I ask for that site supervisor to ask where these supplies were manufactured----what materials are used----and every time I am told that is not information he knows or will give. Then I looked at construction vehicles for name of contracting corporation and called them and no one would give this information AND SOON we have in Baltimore construction trucks HAVING NO CORPORATE NAMES ON TRUCKS. These are contractors coming from anywhere in the nation----TEXAS is tops on manufacturing toxic construction material for example. Now as an engaged citizen I go to our Baltimore Public Works department----where I am told I need to go to the Baltimore Board of Estimates office to see what materials are bought for that job in my community. The Board of Estimates office tells me they will not be posting that information for months. By then the material is UNDERGROUND.
BALTIMORE HAS MADE IT IMPOSSIBLE FOR CITIZENS TO GET THAT VITAL INFORMATION----DELIBERATELY, WILLFULLY, AND WITH MALICE.
We first became concerned when talking with BGE HOME when home energy for heating and gas went from using COPPER PIPES to using PLASTIC PIPES AND FITTINGS. I asked why and was told PLASTIC WAS BETTER. I'm not a rocket scientist ----but I knew then as we are finding from public universities that waited two decades to release data that copper is the BEST MATERIAL for home water pipes while plastic will leach toxins just as LEAD.
HOMEOWNERS ARE TIED TO CONTRACTS WITH CORPORATIONS LIKE BGE HOME THAT DO NOT ALLOW THEM TO CHOOSE----IF YOU WANT COPPER THAT MAINTENANCE PLAN DOES NOT WORK.
So, Baltimore homes were the first to receive plastic pipes and fittings we are very, very sure are compromised material. Walking along road construction we see PLASTIC PIPES being used for major water pipelines because they are the cheapest.
OUR HOME INSPECTORS TIED TO BUYING AND SELLING A HOME SHOULD BE THAT SOURCE OF INFORMATION----BUT THEY ARE SILENT BECAUSE THE CITY OF BALTIMORE HAS NO PUBLIC WORKS RESTRICTIONS OR WARNINGS ON THESE MATERIALS.
Getting a Home Inspection
Before you finalize your house purchase, be sure the house is in good condition. The best way is to have a professional inspection.By Ilona Bray, J.D.
Please answer a few questions to help us match you with attorneys in your area.
Please select area of real estate Inspecting the physical condition of a house is an important part of the home-buying process and should be included in your purchase contract as a condition of closing the sale. One or more professional inspectors should look for defects or malfunctions in the building's structure, systems, and physical components, such as the roof, plumbing, electrical and heating/cooling systems, floor surfaces and paint, windows and doors, and foundation, and detect pest infestations or dry rot and similar damage. The inspector should also examine the land around the house for issues concerning grading, drainage, retaining walls, and plants affecting the house.
Even if the seller provides you an inspection report, it's best not to rely on this alone -- the seller may have chosen an inspector who's not known for rooting out problems.
Ask for disclosures before you get an inspection. In some states, such as California, sellers are required to disclose considerable information about the condition of the house itself and potential hazards to the property. (See Nolo's article Required Disclosures When Selling Real Estate.) But this is just the beginning -- not all sellers know about problems with the house or honestly disclose them. (Sometimes they've lived with a problem for so long that they literally forget it's there!) Nevertheless, the disclosures are useful to hand to your inspector for follow-up on known issues.
When to Have the Property Inspected
Most buyers get professional inspections only after they're in contract to buy the property. The deal is commonly made contingent on the buyers' approving the results of one or more inspections. The buyer arranges and schedules the inspections.
Before paying for a professional inspection, you can conduct your own informal inspection. Look for issues like sloping floors or bowing walls, signs of water damage, missing roof shingles or gutters coming loose, old or low-quality fixtures and appliances, and other signs of wear, tear, or needed repair. The best time to do this is before you make an offer, so that you can save yourself the trouble should you find serious problems. You'll find a checklist and further instructions in Nolo's Essential Guide to Buying Your First Home, by Ilona Bray, Alayna Schroeder, and Marcia Stewart.
Another, less commonly used possibility is to ask the seller to let you do a "preinspection" before submitting your offer. Why, given the cost of these inspections, would you do this? Because if you're in a situation where you're competing against other buyers (which can happen in any market, if a house is particularly desirable), this can help you set your offer apart. You'd most likely be able to submit an offer without an inspection contingency, thus reassuring the seller that your offer price is firm, not something you're likely to whittle away at after you're in contract, based on whatever a later inspection reveals. (On the other hand, you risk coming in with an offer price that's lower than others', having taken the house's problems -- which only you know about at that point -- into account.) Some sellers will refuse to allow preinspections in any case, particularly because, if you alert them to problems with the house, they're then obligated to divulge these to other potential buyers.
Hire a Professional Inspector
Hire a general contractor or home inspector to inspect all major house systems, from top to bottom, including the roof, plumbing, electrical and heating systems, foundation, and drainage. This will take two or three hours and cost you from $200 to $500, depending on the location, size, age, and type of home. Accompany the inspector during the examination, so that you can learn more about the maintenance and preservation of the house, ask questions, and get a real sense of which problems are serious and which are relatively minor. (The inspector will write everything down on the report, so reading it can be a bit scary if you hadn't already seen that, for instance, "cellulose against the foundation" just meant a pile of old leaves that you could easily remove.)
Tips on Choosing a Home Inspector
As the buyer, you want someone who will be thorough and tough. This may not be the inspector your real estate agent recommends -- the agent has a financial interest in your deal going through and may recommend an inspector who is not overly persnickety. Ask homeowning friends for recommendations or check with the American Society of Home Inspectors (ASHI) at www.ashi.com.
Get a Pest Report
In addition to the general inspector, it's wise to hire a licensed structural pest control inspector, who will create a special pest report on the property (unless the seller has already commissioned one -- pest inspectors, unlike general inspectors, traditionally accept work on properties they've inspected, so they have every interest in finding problems). The pest inspector will look for infestation by wood-boring insects such as termites and flying beetles, as well as evidence of dry rot and other fungal conditions. (For a rundown of all the critters that might munch on or otherwise damage your home, see Nolo's article Common House Pests.) Some general contractors are also licensed pest control inspectors, but they will normally charge extra for doing double duty. Be sure you get a written report of all inspections.
Consider Special Inspections
Depending on the property and your personal sensitivities, you may want to arrange specialized inspections for hazards from floods, earthquakes, and other natural disasters. The same goes for environmental health hazards such as mold, asbestos, and lead. And, if the general inspection revealed problems with the roof, foundation, or other areas that are hard to access or potentially expensive to repair, you may also want to hire a specialized inspector.
