS, MIRRORS----
'Sand is vital to the manufacturing of abrasives, glass, plastics, microchips and even toothpaste, and, most recently, to the process of hydraulic fracturing. The quality of silicate sand found in the northern Midwest has produced what is being called a “sand rush” there, more than doubling regional sand pit mining since 2009'.
So, we were reading almost 20 YEARS AGO-----that a shortage of quality silica needed for telescopes was close at hand. We KNOW global banking 1% are MOVING FORWARD taking all access to this natural resources OUT OF MAINSTREAM. We also know global banking 1% plan to CANNIBALIZE OUR PUBLIC PLANETARIUMS----taking the lens and mirrors from those telescopes to use for larger telescopes.
Yerkes Observatory is closing its doors
Once state of the art, this Gilded Age observatory has been left behind by progress. Now astronomers wonder what will happen to this piece of history.
By Matthew R Francis | Published: Tuesday, March 20, 2018
Griffith Observatory to Remain Closed Wednesday After 25-Acre Brush Fire Scorches Nearby Hillside
Posted 9:21 AM, July 11, 2018, by Los Angeles Times
WE ALREADY READ THAT JOHNS HOPKINS WILL BE CLOSING ITS PUBLIC-ACCESS TELESCOPE VIEWING.
Observatory Open House
The Observatory Open House is held every Friday evening, weather permitting, starting at dusk.
Operated by the Maryland Space Grant Consortium, the Morris W. Offit Telescope (pictured above) is the major observing instrument located under the Stanley D. and Joan F. Greenblatt Dome, on the roof of the Bloomberg Center. The telescope has, as its major optical element, a 20″-diameter mirror.
Check the Observatory page after 5 p.m. on Friday for up-to-the-minute information about observatory status. View directions to the Observatory Open House.
Whitsunday Island, Whitehaven Beach and the Hubble telescope.
Published on Jan 2, 2013 YOU TUBE
Whitehaven Beach has the smallest sand grains known to man, meaning that the individual particles combine to make the most perfect glass-making material on the planet. I'm told that 10 tons of this sand was used to make the lens for the Hubble space telescope.
ATOMIC CLOCKS, TELESCOPES, PRIME MERIDIANS, and mathematics are all needed to determine LONGITUDE. The curve of the EARTH makes measurement less than straight-forward.
What most of the above need are LENS, MIRRORS, and today we see below SPACE SATELLITES.
If 99% WE THE PEOPLE do not stop MOVING FORWARD US FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES SMART CITIES-----we will not even be able to find these measurements for ourselves.
'Longitude could not be determined in this way because Earth's rotation constantly changes the position of stars and the sun'.
'Measuring Longitude Today
Today, longitude is more accurately measured with atomic clocks and satellites'.
So, just as our strong US PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEM is being dismantled and privatized away---so too, are all ties to astronomical studies, history, and knowledge. Closing public planetariums-----removing 99% of WE THE PEOPLE from INTERNET ---all that GPS and images of HUBBLE TELESCOPE---will take our knowledge back thousands of years.
THIS IS THE GOAL OF MOVING FORWARD ONE WORLD ONE GOVERNANCE FOR ONLY THE GLOBAL 1%.
Welcome to the age of GPS.
With a GPS computer controlled telescope, all of the wonders of the universe will be right at your fingertips. You won’t miss a thing: star clusters, galaxies, nebulae, binary star systems, and even planets. . . And GPS makes set up a snap. These telescopes know where they are at all times, so you don’t have to do anything to orient them to your current position. Star tracking and planet hunting has never been easier! If you want to have a fabulous stargazing experience from day one, these beginner GPS telescopes are your best bet.
For the Beginner:
SmartStar-GTelescope GPS systems are located in the mount, where the telescope attaches to the tripod, and can be added to Refractor, Reflector, and Cassegrain telescopes. The mount we recommend for the beginner is the iOptron SmartStar-G, so we’ve paired it up with some of our favorite telescopes to create the best deals you’ll find on computer controlled GPS telescopes. Fully automatic, loaded with a built-in library of 50,000 incredible space objects, and backed with a 1-year warranty, the iOptron SmartStar-G is a great choice for easy stargazing. All it takes is the push of a button on these smart GPS telescopes, and you’ll be able to quickly find thousands of brilliant objects in the night sky. Backyard astronomy has never been easier or more fun for beginners.