After the Inspections Are Completed
If the inspection reports show that the house is in good shape, you can proceed with the purchase, knowing that you're getting what you paid for.
If the inspections bring problems to light -- such as an antiquated plumbing system or major termite damage -- you can negotiate to have the seller pay for necessary repairs or to lower the purchase price or you can back out of the deal, assuming your contract is written to allow you to do so.
Keep in mind----this is GLOBAL GREEN CORPORATION pushing Green energy and green building---it has nothing to do with protecting public health or environment---global Wall Street 5% pols and players are simply using the word GREEN and SUSTAINABILITY to pretend it is SOCIAL BENEFIT to get Federal funds, tax breaks et al---all while staging the next round of PUBLIC HEALTH CRISES OVER TOXIC WATER IN BALTIMORE.
Global Wall Street 1% has been installing these materials these few decades of CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA and it will soar as US cities replace aging water and sewage lines.
DON'T WORRY SAY THOSE ENGINEERS---WE WILL BE INNOVATIVE AND CREATE A FILTER----ONE THAT COSTS HOMEOWNERS LOTS OF MONEY AND LIKELY WILL NOT REALLY FILTER OUT THE TOXINS.
'The work is funded by an NSF grant entitled "Towards a Safer and Greener Indoor Environment: Chemical Liberation from Polyethylene Plumbing Pipe." '
It would have been the NSF---the CDC----the NIH ---the NCI ----all institutes charged to protect public health that would have those monitors KNOWING WHAT WAS GOING UNDERGROUND working beside our Baltimore City PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT. We knew this a few decades ago----tens of millions and growing are now exposed to these toxic building materials and the public universities in states from where these toxic materials were manufactured are now the ones RELEASING THE DATA SHOWING ALL THIS.
As with the LEAD WATER PIPE DEBACLE we have corporate universities researching the damage done to public health while silent on the installation ------PROACTIVE NOT HAPPENING FROM OUR MAJOR INSTITUTIONS.
CIVIL ENGINEERS DO NOT LEAD WHEN THEY ALLOW TOXIC MATERIAL PIPES TO BE BURIED AND THEN DO THE RESEARCH. THIS IS NOT NEW DATA WE KNEW THIS DECADES AGO.
If Purdue University outed the entire GREEN REVOLUTION AND GREEN POLICIES as toxic then they would be doing a PUBLIC SERVICE. No doubt this is the same process that allowed LEAD WATER PIPES AND PAINT to fill the public space-----if materials have not been tested as safe they should not be BURIED IN THE GROUND or IN OUR HOMES.
LEEDS has been corrupted throughout CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA-----this is where public safety should be happening----LEEDS.
Drinking water odors, chemicals above health standards caused by 'green building' plumbing
October 20, 2014
Andrew Whelton, an assistant professor in Purdue's Lyles School of Civil Engineering and Division of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, is leading research into the effects plastic pipes have on drinking water in eco-friendly green buildings in the United States. (Purdue University photo/John Underwood)
WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. – Several types of plastic pipes in eco-friendly green buildings in the United States have been found to leach chemicals into drinking water that can cause odors and sometimes exist at levels that may exceed health standards.
Buildings are being plumbed with many types of plastic drinking water pipes. These include crosslinked polyethylene (PEX), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinylchloride (PVC), chlorinated PVC (cPVC) and polypropylene (PP) pipes, said Andrew Whelton, an assistant professor in Purdue University's Lyles School of Civil Engineering and Division of Environmental and Ecological Engineering.
Plastic pipes are generally less expensive, lighter and easier to install than metal pipes. A 2012 comparison showed PEX pipe was the least expensive among plastic pipes, costing 43 cents per foot compared to the most expensive metal, copper pipe, at $2.55 per foot.
Thousands of dollars can be saved during construction by installing plastic instead of metal plumbing systems, and proponents assert plastic pipes require less energy to manufacture - generating less carbon dioxide compared to metal pipes - ostensibly making them a good fit for green buildings.
“Little is known about the degree to which plastic pipes sold in the U.S. affect drinking water quality,” Whelton said.
He will detail research findings in a presentation during the 2014 U.S. Green Building Council’s Greenbuild International Conference & Exposition on Friday (Oct. 24) in New Orleans with Rebecca Bryant, managing principal of Watershed LLC of Fairhope, Alabama. Some testing results were published online in September in the journal Water Research. There, the researchers describe drinking water impacts caused by six brands of PEX pipes available in the United States.
In the September study, drinking water was tested from a PEX plumbing system in a “net-zero energy” building in Maryland six months after the system had been installed. The testing revealed the presence of 11 chemicals that were PEX pipe ingredients and ingredient degradation products. Research with PEX pipes in the laboratory also showed that six brands caused drinking water to exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum recommended drinking water odor limit, Whelton said. The U.S. EPA's maximum drinking water odor limit is a "threshold odor number" of 3, or 3 TON. Compliance is voluntary because the standard is based on aesthetic - not health - considerations.
Odor and chemical levels were monitored with and without chlorine treatment over a 30-day period for the six pipe brands. Chlorine, the most popular disinfectant chemical used in the United States, protects drinking water from disease-causing organisms as it travels to the tap. When chlorine reacted with chemicals leached by the plastic pipes, odor levels for one brand of PEX pipe tripled. While the total mass of chemicals leached by PEX pipes was found to decline after 30 days of testing, odors generally continued as the pipes aged, Whelton said.
A general assumption in the United States is that chemicals responsible for drinking water odors pose no health dangers. Although, several chemicals found in the plumbing research have regulated health limits, and one PEX pipe brand caused drinking water to exceed the ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE) drinking water health standard. ETBE is a PEX pipe manufacturing byproduct with drinking water standards in New Hampshire and New York state.
When establishing the ETBE limit in New Hampshire, public health officials specifically added a 10-fold reduction to allow for its suspected carcinogenic potential. However, no federal drinking water standard exists, Whelton said.
The researchers found ETBE drinking water levels as high as 175 parts per billion (ppb) during the first three days of PEX pipe use and then 74 ppb after 30 days of use when the testing ended. New Hampshire has the most stringent drinking water health standard of 40 ppb. Michigan also has an ETBE standard, but it is based on limiting drinking water odor caused by ETBE.
The presence of drinking water odor can prompt homeowners to avoid their drinking water altogether.
"A contractor who installed PEX in parts of a million-dollar home in Oklahoma asked us for help because the homeowners reported gasoline-like odors in a bathroom's tap water," Whelton said. "The homeowners refused to take showers in the PEX-plumbed bathroom because they were concerned about their health."
By testing tap water from the home, Whelton's team discovered that toluene, a solvent used for plastic resin synthesis and ETBE were present above levels where odors would be detected. Neither toluene nor ETBE exceeded health standards, however. The gasoline smelling water was safe to use.
The research, funded by the National Science Foundation, also is showing that there are differences in the quality of PEX products on the market, and different brands cause different odor and chemical-leaching impacts.
The Water Research paper was authored by University of South Alabama graduate student Keven M. Kelley; associate professor Alexandra C. Stenson and assistant professor Rajarashi Dey at the University of South Alabama; and Whelton, a former faculty member at the University of South Alabama.
The team plans to continue the work and release additional results from the study over the next several months. Findings show some chemicals released by plumbing pipes can be transformed into carcinogenic chemicals regulated by the EPA; chemicals leached by certain plastics are conducive to bacterial growth; and plumbing system cleaning practices described in some, but not all, plumbing codes can cause PEX pipe chemical leaching to worsen.
The work is funded by an NSF grant entitled "Towards a Safer and Greener Indoor Environment: Chemical Liberation from Polyethylene Plumbing Pipe."
As with our US labor unions LEED was tied to being that global Wall Street finance arm ------once an organization which starts as working for labor or justice is tied to the very institutions driving PRAGMATIC NIHILISM these institutions are corrupt and fraudulent and this is what happened to LEED. The US used to have professional building organizations like LEED that took pride in quality----CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA filled LEED with global Wall Street 5% players.
This is what DEREGULATING OUR US FINANCIAL SERVICES DID-----it allowed global 1% to throw bones at our stable public interest institutions filling them with players instead of community leaders.
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HomeConsultingServicesSustainability AssessmentLEED assessment
A LEED assessment and certification offer your building project independent, third-party verification that ensures your project meets the highest green building and performance measures. All projects certified under a LEED assessment receives a plaque to recognise that the development shows environmental responsibility and is a healthy place to live and work.
LEED certification also offers your development a range of both environmental and financial benefits.
LEED assesses buildings against 6 categories:
Energy & Atmosphere
Materials & Resources
Indoor Environmental Quality
Innovation in Design
Each issue covered by LEED certification has one or more ‘credits’ available when specific levels of performance or process are achieved. In addition, some pre-requisite credits are mandatory for all levels of LEED certification.
Characterised by two distinct phases, the Design Phase Review and the Construction Phase Review, LEED certificates are granted at end of construction.
LEED is a voluntary sustainability evaluation method and covers all types of buildings: Offices, retail, homes, residential high-rise, public buildings, commercial interiors, etc. Different customised adaptations of the scheme are available for various building types, as well as major renovations and minor refurbishments.
Planning for LEED certification early in the development process helps avoid potentially expensive additional service requests from design consultants and contractor change notices during project delivery.
Therefore we strongly recommend engaging a Syntegra Group LEED Accredited Design Professional in your green building project to ensure the effectiveness of design, construction and delivery.
Leeds building society makes rate promiseMinimum of 0.5% will be guaranteed on savings accounts from the end of October
Every little helps ... new savings rate from Leeds is double the Bank of England base rate. Photograph: Alama
Sunday 24 September 2017 02.00 EDT
Beleaguered savers have been given a small ray of hope in the current era of low interest rates after Leeds building society said it would guarantee a minimum of 0.5% on savings accounts.
The society, the fifth largest in the UK, will raise the minimum rate it pays from 0.4% across Isas and non-Isa accounts from the end of October. The new rate is twice the Bank of England base rate. The move comes at a grim time for those with savings accounts – the last time the Bank raised interest rates was in July 2007.
Leeds said eight of its accounts were moving from 0.4% to 0.5%, and online accounts would have a minimum rate of 0.6%, with a 0.75% minimum for accounts with restricted access. The majority of savers would see an increase or no change while “a minimum” would see a decrease in their rates, it added.
Richard Fearon, chief commercial officer at the society, said the move was unique on the high street and that it hoped to get more customers as a result.
The move was welcomed, but savers have been advised to continually look around the market to get the best deal. “It’s great to see Leeds offering a minimum of 0.5%, as there are a few high street brands paying less than this on standard savings accounts – so it could give savers a reason to switch,” says Rachel Springall of financial data website Moneyfacts. “The brand’s high street presence is sure to make a difference to savers who prefer to do transactions in branches. Savers would be wise to view the 0.5% rate as a bonus and regularly check their savings against the rest of the best buys.”
Since you’re here …… we have a small favour to ask. More people are reading the Guardian than ever but advertising revenues across the media are falling fast. And unlike many news organisations, we haven’t put up a paywall – we want to keep our journalism as open as we can. So you can see why we need to ask for your help. The Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism takes a lot of time, money and hard work to produce. But we do it because we believe our perspective matters – because it might well be your perspective, too.
I appreciate there not being a paywall: it is more democratic for the media to be available for all and not a commodity to be purchased by a few. I’m happy to make a contribution so others with less means still have access to information. Thomasine F-R. If everyone who reads our reporting, who likes it, helps to support it, our future would be much more secure.
We saw a construction INNOVATION using concrete basically building solid concrete buildings making them look like middle-class homes----we know concrete is the first to collapse in earthquakes---we know people inside do not survive collapsing concrete buildings ----so this is NOT INNOVATIVE.
Below we see why all over the world our concrete formulas are being corrupted to the point of being public safety hazards----global banking has build SO MANY MASSIVE FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONES filled with miles and miles and miles and miles of concrete ----that they have decimated yet ANOTHER ORDINARY NATURAL RESOURCE.
We are seeing our US coastal beaches no longer repaired from current erosion or storm erosion because of this-----they are going to cart off all our beach sand to use for concrete and then we will not even have the ability to manufacture material as basic for walkways and water and waste conduits.
THIS IS A MAJOR CRISES FOR LOCAL DEVELOPMENT. THINK AFTER THIS ROUND OF US FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONE BUILDING FILLED WITH CONCRETE---WHAT WILL THE NEXT GENERATION DO IN TRYING TO REBUILD LOCAL INFRASTRUCTURES?
This would not have occurred if we did not have CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA and expanded Foreign Economic Zone construction. WE THE PEOPLE THE 99% are now allowing this same massive construction to take our US cities.
So, we are having concrete failures because sand is becoming too expensive and we are told that PLASTIC SIDEWALKS AND STREET CURBS are INNOVATIVE----because that is the only material we have -----plastic is OIL, and global 1% are STILL expanding massive Foreign Economic Zones globally ---especially now in Africa and US. NPR calls this CRISIS REPORTING but we have known these few decades this crisis was coming ---the same few decades Foreign Economic Zone expansions soared with NPR NOT SAYING A WORD.