Remember, today's US public universities as private universities were taken CORPORATE during CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA so we get today nothing but MYTH-MAKING AND PROPAGANDA from what used to be strong academies-----what will replace all those glass mirrors and lens as products for US 99% WE THE PEOPLE?
The few LAND TELESCOPES available globally are being tied to very private research access----forget all that sharing of SPACE IMAGERY.
We think the word HUBRIS is not correct as it insinuates some degree of intelligence---remember, those global banking 1% are a SHIP OF FOOLS---and those 5% freemason/Greek players have pledge to do anything those SHIP OF FOOLS say----so, no HUBRIS happening in the MOVING FORWARD CREW
The Biggest Telescope in the World Is About to Begin Construction
The Giant Magellan Telescope in Chile will be the largest for a while, anyway
By John Wenz
Jun 3, 2015
The next generation of ground-based telescopes are coming to give us an unprecedented view into the cosmos. Today, the Giant Magellan Telescope was approved to begin construction in Chile. When it opens its eyes in 2021, it will be the largest telescope in the world ... for a little while, anyway.
The building of the GMT marks the beginning of the era of extremely large telescopes—those whose light-gathering surfaces measure in excess of 80 feet. The Giant Magellan will measure just over 80 feet. Next up is the Thirty Meter Telescope with 98 feet of planned light-gathering power. It's scheduled to open in Hawaii in 2022, but currently subject to an intense controversy because the planned location for the telescope is on a site considered sacred by native Hawaiians. (A tentative agreement has been reached which requires other telescopes on Mauna Kea to be decommissioned). Finally, in 2024, the European Extremely Large Telescope will outdo them both with just shy of 129 feet of tiled mirrors. The thing will be just gigantic.
Why do we need to build all these giant telescopes?
Well, aside from hubris, astronomers want to see a lot of things they can't see with Hubble, its planned successor the James Webb Space Telescope, or any variety of ground based instruments currently available. This includes gathering enough details about exoplanets to learn the content of their atmospheres. This includes searching for the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. And it includes the hunt for dark matter, that scary sounding, mysterious phenomena of particles we don't know anything about, really.
The Giant Magellan Telescope itself will focus on finding Earth-like planets around other stars. It will also look for light bending around a black hole and hunt for the first light in the universe from ancient stars and galaxies from shortly after the Big Bang.
Rather than using one giant, super-breakable mirror, the new telescopes will be made of panels of separate mirrors adding up to a gigantic whole. For the Giant Magellan, that's going to mean seven mirrors each about 19 feet in diameter. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons User Cmglee, here's a chart that gives an idea of the scale of these things, using the Arecibo radio dish as a basis of comparison for scale.
What we have seen these few decades of CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA as a direct result of depletion of QUALITY SILICA for glass and mirrors has been the slow PLASTICIZING of all that was glass products. We saw the glasses from which we drink go plastic---we saw the glasses we wear go plastic---we saw our windows---auto windshields all become poly-mix of silica and plastic. Now of course we see all glass and mirrors tied to our recreational camera---amateur telescope----going poly-plastic.
'Round 6: Clarity
If you’re looking for the highest optical quality, glass is the way to go. Glass lenses are clearer than polycarbonate plastic and will provide you with the crispest visual experience'.
As this article states------the CLARITY needed in viewing whether for eye-glasses and especially TELESCOPING-----real glass lens and mirrors are needed. What is MOVING FORWARD is the complete saturation of these industries with 3D PLASTICS products.
Glass vs. Plastic: Which Lenses Are Right for You?
How many times have you been asked paper or plastic?
How about about glass or plastic? Never? That’s what I thought. Well do yourself a favor and when it comes to sunglass lenses ask yourself that very important question. Each material has its own benefits and drawbacks and it’s important to know the difference so you can choose the lens that’s right for you. So which material would win in a fight? The answer to that is easy: it depends on the battle!
Disclaimer: For the sake of this argument, we are comparing glass against polycarbonate plastic.
Round 1: UV Rays
Most glass will absorb UV radiation, but when it comes to protecting your eyes from the sun’s damaging rays, polycarbonate plastic is the best bet. Because plastic is less transparent than glass, it helps block the rays from your eyes.
Winner: Polycarbonate Plastic
BUT DOESN'T UV RAYS DEGRADE PLASTIC? ABSOLUTELY
Round 2: Extreme Temperatures
Polycarbonate plastic lenses will expand and contract when exposed to hot or cold temperatures whereas glass lenses will retain their shape. So if you frequently find yourself leaving your shades on the leather seat of your car to soak up the rays all day long, you might want to go glass.
Round 3: High-Impact
If you’re looking for durability, then you may want to choose plastic. Polycarbonate plastic lenses are less likely to shatter than glass and this makes them perfect for children and to use during sports and other physical activity.
Winner: Polycarbonate Plastic
Round 4: Scratching
Glass is more resistant to scratching than plastic, but to reduce your plastic lenses’ susceptibility to scratching you can apply an anti-scratch coating.
Round 5: Weight
While glass lenses won’t exactly weigh you down, they are significantly heavier than polycarbonate plastic (twice as heavy, in some cases!) Along the same lines, plastic lenses are less bulky than glass ones.
Winner: Polycarbonate Plastic
Round 6: Clarity
If you’re looking for the highest optical quality, glass is the way to go. Glass lenses are clearer than polycarbonate plastic and will provide you with the crispest visual experience.
Round 7: Price
As a general rule of thumb, glass lenses will cost you more than plastic ones. So if you’re on a budget, you might want to pick plastic.
Winner: Polycarbonate Plastic
Round 8: Anti-Reflective Coating
Anti-reflective coating works better and is easier to apply to plastic lenses than glass ones. Chalk up a point for polycarbonate plastic.
Winner: Polycarbonate Plastic
Still unsure which lens to choose? Maybe weighing the pros and cons will help break the tie.
We are NOT going to get into debates about whether 3D printing of plastic lens and mirrors will find a way to make better products---we are simply saying we already KNOW these products will NEVER replace quality silica glass as lens and mirrors. The optic capabilities are totally DIFFERENT.
'Is it possible to 3D print a mirror to create a high quality telescope?
Is it possible to 3D print a mirror with todays available materials?
If so, would there be a reduction in image quality'?
What US 99% WE THE PEOPLE are being told by global banking 1% corporate universities is more myth-making and propaganda---more FAKE NEWS and FAKE DATA------because our US public universities were filled with global banking 5% freemason/Greek players replacing REAL LEFT SOCIAL PROGRESSIVE academics who work for PUBLIC INTEREST and who believe all 99% of people black, white, and brown citizens need REAL INFORMATION to be CITIZENS---and need PUBLIC INTEREST ACADEMICS to assure PUBLIC INTEREST POLICIES.
So, as global banking 1% deplete the entire PLANET EARTH of quality silica building more and more SPACE SATELLITES AND TELESCOPES making them larger and larger and larger-----the 99% of citizens are being sold that plastic lenses and mirrors are JUST AS GOOD.
Producing Lenses With 3D Printers
Christopher Olah (firstname.lastname@example.org)
October 25, 2011
A technique for producing optical quality lenses with 3D printers
is explored. 3D printed positives of the lens are interpolated with plastic wrap
and then used to produce molds. Polyester casting resin is then used to produce
lenses. Low-quality lenses are produced, and the causes of failure are discussed.
3D printing, optics, lenses, casting
2.1 Producing Lens Positive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Making the Mold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Casting the Resin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Post-Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The desire to produce optical equipment with 3D printers arises for a number of
different reasons. The author, having produced an experimental surface-oriented
CAD program, was personally drawn to it as an application that needed precise
non-planar surfaces. Saner motivations include getting components of specific
dimensions for projects, creating non-traditional components for experimenta-
tion, or simply the joy of having made the lenses yourself. And while one can
hand make lenses and mirrors, as is popular in amateur telescope making, sand-
ing glass into the desired shape is very time consuming.