World Faces Global Sand Shortage
By editor • Jul 21, 2017
Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
DAVID GREENE, HOST:
Here in California, officials recently announced the upcoming closure of a mine - not a coal mine, not a gold or silver mine. It is a sand mine on the beach. It's the last beach sand mine in America. Now, I, for one, did not even know that sand was mined. I also didn't realize the context for this decision. There was fear the mine was causing beach erosion, but the closure also comes with the world facing a global shortage of sand. And this could affect your life in ways that have nothing to do with sunscreen or flip-flops. Journalist Vince Beiser has traveled the globe reporting on this, and he came into our studios here at NPR West. Vince, welcome.
VINCE BEISER: Thanks, David, good to be here.
GREENE: Well, it's great to have you. So I was on the beach in California. I know you live out here, too, and probably go often. There seemed, like, an ocean of sand, I mean, for miles. So is that the kind of sand we're talking about here?
BEISER: So we are talking about that kind of sand, yeah. And I know it sounds crazy because there's obviously a lot of sand in the world, and it seems like we're never going to run out.
BEISER: It's also the natural resource that we use the most of after air and water. Whatever building you're sitting in right now, it's probably built mostly with concrete. And concrete is basically just sand and gravel glued together with cement. And also, all the roads that connect all those buildings, those are also made out of concrete. All the windows in every single one of those buildings are made of glass, and glass is nothing but melted-down sand.
GREENE: God, that's incredible. Sand is all around us.
BEISER: Absolutely. And it's even in your pocket right now because the silicon chips that power your computer and your cellphone, that silicon is also made from sand.
GREENE: Where does the sand that's used in construction all come from? How is sand created?
BEISER: Most of the sand that we use in the world is quartz sand, and most of it comes from mountains. And over thousands of years, they get worn down by rain, by wind, by erosion. Rivers carry them down the mountainsides, and finally, they bring them to the beach. That's how most beaches get created is that the...
GREENE: So we're seeing only a little bit of the sand on beaches that exists in the world. I mean....
GREENE: ...Like, a tiny fraction.
GREENE: Well, so why are we running out?
BEISER: We are building cities at a pace and on a scale that has never remotely before happened, mainly all over the developing world - right? - India, Indonesia, Vietnam. China has used more cement in the last few years than the United States used in the entire 20th century.
GREENE: Are we at risk of running out at some point? Or is it more a matter of moving sand to the right places to feed this demand?
BEISER: There's so much demand for sand right now that we are stripping riverbeds bare. We're stripping beaches bare. We're tearing up forests and farmland to get at the sand. And things have gotten so bad in a lot of places that governments have really tried to crack down on it. As a result of that, organized crime has taken over the sand business. And they do what mafias do everywhere. They bribe police. They bribe cops. And if you really get in their way, they will kill you.
GREENE: Where is that mostly happening?
BEISER: So India is the worst, but in many other countries as well - in Kenya, in Indonesia. There's been violence in China, in Vietnam, in a lot of places.
GREENE: And maybe not people being killed, but here in California, the debate is very real. I mean, the government just shut down the last sand mine...
GREENE: ...Over environmental concerns.
BEISER: That's right. So here in California, we used to have sand mines all up and down the coast. And these were, like, enormous dredges that would literally just pull the sand, rake the sand right off the beach. But they realized, well, this is terrible. This is destroying our beaches. So they shut all of them down except one. And just last week, after years of court battles and protests, the county government finally stepped in and shut it down.
GREENE: Well, could something replace sand?
BEISER: Yeah. You can crush up rocks to make more sand. Two problems with that - one is the sand you get is not as good as naturally created sand. Also, it's a lot more expensive. We can recycle some of it, but the really tricky part of that is concrete isn't like glass or like paper. Those are products that are designed to be used once, right? You get your newspaper. You read it. You toss it in the recycling bin. You build a concrete building, you don't use it for one day and then throw it out. That building is supposed to stay there permanently. That sand is taken out of circulation indefinitely.
GREENE: Vince, thanks a lot for coming in.
BEISER: It's a pleasure.
GREENE: That was journalist Vince Beiser. His reporting project, "The Deadly Global War For Sand," was funded by the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.
Concrete water pipes have been standards for centuries in US and it is one of the safest as public water building material but we have wasted all the world's sand building massive product factories selling products almost no one needs. Then there is STEEL----as we see here from early last century this has been the standard for strong, quality pipeline. We are watching PLASTIC PIPES from home energy to major public works arteries because of this crisis in SAND TO MAKE CONCRETE.
Remember, this is the same MORTAR being used for bricklaying. No lasting a century with this CEMENT MORTAR.
This is why CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA today could care less if our public works is toxic----they could care less that these replacement of US city pipeline will need to be replaced with no materials available in only several decades.
When our city council and mayors do not care then neither do the ENGINEERS whose job it is to make the right decisions on what is best for 99% of citizens and the quality of work.
All of Baltimore City Council----Baltimore Maryland Assembly pols KNOW Baltimore both fails in installation and fails in inspection and THEY DON'T CARE---they are all 5% global Wall Street players.
Types of CPP
Types of Concrete Pressure Pipe
The American Water Works Association (AWWA) defines four types of concrete pressure pipe:
Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel-Cylinder Type (AWWA C300)
First manufactured in 1919, C300 consists of a welded steel cylinder with steel joint rings at each end, a cage(s) of circumferential steel reinforcing bars/wire and a structural concrete wall.
Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel-Cylinder Type (AWWA C301)
There are two types of C301 pipe:
Lined-Cylinder Pipe (LCP) – First used in North America in 1942, LCP consists of a welded steel cylinder with steel joint rings at each end, an internal concrete lining, high-tensile strength steel wire wrapped directly on the steel cylinder and an external coating of portland cement mortar.
Embedded-Cylinder Pipe (ECP) – First installed in North America in 1953, ECP consists of a welded steel cylinder with steel joint rings at each end, embedded in a concrete core, high-tensile strength steel wire wrapped on the exterior concrete core surface and an external coating of portland cement mortar.
Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Noncylinder Type (AWWA C302)
First used in the early 1900’s, C302 consists of a cage(s) of circumferential and longitudinal steel reinforcing bars/wire and a structural concrete wall with steel or concrete joint rings at each end.
Concrete Pressure Pipe, Bar-Wrapped, Steel-Cylinder Type (AWWA C303)
First offered in the early 1940’s, C303 consists of a welded steel cylinder with steel joint rings at each end, an internal concrete or mortar lining, spiral-wrapped reinforcing bar around the outside of the steel cylinder and an external coating of portland cement mortar.