'Why do we need to build all these giant telescopes?
Well, aside from hubris, astronomers want to see a lot of things they can't see with Hubble'
\Hubris (/ˈhjuːbrɪs/ from ancient Greek ὕβρις) describes a personality quality of extreme or foolish pride or dangerous overconfidence'
Today, our US and global 99% citizens are dealing with a 5% freemason/Greek players having no ties to MORALITY/ETHICS/HUMANITY----OR INTELLIGENCE
Jan 25, 2017, 10:00am
World's Largest Telescope Will Revolutionize The Future Of Astronomy
Ethan Siegel Senior Contributor Starts With A Bang Senior Contributor i
Science The Universe is out there, waiting for you to discover it.
Want to see deeper into the Universe than ever before. Build a bigger telescope. No matter what other tricks you use, there's no substitute for size. The bigger your primary mirror is:
- the more light you gather,
- the better your resolution is,
- and more details can be seen, more distant and faster than under any other circumstances.
The problem is, there's a size limit to how big you can build a single mirror and still have it be shaped correctly. Until we start manufacturing mirrors in zero-gravity, we've had two options: cast a single mirror up to the maximum size you can manufacture it -- around 8 meters -- or build a large number of smaller segments and stitch them together.
The current record-holder takes the latter approach, and is the Gran Telescopio Canarias in Spain, made of 36 hexagonal segments that total a diameter of 10.4 meters. As of 2015, it's the world's largest optical telescope, but it won't remain that way for long. In the Chilean Andes, another project that's been in the works since 2003 is poised to break every optical telescope records: the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). By fusing both approaches -- building seven of the largest, single-cast optical mirrors we can manufacture on Earth and stitching them together on a single, giant mount -- it's prepared to come in at a whopping 25 meters in diameter.
The GMT will be the largest optical telescope ever designed and built, and construction has not only already begun, it's expected to see first light in 2023 and to reach completion in 2025. It will gather more than 100 times the light of the space-based Hubble, and more than five times as much as any currently existing ground-based telescopes. While many plans for the next generation of ground-based telescopes existed, the three other famous ones -- the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the European Extremely Large Telescope (EELT) and Overwhelmingly Large Telescope (OWL) -- have either suffered major setbacks or been cancelled entirely. But not only is GMT coming in on schedule, it's already overcome its biggest scientific challenges.
The first big challenge was the mirrors themselves. Go larger than about 8 meters, and the mirrors themselves will deform at those necessary weights. Add a large number of segments, and you start producing large numbers of image artifacts: wherever sharp lines meet, you have a difficult-to-remove bit of noise added to each image. By designing their telescope to have just 7 large, nearly-spherical mirrors on a single mount, GMT avoided most of these problems. However, it introduced a new challenge: the first manufacture of an off-axis, asymmetrical section of an ellipsoid that needed to be differentially polished. The central mirror (of the 7) can be a nice, symmetric shape, but each of the six off-axis ones required a revolution in mirror technology. But the University of Arizona's mirror lab has succeeded at this task, polishing their mirror to better than 20 nanometers in smoothness.
There will be a technical challenge in stitching together mirrors this large, both in terms of focal length (less than a millimeter of accuracy over all 25 meters) and in terms of alignment. Fortunately, once you calibrate and align the mirrors once, using interferometry, it's good to go for the rest of your observing run. This was demonstrated as a proof-of-concept by the Large Binocular Telescope, which used this technique to observe one of Jupiter's moons, Europa, occulting another one, Io. You can even watch the volcanoes on Io -- visible in the infrared -- erupting in the process!
GMT is so large that we'd actually get substantial differences from how the atmosphere affects the light impinging on the mirrors on opposite sides of the telescope. But adaptive optics systems have been used with tremendous success for 8 meter telescopes previously, so what they're doing is nothing short of genius: building seven separate adaptive optics systems and synchronizing them all together!
You wind up with a single, clean image that's atmospherically corrected, that doesn't have the image artifacts of other segmented mirrors, and that can get resolutions of between 6-10 milli-arc-seconds, depending on what wavelength you look at. Remember, an arc second is 1/3600th of a degree, and the full Moon is about half a degree wide on a side. This is 10 times the resolution of Hubble, and it will see first light just six years from now. The science we're going to learn is incredible.
Distant galaxies will be imaged out to ten billion light years. We'll be able to measure their rotation curves, look for signatures of mergers, measure galactic outflows, look for star formation regions and ionization signatures.
We'll be able to directly image Earth-like exoplanets, including Proxima b, out to somewhere between 15-30 light years distant. Jupiter-like planets will be visible out to more like 300 light years.
We'll be able to directly image the closest spatial objects at highest resolutions. This includes individual stars in crowded clusters and environments, the substructure of nearby galaxies, as well as close-in binary, trinary and multi-star systems. This largest-ever telescope will be equipped with a state-of-the-art spectrograph, and will do wider-field imaging than Hubble or even James Webb will be capable of. In addition to luminous objects, we'll be able to measure molecular clouds, interstellar matter, intergalactic plasma, as well as the most pristine, metal-poor stars in the galaxy. And as far as speed goes, it will be tremendous: all the light that Hubble can gather, GMT can gather, only 100 times faster.
But that's only what we know we're going to see. Perhaps most exciting will be the advances that we don't know are coming. No one could've predicted that Edwin Hubble would discover the expanding Universe when the 100-inch Hooker telescope was first commissioned; no one could've predicted how the Hubble Deep Field would open up the Universe when that image was first taken; no one could've predicted that measuring distant supernovae would lead to the discovery of dark energy. What will GMT find when it starts viewing the Universe? The future of any scientific endeavor -- and perhaps astronomy in particular -- requires you to be ambitious, and to invest in looking for the unknown. Thanks to the Giant Magellan Telescope, we're on track to see the Universe in ways and in locations where no one has gone before.
Bringing all this discussion of QUALITY SILICA, LENS AND MIRRORS tied to telescopes back to PRIME MERIDIAN and INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE, remember, the International Date Line exists on our maps where it is --because it is 180% from PRIME MERIDIAN in GREENWICH LONDON.
When global banking 1% flips the EARTH's axis from Western to Eastern Hemisphere using 80 degree east longitude as the western-most region---THE HIMILAYAS----then let's pretend the new PRIME MERIDIAN would be half-way between 80 degrees east longitude and the current INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE.
The location of NEW WORLD ORDER coming PRIME MERIDIAN is defined by what nations will be included in the NEW EASTERN HEMISPHERE economy. We discuss the PRIME MERIDIAN at 80 degree east longitude because we are seeing an Eastern economic region called RIC------RUSSIA/INDIA/CHINA. So, a PRIME MERIDIAN would need to fall done a longitudinal line to include all those players.
INDIA has indeed gone RAJ----they are returning to DARK AGES OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS----as too is CHINA----as too is RUSSIA. But for those new EASTERN HEMISPHERE global 1% KINGS AND QUEENS---the fight to get rid of those global 1% players is already in action. We think INDIA'S RAJ will fall to being colonized by both RUSSIA AND CHINA....global banking 1% OLD WORLD EUROPEAN AND ASIAN will not include an INDIA.
If India is taken colonial divided by Eastern Europe and China --the land mass where economic activity is central will become that NEW PRIME MERIDIAN.
INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE WHERE EAST MEETS WEST-----will be determined by this NEW PRIME MERIDIAN.
130th meridian east
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130th meridian east
Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap
Download coordinates as: KML · GPXThe meridian 130° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, Australia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 130th meridian east forms a great circle with the 50th meridian west.