As we shout----the right wing media taking control of US consolidated and monopolized press always let's people know there is a crisis WHEN IT HAPPENS and never creates headlines PROACTIVELY by writing a few decades ago that all the FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONE development by CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA was creating irreparable damage to our ability LOCALLY to perform the most basic of infrastructure building.
We have been watching these few decades as global Wall Street 5% players tied to global construction corporations were allowed to MINE OUR US SAND to take overseas to build massive factory campuses. Flash forward to today and watch as our US beaches are hauled away for the same. No better reason to haul all this sand away then those PESKY OIL SPILLS contaminating that sand then needing to be HAULED AWAY. They process that oily sand then use it overseas in construction.
'Sand traditionally has been a local product. However, regional shortages and sand mining bans in some countries are turning it into a globalized commodity'.
When the American people are made to work at the grassroots under these FAR-RIGHT WING PRAGMATIC NIHILISTIC policy practices---we lose our own sense of what living a quality life protected with public interest government is like.
So, now global 1% have the motivation to deliberately HAVE OIL SPILLS just to say that beach sand needs to be HAULED AWAY. Coming to our East and West Coasts along with oil and natural gas rigs.
Exploitation of global sand supply becoming a crisis
By Aurora Torres, Jianguo Liu, Jodi Brandt and Kristen Lear | Sept. 8, 2017 at 9:24 AM
1 of 2
Dredger pumping sand and water to shore for beach renourishment, Mermaid Beach, Gold Coast, Australia, on August 20. Photo by Steve Austin
Sept. 8 (UPI) -- When people picture sand spread across idyllic beaches and endless deserts, they understandably think of it as an infinite resource. But as we discuss in a just published perspective in the journal Science, over-exploitation of global supplies of sand is damaging the environment, endangering communities, causing shortages and promoting violent conflict.
Skyrocketing demand, combined with unfettered mining to meet it, is creating the perfect recipe for shortages. Plentiful evidence strongly suggests that sand is becoming increasingly scarce in many regions. For example, in Vietnam domestic demand for sand exceeds the country's total reserves. If this mismatch continues, the country may run out of construction sand by 2020, according to recent statements from the country's Ministry of Construction.
This problem is rarely mentioned in scientific discussions and has not been systemically studied. Media attention drew us to this issue. While scientists are making a great effort to quantify how infrastructure systems such as roads and buildings affect the habitats that surround them, the impacts of extracting construction minerals such as sand and gravel to build those structures have been overlooked. Two years ago we created a working group designed to provide an integrated perspective on global sand use.
In our view, it is essential to understand what happens at the places where sand is mined, where it is used and many impacted points in between in order to craft workable policies. We are analyzing those questions through a systems integration approach that allows us to better understand socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances and time. Based on what we have learned, we believe it is time to develop international conventions to regulate sand mining, use and trade.
Sand and gravel are now the most-extracted materials in the world, exceeding fossil fuels and biomass (measured by weight). Sand is a key ingredient for concrete, roads, glass and electronics. Massive amounts of sand are mined for land reclamation projects, shale gas extraction and beach renourishment programs. Recent floods in Houston, India, Nepal and Bangladesh will add to growing global demand for sand.
In 2010, nations mined about 11 billion tons of sand just for construction. Extraction rates were highest in the Asia-Pacific region, followed by Europe and North America. In the United States alone, production and use of construction sand and gravel was valued at $8.9 billion in 2016, and production has increased by 24 percent in the past five years.
Moreover, we have found that these numbers grossly underestimate global sand extraction and use. According to government agencies, uneven record-keeping in many countries may hide real extraction rates. Official statistics widely underreport sand use and typically do not include nonconstruction purposes such as hydraulic fracturing and beach nourishment.
Sand traditionally has been a local product. However, regional shortages and sand mining bans in some countries are turning it into a globalized commodity. Its international trade value has skyrocketed, increasing almost sixfold in the last 25 years.
Profits from sand mining frequently spur profiteering. In response to rampant violence stemming from competition for sand, the government of Hong Kong established a state monopoly over sand mining and trade in the early 1900s that lasted until 1981.
Today organized crime groups in India, Italy and elsewhere conduct illegal trade in soil and sand. Singapore's high-volume sand imports have drawn it into disputes with Indonesia, Malaysia and Cambodia.
Sand mining harms humans and the environment
The negative consequences of overexploiting sand are felt in poorer regions where sand is mined. Extensive sand extraction physically alters rivers and coastal ecosystems, increases suspended sediments and causes erosion.
Research shows that sand mining operations are affecting numerous animal species, including fish, dolphins, crustaceans and crocodiles. For example, the gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) - a critically endangered crocodile found in Asian river systems - is increasingly threatened by sand mining, which destroys or erodes sand banks where the animals bask.
Sand mining also has serious impacts on people's livelihoods. Beaches and wetlands buffer coastal communities against surging seas. Increased erosion resulting from extensive mining makes these communities more vulnerable to floods and storm surges.
A recent report by the Water Integrity Network found that sand mining exacerbated the impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Sri Lanka. In the Mekong Delta, sand mining is reducing sediment supplies as drastically as dam construction, threatening the sustainability of the delta. It also is probably enhancing saltwater intrusion during the dry season, which threatens local communities' water and food security.
Potential health impacts from sand mining are poorly characterized but deserve further study. Extraction activities create new standing pools of water that can become breeding sites for malaria-carrying mosquitoes. The pools may also play an important role in the spread of emerging diseases such as Buruli ulcer in West Africa, a bacterial skin infection.
Preventing a tragedy of the sand commons
Media coverage of this issue is growing, thanks to work by organizations such as the United Nations Environment Program, but the scale of the problem is not widely appreciated. Despite huge demand, sand sustainability is rarely addressed in scientific research and policy forums.
The complexity of this problem is doubtlessly a factor. Sand is a common-pool resource - open to all, easy to get and hard to regulate. As a result, we know little about the true global costs of sand mining and consumption.
Demand will increase further as urban areas continue to expand and sea levels rise. Major international agreements such as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Convention on Biological Diversity promote responsible allocation of natural resources, but there are no international conventions to regulate sand extraction, use and trade.
As long as national regulations are lightly enforced, harmful effects will continue to occur. We believe that the international community needs to develop a global strategy for sand governance, along with global and regional sand budgets. It is time to treat sand like a resource, on a par with clean air, biodiversity and other natural endowments that nations seek to manage for the future.
We spoke earlier of the policy of replacing COPPER PIPING AND FITTINGS in our home energy infrastructure with plastics ------this happened because COPPER is a central material in COMPUTER HARDWARE---TECHNOLOGY CABLES.