From Pole to Pole
Starting at the North Pole and heading south to the South Pole, the 130th meridian east passes through:
Co-ordinatesCountry, territory or seaNotes
90°0′N 130°0′EArctic Ocean
77°14′N 130°0′ELaptev Sea
71°5′N 130°0′E RussiaSakha Republic
Amur Oblast — from 55°44′N 130°0′E
49°0′N 130°0′E People's Republic of ChinaHeilongjiang
Jilin — from 43°51′N 130°0′E
42°58′N 130°0′E North Korea
42°0′N 130°0′ESea of Japan
33°27′N 130°0′E JapanIsland of Kyūshū
— Saga Prefecture
— Nagasaki Prefecture — from 33°2′N 130°0′E
32°45′N 130°0′EEast China Sea
32°23′N 130°0′E JapanIsland of Shimoshima
— Kumamoto Prefecture
32°14′N 130°0′EEast China SeaPassing just east of the Koshikijima Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan (at 31°49′N 129°56′E)
Passing just east of the island of Kuroshima, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan (at 31°49′N 129°57′E)
Passing just west of the island of Kuchinoerabujima, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan (at 30°28′N 130°8′E)
30°0′N 130°0′EPacific OceanPassing just east of the island of Kuchinoshima, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan (at 29°57′N 129°56′E)
28°21′N 130°0′E JapanIsland of Kikai
— Kagoshima Prefecture
28°18′N 130°0′EPacific Ocean
0°14′N 130°0′EHalmahera SeaPassing by numerous small islands of Indonesia
1°45′S 130°0′E IndonesiaIsland of Misool
2°1′S 130°0′ECeram Sea
2°59′S 130°0′E IndonesiaIsland of Seram
3°29′S 130°0′EBanda SeaPassing through the Banda Islands (at 4°33′S 130°0′E)
6°18′S 130°0′E IndonesiaIsland of Serua, Indonesia
6°19′S 130°0′EBanda Sea
7°42′S 130°0′E IndonesiaIsland of Dawera
7°44′S 130°0′ETimor SeaPassing just west of Bathurst Island, Northern Territory, Australia (at 11°47′S 130°1′E)
13°31′S 130°0′E AustraliaNorthern Territory
South Australia — from 26°0′S 130°0′E
31°35′S 130°0′EIndian OceanAustralian authorities consider this to be part of the Southern Ocean
60°0′S 130°0′ESouthern Ocean
65°59′S 130°0′EAntarcticaAustralian Antarctic Territory, claimed by Australia
The land mass of INDIA being included in 80 degree east longitude the HIMILAYAS as the GREAT WALL OF NEW EASTERN HEMISPHERE------will indeed include EAST INDIA but we are shouting to our EAST INDIAN 99% of citizens----we already KNOW the goals of global banking 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS from Europe and Asia will have CHINA AND EASTERN EUROPE RUSSIA working as fast as possible to colonize EAST INDIA no doubt splitting the GEO-POLITICAL assets.
Our East Indian 99% and those new global banking 1% Indian RAJ better watch out-------better to come together as a 99% of black, white, and brown citizens vs global 1% of OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS now------STAND UP and be 99% CITIZENS NOW.
'From Empire to Independence: The British Raj in India 1858-1947
By Dr Chandrika Kaul
Last updated 2011-03-03
1858: Beginning of the Raj'
Below we see the latest global banking 1% LITERARY STAR spinning FADS we all know are not TRUE.
EAST INDIA NARENDRA MODI IS FOR 99% OF EAST INDIANS WHAT CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA WAS TO US 99% WE THE PEOPLE. SHOW HIM THE MONEY AND HE'LL DO ANYTHING GLOBAL 1% OLD WORLD KINGS AND QUEENS TELL HIM.
The Billionaire Raj — Can India Become Asia's Next Great Power?
Can one of the most divided nations on the planet become its next superpower? James Crabtree's
The Billionaire Raj: A Journey Through India's New Gilded Age reveals the titans of politics and industry re-shaping India in a period of breakneck change – from controversial prime minister Narendra Modi, victor in the largest election in history, to the leading lights of the country’s burgeoning billionaire class. But can India now go on to become Asia's second superpower? Our panel will discuss India's economic and geopolitical rise, the prospects for Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2019's crucial election, and the India's likely relations with America, China and ASEAN.
Venue And Time
Auditorium, Level 3,
Block B, Faculty of Law
NUS Bukit Timah Campus
Tue 21 August 2018
05:15 PM - 06:30 PMSpeakersAssoc. Prof. James Crabtree
Associate Professor of Practice, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy
Prof. Kishore Mahbubani
Senior Advisor (University & Global Relations) and Professor in the Practice of Policy, National University of Singapore
Ms. Sonal Varma
Chief India Economist, Nomura
Prof. Danny Quah
Dean and Li Ka Shing Professor in Economics, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy
'Until other researchers can replicate Burd's experiment and waste treatment plants can implement any new processes, the only real way to break down plastic is through photodegradation. This kind of decomposition requires sunlight, not bacteria. When UV rays strike plastic, they break the bonds holding the long molecular chain together. Over time, this can turn a big piece of plastic into lots of little pieces'.
We will end this week's discussion on public policy surrounding PRIME MERIDIAN, TIME ZONES, INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE, LONGITUDE et al------knowing global banking 1% are dismantling all 99% WE THE PEOPLE access to SPACE SCIENCE----selling the next PRODUCT----as PLASTIC LENS AND MIRRORS for telescope viewing-----please remember, GLASS as an a MIXTURE
'The compound is the chemical combination of elements, bonded together in specific proportion. The mixture is the physical combination of substances, bonded together in any proportion'.
of elements and compounds we know remain stable for thousands of years. This is why we discover ancient glass products. PLASTICS are a mixture of elements and compounds that are not stable for very long. True, hard plastic may resist biodegrading for a few hundred years----but plastic lens and mirrors in direct SUNLIGHT ---all those UV RAYS----will not last long------WE NEED GLASS LENS AND MIRRORS to keep our 99% of WE THE PEOPLE in the telescoping LOOP OF KNOWLEDGE.
How long does it take for plastics to biodegrade?
by William Harris
Drop a ketchup bottle on the floor, and you'll be thankful for polyethylene terephthalate, or PET, the nearly indestructible plastic used to make most containers and bottles. Drop the same bottle into a landfill, however, and you might have second thoughts.
Why? Because petroleum-based plastics like PET don't decompose the same way organic material does. Wood, grass and food scraps undergo a process known as biodegradation when they're buried, which is a fancy way of saying they're transformed by bacteria in the soil into other useful compounds. But bacteria turn up their noses at plastic. Load their dinner plates with some plastic bags and bottles, and the one-celled gluttons will skip the meal entirely.
Based on this logic, it's safe to argue that plastic will never biodegrade. Of course, that's not the end of the story. Daniel Burd, a student at Waterloo Collegiate Institute, recently demonstrated that certain types of bacteria can break down plastic. His research earned the top prize at the Canada-wide Science Fair, earning him $10,000 cash and a $20,000 scholarship [source: Kawawada].
Until other researchers can replicate Burd's experiment and waste treatment plants can implement any new processes, the only real way to break down plastic is through photodegradation. This kind of decomposition requires sunlight, not bacteria. When UV rays strike plastic, they break the bonds holding the long molecular chain together. Over time, this can turn a big piece of plastic into lots of little pieces.
Of course, plastic buried in a landfill rarely sees the light of day. But in the ocean, which is where a lot of discarded grocery bags, soft drink bottles and six-pack rings end up, plastic is bathed in as much light as water. In 2009, researchers from Nihon University in Chiba, Japan, found that plastic in warm ocean water can degrade in as little as a year. This doesn't sound so bad until you realize those small bits of plastic are toxic chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) and PS oligomer. These end up in the guts of animals or wash up on shorelines, where humans are most likely to come into direct contact with the toxins.
One solution to this environmental disaster is biodegradable plastic. There are two types currently on the market -- plant-based hydro-biodegradable plastic and petroleum-based oxo-biodegradable plastic. In the former category, polylactic acid (PLA), a plastic made from corn, tops the list as the most talked-about alternative. PLA decomposes into water and carbon dioxide in 47 to 90 days -- four times faster than a PET-based bag floating in the ocean. But conditions have to be just right to achieve these kinds of results. PLA breaks down most efficiently in commercial composting facilities at high temperatures. When buried in a landfill, a plastic bag made from corn may remain intact just as long as a plastic bag made from oil or natural gas.