This is what made COPPER too expensive for most US citizens to buy when they want to replace those water pipelines from street to house. We have these few decades of CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA and expanded computer technology platforms seen THIS VERY BASIC MATERIAL----COMMON IN ALL CONSTRUCTION USES ----be made more and more and more depleted.
FLASH FORWARD TO SMART CITIES------SUPER-SIZED GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE AND WE WATCH AS YET ANOTHER VITAL MATERIAL IS DEPLETED FOR NO GOOD REASON.
'The copper cabling manufacturers should be praised for their technical efforts to expand the capacity of UTP cabling. And the hardware manufacturers deserve a pat on the back too! They have been able to keep up with networks by some really sophisticated product development (including the electronics that perform the miracles of getting signals on and off the cabling.)'
COPPER is one of the safest of water piping material and should be conserved for THAT PURPOSE.
Can't I future-proof my network?
At the desktop -no. Flatly, no. You have no guarantee that anything you install for cabling today, Category "whatever" copper or multimode fiber, will be useful in another few years. That's why manufacturers offer 15-25 year warranties - they know you will not be using that cabling more than another few years! A lifetime warranty is the only one that makes sense, since its lifetime is very short! Maybe you could install multimode and singlemode fiber, but you would be the first!
Below we see yet again what is sold to WE THE PEOPLE THE 99% AS SUSTAINABLE AND GREEN killing the very material resource we need in vital, ordinary infrastructure building----now being used for massive energy arrays------these are not innovations ------global 1% are being FORCED to jump from one to the next product because of DEPLETION. We can't use copper for our public water system knowing it is the safest material -----but that's OK say civil engineers.
ANOTHER ENGINEER TELLING US COPPER IS SUSTAINABLE..........
Zolaikha Strong is the Director of Sustainable Energy at the Copper Development Association. She supports policy makers in the development of energy policies and regulations, collaborates with manufacturers on the development of new technologies, promotes the value of copper-related solutions in energy efficient systems, and builds partnerships with sustainable energy advocates. The Copper Development Association is the market development, eng...'
'As the world continues to transition to new energy technologies, copper will be increasingly trusted. These systems require more copper than traditional energy sources'.
Will the Transition to Renewable Energy Be Paved in Copper?
January 15, 2016
By Zolaikha Strong
We’ve just completed a record-breaking year for renewable technology of all kinds. No matter where you look – be it on television or in newspapers, your neighbor’s roof or along a rural countryside – the presence of wind turbines, solar energy panels and energy storage systems is growing weekly. In August 2015, U.S. President Barack Obama lauded climate change as “one of the most important issues not just of our time, but of any time,” and cited renewable energy as a solution. Soon after in early September, Elon Musk, CEO of SpaceX and Tesla Motors, named sustainable energy this century’s most pressing issue.
More and more, sustainable energy systems are being installed throughout the country, driven by diminishing costs and government incentives. The U.S. is now leading the world in wind energy production as advances in technology have made it more affordable than ever, according to a recent U.S. Department of Energy report. Meanwhile, energy storage systems saw a six-fold increase in deployment in 2015, and the latest solar energy reports show that solar PV panel installations exceeded more than 20 GW of capacity in the first two quarters of 2015.
Then Apple CEO Steve Jobs opened the doors to what has turned out to be a vast, new global retail market for smartphones and mobile/wireless telecommunications when he introduced the first touchscreen iPhone to the world in January 2007.
Brought To You By
While innovations and the ambitions of leaders like Obama and Musk have helped to drive the growing renewable energy market, there is also a little-known source fueling virtually all of these technologies – copper. From wind turbines and solar panels to electric vehicles and efficient motors, copper is essential to renewable energy systems and the infrastructure that powers them. Its superior electrical and thermal conductivity, performance and efficiency keeps these systems running reliably and connects them to the grid. In fact, copper itself is a sustainable material. Its recycling rate is higher than that of any other metal, and each year nearly as much copper is recovered from recycled material as is derived from newly mined ore.
As the world continues to transition to new energy technologies, copper will be increasingly trusted. These systems require more copper than traditional energy sources. PV solar power systems contain approximately 5.5 tons per MW of copper, while grid energy storage installations rely on between 3 tons and 4 tons per MW. A single wind farm can contain between 4 million and 15 million pounds of copper. The use of copper wiring, tubing, busbar, cable, bushings, bearings and myriad electrical and mechanical parts keeps these systems operating longer and at higher efficiencies.
Copper’s use in the renewable energy market will continue to expand as these technologies become more widely used. The market has already seen a trend in the rise of companies and commercial buildings installing green energy systems. These sectors value sustainability and are looking to lower their energy costs by utilizing them.
As of mid-2014, there were 4,531 MW of commercial solar PV installed on 41,803 business, non-profit and government locations throughout the U.S. More than 23 percent of the wind power contracts signed in 2014 were with corporate buyers and other non-utility groups. These figures are expected to continue to rise as new technology makes these commercial installations even more affordable.
Homeowners make up another upward trend in the sustainable energy market, as more and more roofs have solar PV panels mounted on them. New innovations and government incentives mean this trend will only grow larger as we move into 2016. In August, Obama announced a new series of executive actions and private sector commitments that would make renewable energy more accessible and affordable for homeowners. This push would allow homeowners to install these systems without any upfront cost. They could then pay back the cost over time through property taxes.
New digital tools are also making it easier than ever for homeowners to educate themselves about renewable energy and begin to implement it. A recent Google Maps service called Project Sunroof enables homeowners to see how much solar power their roof can generate and how much money they could save by installing solar panels. It is now easier than ever for anyone to incorporate renewables into their energy plan.
This growing number of commercial wind, solar and energy storage installations will continue to expand the market for renewable technologies. As these trends grow more prevalent, copper will remain an irreplaceable component in delivering reliable, sustainable energy globally. The world’s oldest metal has been integral to new technology from the copper era in 6,000 BC, to the middle ages and industrial revolution. As global market trends push the world into a new renewables boom, copper will maintain its ability to fuel modern, more efficient tools.
Below we see the global hedge fund IVY LEAGUE YALE releasing data we KNOW IS JUKED-----they do it all the time. This article lists metals used in technology identifying those still common vs those threatened and COPPER is being listed as common with no worries as a resource when we KNOW copper is already in crises.
Every nation is now hoarding and panicking over not having COPPER natural resources. This is especially true here in US-----it will become that CRISES in only a few decades----then NATIONAL MEDIA AND NPR will release media telling us COPPER IS IN CRISES just as they did with SAND.
To ensure continuity of PCB products, Naicker advises customers to be proactive in managing their PCB supply chain. “Google search phrases such as ‘China PCB copper shortage’ and the problem becomes a reality,” he explains. “If your current PCB supplier hasn’t hinted of any lead time or pricing issues yet, brace yourself. Local manufacturers will feel the pinch as soon their laminate stocks are depleted, and very few will survive unscathed.
“The risks of not taking appropriate measures now could be detrimental to a company, and one could wake up some day sooner than later with a sudden disaster. The ‘cross fingers and hope for the best’ approach will not pay off. We encourage all our clients to be proactive rather than reactive.”'
This is why MOVING FORWARD SMART CITIES IS CRAZY. CRAZY. CRAZY STUFF. Who promotes all these Foreign Economic Zone infrastructure building? Those same global Wall Street Baltimore Development 'labor and justice' 5% players pretending to be HELPING THE POOR----WITH JOBS---HOUSING----SAFE WATER and especially all those CIVIL ENGINEERS SHOUTING SUSTAINABILITY. We are watching the next major building of our US city public water systems use the same toxic materials in pipelines as with LEAD----all driven by US FOREIGN ECONOMIC ZONE policies.
Study: Metals Used in High-Tech
Products Face Future Supply Risks
In a new paper, a team of Yale researchers assesses the “criticality” of all 62 metals on the Periodic Table of Elements, providing key insights into which materials might become more difficult to find in the coming decades, which ones will exact the highest environmental costs — and which ones simply cannot be replaced as components of vital technologies.
During the past decade, sporadic shortages of metals needed to create a wide range of high-tech products have inspired attempts to quantify the criticality of these materials, defined by the relative importance of the elements’ uses and their global availability.
Many of the metals traditionally used in manufacturing, such as zinc, copper, and aluminum, show no signs of vulnerability. But other metals critical in the production of newer technologies — like smartphones, infrared optics, and medical imaging — may be harder to obtain in coming decades, said Thomas Graedel, the Clifton R. Musser Professor of Industrial Ecology at the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies and lead author of the paper.
“Some metals that have become deployed for technology only in the last 10 or 20 years are available almost entirely as byproducts.”
— Thomas GraedelThe study — which was based on previous research, industry information, and expert interviews — represents the first peer-reviewed assessment of the criticality of all of the planet’s metals and metalloids.
“The metals we’ve been using for a long time probably won’t present much of a challenge. We’ve been using them for a long time because they’re pretty abundant and they are generally widespread geographically,” Graedel said. “But some metals that have become deployed for technology only in the last 10 or 20 years are available almost entirely as byproducts. You can’t mine specifically for them; they often exist in small quantities and are used for specialty purposes. And they don’t have any decent substitutes.”
These findings illustrate the urgency for new product designs that make it easier to reclaim materials for re-use, Graedel said.
The paper, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, encapsulates the Yale group’s five-year assessment of the criticality of the planet’s metal resources in the face of rising global demand and the increasing complexity of modern products.
According to the researchers, criticality depends not only on geological abundance. Other important factors include the potential for finding effective alternatives in production processes, the degree to which ore deposits are geopolitically concentrated, the state of mining technology, regulatory oversight, geopolitical initiatives, regional instabilities, and economic policies.
In order to assess the state of all metals, researchers developed a methodology that characterizes criticality in three areas: supply risk, environmental implications, and vulnerability to human-imposed supply restrictions.
As this illustration of the metals used in a printed circuit board illustrates, modern technology relies on virtually all of the stable elements of the periodic table. While the concentrations of copper and iron are the highest, it does not reflect elemental importance: All the elements are required in order to maintain the functions for which the board was designed.
They found that supply limits for many metals critical in the emerging electronics sector (including gallium and selenium) are the result of supply risks. The environmental implications of mining and processing present the greatest challenges with platinum-group metals, gold, and mercury. For steel alloying elements (including chromium and niobium) and elements used in high-temperature alloys (tungsten and molybdenum), the greatest vulnerabilities are associated with supply restrictions.
Among the factors contributing to extreme criticality challenges are high geopolitical concentration of primary production (for example, 90 to 95 percent of the global supply of rare Earth metals comes from China); lack of available substitutes (there is no adequate substitute for indium, which is used in computer and cell phone displays); and political instability (a significant fraction of tantalum, used widely in electronics, comes from the war-ravaged Democratic Republic of the Congo).
The researchers also analyzed how recycling rates have evolved over the years and the degree to which different industries are able to utilize “non-virgin” sources of materials. Some materials, such as lead, are highly recycled because they are typically used in bulk, Graedel said. But the relatively rare materials that have become critical in some modern electronics are far more difficult to recycle because they are used in such miniscule amounts — and can be difficult to extricate from the increasingly complex and compact new technologies.
“I think these results should send a message to product designers to spend more time thinking about what happens after their products are no longer being used,” he said. “So much of what makes the recycling of these materials difficult is their design. It seems as if it’s time to think a little bit more about the end of these beautiful products.”
As a scientist living in an age of CLINTON/BUSH/OBAMA and corporate, predatory health care and medicine we have watched these few decades as medical research data is released to public we KNOW is questionable if not false to sell a product---to protect a product from legal hazard----and we now wonder what THIS DOCTOR is saying regarding COPPER as causing disease vectors saying it dissociates in our water supply------we are being told now we need to GET RID OF ALL OUR COPPER WATER PIPES AT HOME while people are replacing aging water pipes lined with LEAD-----with copper pipes.
CALL ME SKEPTICAL----BUT WE ARE CAUTIOUS TO THINK GLOBAL 1% WANTS OUR COPPER PIPES FOR THEIR SMART CITIES.
It is because COPPER DOES NOT REACT WITH WATER that it was considered a good material for our public water systems.
'The use of copper piping in home construction in the U.S. started in the early 1960’s. By 1970 it was almost exclusively the material of choice for water piping, and it’s now estimated that 98 percent of all homes built after 1970 have copper pipes.
Despite public perception that copper pipes last forever, the reality is the average life of a copper pipe, per engineering specifications, is about 20 years. So if your home was built in 1980, for example, your copper pipes are now 10 years past their prime'.
'Learning Zone - The Chemical Reactivity Series
Back to Reactivity page Copper, Cu back to reactivity page
Reaction with water
Copper does not react with water.
Reaction with oxygen
On strong heating, copper forms into a black solid of copper oxide.
copper + oxygen �> copper(II) oxide
2Cu(s) + O2(g) �> 2CuO(s)
Reaction with dilute acids
Copper usually does not react with most cold, dilute acids. However, it will react with hot, concentrated sulfuric acid and can react with both dilute and concentrated nitric acid.'
If copper doesn't react with water, why do we write the equation Cu + H2O —> CuO + H2?
Anand Ghurye, Experential and behaviour researcher
Answered May 21 2016The equation given by you is wrong .
Copper does not react with water .
The right equation is 2 Cu + O2 = 2 CuO .This happens when copper is burnt under water for example in underwater welding . Even then the water does not react with copper but oxygen dissolved in water reacts with copper to make Cuprous Oxide .
I understand the origin of your confusion . The above equation is given at some places as an exercise to balance the equation . These are practice problems . But the reaction itself is imaginary . It is like saying Tell me how much force is necessary to push a 2 ton hand cart ? In reality a 2 ton hand cart does not exist.
Maryland and Baltimore have absolutely NO PUBLIC HEALTH institutions as we rebuild our US cities deemed Foreign Economic Zone infrastructure this time we can be SURE IT WILL BE WORSE ======if that is possible.
At the same time BALTIMORE has numerous NGOs shouting AGAINST LEAD in water pipes as with this article and NONE of them are PROACTIVELY identifying today's water pipe material PUBLIC HEALTH CRISES. WE THE PEOPLE THE 99% must stop allowing FAKE ALT LEFT GROUPS pretend to care about REAL left social progressive issues---they are led by global Wall Street 5% players.
Maryland's corrosive ground water in our rural wells is driven by the fact our Maryland fresh water aquifers were allowed to be drained to the very bottom by GLOBAL BIG AG----and now those aquifers having heavy metal at bottom are being allowed to be used to irrigate and THAT IS WHAT IS MAKING GROUND WATER CORROSIVE especially for rural wells... ask any civil engineer, any Maryland Public Health official---any Maryland public university medical science professor---THEY KNOW THIS.
Maryland's corrosive groundwater
July 14, 2016 Baltimore Sun
If the recent revelations regarding lead poisoning in Flint, Mich., a case study of government indifference to drinking water safety as well as the harmful effects of lead on children, didn't cause some soul-searching in Maryland, there's new cause for alarm. A new study by the U.S. Geological Survey has found that well water is often so corrosive that it can leach lead from pipes and fixtures sufficient to endanger children.
The assessment of about 20,000 wells found that half of states face this potential threat, with groundwater samples in Maryland and much of the Northeast and Deep South determined to be corrosive enough to place those areas at "very high" risk. Roughly one of out of six Maryland residents gets their drinking water from a well.
While state officials have yet to react to the report, well owners with children would be wise to get their tap water tested by a qualified lab in addition to having their children tested. The effects of lead on children can be profound yet can occur without outward physical symptoms and thus not be diagnosed without a blood test.
Water isn't the only way children can be exposed to harmful lead levels, of course, but there's something particularly insidious about corrosive groundwater. People who have copper pipes instead of lead pipes in their newer homes, for instance, may think themselves immune, but that's not necessarily the case.
Lead solder used in copper pipe fittings (a product widely used prior to the late-1980s) could be a source of household lead, as are certain "lead-free" brass components and galvanized steel pipes that were allowed to contain up to 1.4 percent lead prior to 2014. At the very least, anyone who suspects the potential presence of lead in their well water should make it a habit to "flush" faucets that haven't been used for six hours or more (running water for 1-2 minutes), as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends.
The report also begs the question: Is the quality of well water sufficiently monitored and regulated? The federal government requires no check for lead or other contaminants in well water, nor does the Maryland Department of the Environment. Some counties may require initial tests for potability in a new well, but none requires follow-up monitoring.
As the Flint episode demonstrated, the stakes with lead poisoning are high. Childhood lead exposure is closely associated with diminished cognitive skills — as much as one-third of the special education caseload in cities like Baltimore involves lead poisoning. Reading disabilities, high dropout rates, lower IQ's as well as increased hypertension, cardiovascular disease and asthma have all been linked to lead exposure.
And here's the other lesson of Flint: Government hasn't been an effective protector of water quality. Lead poisoning is far more prevalent in low-income households, and what happened in Flint helps explain why: The water supply was drawn from the Flint River beginning two years ago to save money, but the state failed to add an anti-corrosive agent to prevent the very same potential problem that Maryland's well owners are facing. It was only later, when thousands of children were tested for high lead levels (and an independent study revealed the source of the contamination), that appropriate action was belatedly taken.
Ensuring healthy drinking water for all Americans ought to be a high priority, yet — like ensuring quality roads, bridges and other public infrastructure — there's been a lack of sufficient investment. As a recent survey by the American Water Works Association discovered, as many as 22 million Americans are served their drinking water through lead water lines, part of a chronic problem that would require at least $30 billion more in infrastructure spending.
Both Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton have spoken out on the need for greater public infrastructure investment but one has to wonder the likelihood of that happening given the costs (which might reach into the hundreds of billions) and the past refusals of Congress to approve infrastructure spending sought by President Barack Obama. Yet the failure to spend money now to protect the nation's water supply could prove even more costly if it dooms the next generation to lead poisoning that might have been prevented.
This is what we KNOW ABOUT COPPER SLAG---and this is where we will find it in our US cities deemed Foreign Economic Zones----our roads, bridges, sidewalks, house and building foundations----and yes, it will degrade into our soil and ground water and be tracked into our homes just as with LEAD.
'This might not be such a good idea, however, since slag produced in refining copper, zinc, cadmium and other base metals can contain significant concentrations of a number of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic, lead, cadmium, barium, zinc and copper,'
IF WE ONLY HAD REAL CIVIL ENGINEERS!
This is considered GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE because it can be marketed -----it doesn't matter that it is toxic to environment or public health.
Where are all those LEAD justice activist groups? Waiting until the health crises takes hundreds of millions of people's public health. Then they will be really mad.
Effects of copper slag and recycled concrete aggregate on the properties of CIR mixes with bitumen emulsion, rice husk ash, Portland cement and fly ash
Article · October 2015 with 346 Reads
Construction and maintenance of roads require a large volume of aggregates for use in base, sub-base and surface layers. At the same time, the expansion of asphalt roadways results in the production of a large amount of asphalt road waste, known as reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). This paper aims to investigate the feasibility of the use of copper slag and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) as substitutes for virgin aggregates in modifying the gradation of cold recycled mixes made with RAP material. In addition, the effects of three types of additives including Portland cement, fly ash, and rice husk ash on the properties of recycled mixtures were investigated. Marshall, Indirect tensile strength, resilient modulus, moisture susceptibility, and dynamic creep tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the mixes. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure was used to assess the environmental impacts of copper slag. The use of copper slag had better results than limestone and RCA probably due to better interlocking and superior physical and mechanical properties. With regard to the effects of additives, Portland cement was found to be the most effective additive. The difference between fly ash and rice husk ash was found to be statistically insignificant.